Background: Electron Dot Formula Basics

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1 Background: Electron Dot Formula Basics 1. What do the dots in an electron dot formula represent? 2. Describe the pattern of electron dot formulas as you move from left to right in a period of the Periodic Table. 3. How are the electron dot formulas of ions different than those of neutral atoms? What do you need to add for cations and for anions? 4. Draw the correct electron dot structures for the atoms or ions. Neutral Atom Ion Neutral Atom Ion Mg Mg K K O O Br Br 1

2 Background: Electron Dot Formula Basics, continued 5. Bag 1: Draw the electron dot formulas for both the neutral atom and for the appropriate ion of the four randomly drawn elements. Neutral Atom Appropriate Ion 2

3 Part I: Electron Dot Formulas for Covalent Compounds 1. What are covalent compounds, and how are they formed? 2. What is meant by a full octet, and why do atoms prefer to have this? 3. When atoms combine covalently creating bonds, how are the shared pair of electrons represented in the electron dot formula? In other words, what is placed between the atoms of a molecule to represent a shared pair of electrons? 4. Draw the correct electron dot formula for each atom, and then for each molecule. Include the bonding pair and all lone pairs of electrons. Make sure to show the correct structural formula of each molecule. Atom Atom Molecule H H I Cl O O H I 3

4 Part I: Electron Dot Formulas for Covalent Compounds, continued 5. Bag 2: Draw the electron dot formulas for the covalent compounds that can be formed. Draw the correct electron dot formula for each element individually in the first column. Then draw the correct structural formula of the molecule formed in the second column. Electron Dot Formula of Individual Atoms Correct Electron Dot Formula of the Covalent Compound Formed 4

5 Part II: Electron Dot Formulas for Ionic Compounds 1. Illustrate the process that occurs during the bonding of the ions below. Mg F + Mg + F F K K + O K + O 2. Describe how the electron dot formulas of ionic compounds illustrate that electrons are either gained or lost during the bonding process. 3. Why does the electron dot formula for the anion have a charge, and what does this represent? Why does the cation have a charge and a full octet? 4. Why is it important to include a charge when creating electron dot formulas for ions? 5

6 Part II: Electron Dot Formulas for Ionic Compounds, continued 5. Bags 3A and 3B: Draw the electron dot formulas for the ionic compounds that can be formed. Electron Dot Formula of Individual Atoms Correct Electron Dot Formula of the Ionic Compound Formed 6

7 Part III: Drawing Electron Dot Formulas for Any Compound 1. Create an electron dot formula for formaldehyde. The chemical formula for this compound is H 2 CO. Describe (in words) the steps that need to be taken to draw the correct structure. Support your description with illustrations. 2. What possible errors did you encounter while drawing this structure? Did it have to do with the bonds between the atoms? If so, what did you have to do to correct this? 7

8 Part III: Drawing Electron Dot Formulas for Any Compound, continued 3. Bag 4: Draw the correct electron dot formula for the compounds. Use additional paper, as needed. Chemical Formula of Compound Correct Electron Dot Formula of the Compound 8

9 Part IV: Electron Dot Formulas and VESPR 1. What is the VSEPR theory, and how does this relate to the bond angles of molecules? 2. Explain how knowing the correct electron dot formula for a molecule is critical to understanding molecular structure. Include the terms valence electrons and bond angles. 3. What is the difference between electron pair geometry and molecular geometry? Be as specific as you can. 4. Use the structure of the BF 3 molecule found in Part IV of your Student Guide to describe how VSEPR created a 120 bond angle between the three fluorine atoms of that molecule. How does this relate to the central boron atom? 5. What could occur if the incorrect electron dot structure was created for a molecule, and why could an incorrect drawing lead to this problem? 9

10 Part IV: Electron Dot Formulas and VESPR, continued 6. Draw the electron dot formula of each compound. Then, complete the table to predict both the bond angles and the molecular geometry of each of the compounds. Remember that the total number of electron pairs refers to the electrons surrounding the central atom. Also, the number of bonded atoms refers to those atoms bonded to the central atom. Chemical Formula Electron Dot Formula Total # Electron Pairs Number Bonded Atoms Bond Angles Name of Molecular Geometry BeF 2 BF 3 SO 2 CH 4 NH 3 H 2 O 10

11 Reflections and Conclusions 1. To understand electron dot formulas, you must first organize your data. Briefly explain how you organized the data. 2. How do the ball and stick models compare to your predictions? In other words, what does the ball and stick model show that an electron dot formula cannot? 3. Describe how the molecular models made with the balloons helped you better understand molecular structure. 4. Drawing correct electron dot formulas takes practice. Mistakes are common when learning how to do this. When drawing your diagrams, which mistake that you made led to better understanding of how to draw correct electron dot formulas? 5. When drawing an electron dot formula, sometimes the drawing has more valence electrons than the initial total number of valence electrons counted. What needs to be adjusted in the drawing to account for this, and how does that adjustment fix the problem? 6. On a separate sheet of paper, use all of the following terms to develop a graphic organizer based on what you ve learned in this Explore. Terms: Ions, ionic compound, electron dot formula, valence electrons, electron pair, bonding pair, lone pair, single bond, double bond, triple bond, covalent compound, VSEPR, molecular structure, molecular geometry, central atom, electron pair geometry, bond angle 11

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