Instructor Now pick your pencils up and get this important equation in your notes.

Save this PDF as:

Size: px
Start display at page:

Transcription

3 And remember that m times g is the weight of the object. When mass is given, use P E equals m g h, and when weight is given, use P E equals weight times height. Now, there s something important you need to know about potential energy. You can t measure it! You heard right. You can t measure it. That s because potential energy is hidden. The only time you can measure it is when it goes into or comes out of hiding. In other words, you measure an object s change in potential energy. When I lift this book from the table to this position, I change its potential energy. The h in this equation is relative to some frame of reference, like the table, or the floor, or the ground. For example, if you told me that you climbed to the top of Stone Mountain, which is 250 meters above the ground around it, I would say that the height you climbed was 250 meters. But two thirds of the mountain is hidden beneath the ground, so relative to the actual bottom of the mountain, the height would be about 750 meters. My point is that when we calculate gravitational potential energy, we usually assume the frame of reference to be the ground if we re outside or the floor if we re inside. OK. Now that we ve established the ground rules, so to speak, what s next? Bet you ve already guessed. Example problems. In this problem, we are lifting a 2.0 kg book to a shelf that is 1.8 m above the floor. Relative to floor, the height is 1.8 m. We ll plug it in to the equation, potential energy equals mgh and plug in the mass and 9.8 m/s 2 as "g." The gravitational potential energy equals 35 joules. What is different about part b? This time we want the change in potential energy from the table to the shelf, so h is 1.8 minus 0.6 m or 1.2 m. Remember that when we subtract, we round to the estimated column, which is tenths. The gravitational potential energy relative to the table is 2.0 kilograms times 9.8 m/s 2 times 1.2 m, or 24 joules. Now you try these problems. Your teacher will stop the tape, put these problems on the board and give you time to work them. We ll go over the answers when everyone is finished. Local Teachers, turn off the tape and give students problem set number two from facilitator's guide. (Pause Tape Now graphic) Number one is a straight plug-and-chug problem. The mass is 78 kg, you know that g is 9.8 m/s 2 squared, and the height is 46 m. That makes the potential energy 3,500 joules. How much work did the climber do? The answer is the same amount, 3,500 joules. In the second problem, we are given the weight instead of the mass. But remember that mass times "g" equals weight. So this problem is even easier than number one. All we do is multiply the weight, 2,400 newtons, times the height, 5.2 m, for an answer of 12,000 j. 3

4 Those problems were pretty easy, weren t they? Let s see if I can complicate things a little. Don t panic. I said a little! But before we get to more complex problems, let s review what we know about work and energy. You ve already seen how work is related to both potential and kinetic energy. Work done on an object increases the object s potential or kinetic energy, and work done by an object decreases that same energy. Now we need to add another important fact about energy. Energy can be transformed from one form to another. Kinetic energy can be transformed into potential energy, and potential energy can change into kinetic energy. Let s look at some examples of the relationships between work and energy and between kinetic and potential energy. (close-up of hand lifting mass on screen) When I lift this heavy mass, I m doing work on the object, and its potential energy increases. When the ball is released, it starts moving. This means that the potential energy of the object is changing into kinetic energy. And if there happens to be an egg in its path, work can be done by the falling mass, decreasing the object s kinetic energy. When I turn the tires of this toy car backwards to wind the spring inside, I m doing work on it to increase the car s potential energy. The work done on the car equals the car s gain in potential energy. When I let the car go, this potential energy turns into kinetic energy as the car moves. When the car knocks over the blocks, work is done by the car and the car loses kinetic energy. The kinetic energy lost by the car equals the work done by the car on the blocks. You may have noticed that in each demonstration, we concentrated on one object and its energy changes. Of course energy changes were happening with the egg and the blocks, too, but we didn t want to get into that. When you look at energy changes, one thing is always true. In fact, it s a law, the Law of Conservation of Energy. (green chalkboard on screen) The law of conservation of energy states that energy can change form but cannot be created or destroyed. In a closed, isolated system of objects, the total mechanical energy, which equals potential energy plus kinetic energy, remains constant. This second statement is sometimes called the Law of Conservation of Mechanical Energy. 4

6 Then we are told that the rock falls to the ground, and we are asked its final potential energy and kinetic energy just before it hits. This is where the Law of Conservation of Mechanical Energy comes in. The law is initial potential energy plus kinetic energy equals final potential energy plus kinetic energy. Let s plug in what we know. In part a, we calculated the initial potential energy to be 11,000 joules and kinetic energy was zero. At the very bottom of the hill, the ball s final potential energy will be zero, and we can calculate its final kinetic energy. Well, that s easy. It s 11,000 joules. Now let s calculate the final velocity of the rock. Let s rearrange the equation for kinetic energy to solve for velocity. We multiply both sides by two and divide by "m." Then we take the square root of both sides and get v equals the square root of two times K E divided by m. We know that the mass is 12 kg and K E is 11,000 j, so v equals 43 m/s. Did it surprise you that you could use the mass and height of an object to find its final velocity without using Newton's Second Law and an acceleration equation? Well, you actually used both! If you ll remember, we used both to derive the equation for calculating kinetic energy. So you didn t have to use them again. It s a shortcut based on the Law of Conservation of Mechanical Energy. Now you use the Law of Conservation of Mechanical Energy to solve this problem. Your teacher will give you the problem and time to try it. Then we ll go over the solution together. Local Teachers, turn off the tape and give students problem set number four from the facilitator's guide. (Pause Tape Now graphic) (cartoons of diver on screen) Remember that at any point, the total potential energy plus kinetic energy must remain constant. The instant the boy steps off the diving board, he has not started falling yet, so his kinetic energy is zero and his potential energy is 5,800 joules. When he has fallen half way to the water, he s lost half of his potential energy and gained that same amount of kinetic energy. So his potential energy is 2,900 joules and his kinetic energy is 2,900 joules. At the surface of the water, the swimmer has lost all his potential energy, so his potential energy is zero, and his kinetic energy is 5,800 joules. Now for question two, we are given the mass of the swimmer, 62 kilograms. And we re asked to find the height of the diving board. We can use the equation for calculating potential energy and rearrange to solve for "h," which equals PE divided by m g, or 5,800 joules divided by 62 kilograms times 9.8 m/s 2. The height of the board is 9.5 m. For part b of this question, we can rearrange the equation for kinetic energy and solve for v, just like we did in the first example. v equals the square root of 2 times KE divided by m. When we plug in the numbers, we get a velocity of 14 meters per second. 6

7 Now don t worry about friction when you solve conservation of mechanical energy problems. You may always assume that friction is negligible in these problems, just like we consider friction to be negligible during elastic collisions. Now that I think about it, we ve already talked about collisions in terms of conservation of momentum. Now we need to revisit collisions in terms of kinetic energy. (student on screen) Remember that the definition of an elastic collision is one where the objects bounce apart with no loss of energy. So the system not only conserves momentum, but kinetic energy as well. (green chalkboard on screen) During elastic collisions kinetic energy is conserved by the system of objects. (car collision on screen) Remember that the definition of an inelastic collision in one where the objects stick together or are deformed with loss of energy. While momentum is conserved during these and all collisions, kinetic energy is not. (green chalkboard on screen) During inelastic collisions, kinetic energy is not conserved by the system of objects. Since inelastic collisions involve lots of friction some energy is lost to the surroundings in the form of heat. Does this mean that the Law of Conservation of Energy is broken during inelastic collisions? No. Energy is still conserved by the universe, but not by the small system of colliding objects. When heat escapes, the system is no longer isolated or closed, so the Law of Conservation of Mechanical Energy no longer applies. Got it? Now we re finally ready to keep our promise of explaining this toy. When I pull two balls back and let them hit, two always fly out together. We wondered why one doesn t fly out at twice the velocity. Now you re ready to help explain why. (diagrams on screen) In an earlier program, we decided that momentum would still be conserved if two balls hit and then one ball were to fly out at twice the velocity. Let s plug in some simple numbers and do the math. You know that momentum equals mass times velocity. Let s say that each ball has a mass of one kilogram and the two balls together move at one meter per second before they hit. Before the collision the momentum would be two kilograms times one meter per second, or two-kilogram meters per second. If one ball flew out at twice the velocity, that would be one kilogram times two meters per second, or two kilogram meters per second. Momentum would be conserved. But that never happens. 7

8 And that s because in an elastic collision, both momentum and kinetic energy are conserved. So let s look at kinetic energy, which equals 1/2 mv 2. Before the collision kinetic energy equals one-half times two kilograms times 1 meter per second, squared or one joule. When two balls fly out after the collision, the kinetic energy is the same one joule. But if one ball flew out at twice the velocity, the kinetic energy would equal one half times one kilogram times two meters per second squared, or two joules. Since energy cannot be created, this never happens. Have you noticed how similar momentum and kinetic energy are? The formulas for calculating each involve only mass and velocity. But velocity is much more important to kinetic energy because it is squared in the equation. Now, how else do momentum and kinetic energy differ? It s how they affect objects. A change in momentum provides an impulse or punch to do things such as knocking objects down. But a change in kinetic energy actually does work on objects, such as denting fenders or breaking bones. And it looks like we ve used our kinetic energy to work on our time for today. We don t even have time for your Show What You Know quiz. But don t worry. Your local teacher has it and will give it to you when this tape ends. The last question is a physics challenge to end our study of momentum and energy. You will be asked which would hurt more: being tackled by a massive, slow moving tackler or a less massive, fast moving tackler with the same momentum? You might want to plug in some numbers to make momentum come out the same and then calculate kinetic energy. Talk over what your answers mean. Oh, and good luck on the unit test. Work hard and efficiently, keep the momentum going, and live up to your potential. Got it? 8

Lesson 40: Conservation of Energy

Lesson 40: Conservation of Energy A large number of questions you will do involve the total mechanical energy. As pointed out earlier, the mechanical energy is just the total of all types of energy. In

9. The kinetic energy of the moving object is (1) 5 J (3) 15 J (2) 10 J (4) 50 J

1. If the kinetic energy of an object is 16 joules when its speed is 4.0 meters per second, then the mass of the objects is (1) 0.5 kg (3) 8.0 kg (2) 2.0 kg (4) 19.6 kg Base your answers to questions 9

Activity 5a Potential and Kinetic Energy PHYS 010. To investigate the relationship between potential energy and kinetic energy.

Name: Date: Partners: Purpose: To investigate the relationship between potential energy and kinetic energy. Materials: 1. Super-balls, or hard bouncy rubber balls. Metre stick and tape 3. calculator 4.

1) 0.33 m/s 2. 2) 2 m/s 2. 3) 6 m/s 2. 4) 18 m/s 2 1) 120 J 2) 40 J 3) 30 J 4) 12 J. 1) unchanged. 2) halved. 3) doubled.

Base your answers to questions 1 through 5 on the diagram below which represents a 3.0-kilogram mass being moved at a constant speed by a force of 6.0 Newtons. 4. If the surface were frictionless, the

Momentum, Work and Energy

previous index next Momentum, Work and Energy Michael Fowler, U. Va. Physics, 11/29/07 Momentum At this point, we introduce some further concepts that will prove useful in describing motion. The first

Physics Simple Machines. (Read objectives on screen.)

Physics 604 - Simple Machines (Read objectives on screen.) At the end of our last program, your teacher showed you a cartoon of a Rube Goldberg machine. Now that you re machine savvy, you can appreciate

Gravitational Potential Energy

Gravitational Potential Energy Consider a ball falling from a height of y 0 =h to the floor at height y=0. A net force of gravity has been acting on the ball as it drops. So the total work done on the

Lesson 3 - Understanding Energy (with a Pendulum)

Lesson 3 - Understanding Energy (with a Pendulum) Introduction This lesson is meant to introduce energy and conservation of energy and is a continuation of the fundamentals of roller coaster engineering.

Physics of Rocket Flight

Physics of Rocket Flight In order to understand the behaviour of rockets it is necessary to have a basic grounding in physics, in particular some of the principles of statics and dynamics. This section

The car is pulled up a long hill. 2. Does the roller coaster ever get higher than the first hill? No.

Roller Coaster Physics Answer Key Vocabulary: friction, gravitational potential energy, kinetic energy, momentum, velocity Prior Knowledge Questions (Do these BEFORE using the Gizmo.) [Note: The purpose

Center of Mass/Momentum

Center of Mass/Momentum 1. 2. An L-shaped piece, represented by the shaded area on the figure, is cut from a metal plate of uniform thickness. The point that corresponds to the center of mass of the L-shaped

Potential / Kinetic Energy Remedial Exercise

Potential / Kinetic Energy Remedial Exercise This Conceptual Physics exercise will help you in understanding the Law of Conservation of Energy, and its application to mechanical collisions. Exercise Roles:

Work, Energy and Power

Work, Energy and Power In this section of the Transport unit, we will look at the energy changes that take place when a force acts upon an object. Energy can t be created or destroyed, it can only be changed

The Ballistic Pendulum

1 The Ballistic Pendulum Introduction: By this time, you have probably become familiar with the concepts of work, energy, and potential energy, in the lecture part of the course. In this lab, we will be

Conservation of Momentum: Marble Collisions Teacher Version

Conservation of Momentum: Marble Collisions Teacher Version In this lab you will roll a marble down a ramp, and at the bottom of the ramp the marble will collide with another marble. You will measure the

Momentum and Energy. Ron Robertson

Momentum and Energy Ron Robertson Momentum Momentum is inertia in motion. Momentum = mass x velocity Unit kg meters/second Momentum is changed by force. The amount of momentum change is also affected by

charge is detonated, causing the smaller glider with mass M, to move off to the right at 5 m/s. What is the

This test covers momentum, impulse, conservation of momentum, elastic collisions, inelastic collisions, perfectly inelastic collisions, 2-D collisions, and center-of-mass, with some problems requiring

Let s do the math: Escape Velocity

Let s do the math: Escape Velocity By Tim Farage The University of Texas at Dallas Well, time to have a little bit of fun with math and physics. You did a simulation to try to figure out what the escape

Physics 201 Homework 5

Physics 201 Homework 5 Feb 6, 2013 1. The (non-conservative) force propelling a 1500-kilogram car up a mountain -1.21 10 6 joules road does 4.70 10 6 joules of work on the car. The car starts from rest

Name PRE-TEST. Directions: Circle the letter indicating whether the following statements are either true ("T") or false ("F").

1 PRE-TEST Directions: Circle the letter indicating whether the following statements are either true ("T") or false ("F"). T F 1. An object's energy due to its motion is kinetic energy. T F 2. We can calculate

Physics WPE test Review from 2015.notebook October 19, 2015 Test Review: Work, Energy, Power

Test Review: Work, Energy, Power 1. Which of the following sentences uses work in the scientific sense. a. Stan goes to work on the bus. b. Anne did work on the project for 5 hours. c. Joseph found that

STAAR Science Tutorial 25 TEK 8.6C: Newton s Laws

Name: Teacher: Pd. Date: STAAR Science Tutorial 25 TEK 8.6C: Newton s Laws TEK 8.6C: Investigate and describe applications of Newton's law of inertia, law of force and acceleration, and law of action-reaction

MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.

Exam Name MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) A container explodes and breaks into three fragments that fly off 120 apart from each

8. Potential Energy and Conservation of Energy Potential Energy: When an object has potential to have work done on it, it is said to have potential

8. Potential Energy and Conservation of Energy Potential Energy: When an object has potential to have work done on it, it is said to have potential energy, e.g. a ball in your hand has more potential energy

And although two objects like these bumper boats cannot be in the same place on the water at the same time, water waves can. Why is that?

Physics 1103 Wave Interactions (picture of beach on screen) Today, we go back to the beach to investigate more wave interactions. For example, what makes these waves change direction as they approach the

People s Physics book

The Big Idea Energy is a measure of the amount of, or potential for, dynamical activity in something. The total amount of energy in the universe is always the same. This symmetry is called a conservation

Chapter 6 Work and Energy

Chapter 6 WORK AND ENERGY PREVIEW Work is the scalar product of the force acting on an object and the displacement through which it acts. When work is done on or by a system, the energy of that system

Work, Energy and Power Practice Test 1

Name: ate: 1. How much work is required to lift a 2-kilogram mass to a height of 10 meters?. 5 joules. 20 joules. 100 joules. 200 joules 5. ar and car of equal mass travel up a hill. ar moves up the hill

Lab 8: Ballistic Pendulum

Lab 8: Ballistic Pendulum Equipment: Ballistic pendulum apparatus, 2 meter ruler, 30 cm ruler, blank paper, carbon paper, masking tape, scale. Caution In this experiment a steel ball is projected horizontally

Energy - Key Vocabulary

Energy - Key Vocabulary Term Potential Energy Kinetic Energy Joules Gravity Definition The energy an object possesses due to its position. PE = mgh The energy an object possesses when it is in motion.

KEY NNHS Introductory Physics: MCAS Review Packet #1 Introductory Physics, High School Learning Standards for a Full First-Year Course

Introductory Physics, High School Learning Standards for a Full First-Year Course I. C O N T E N T S T A N D A R D S Central Concept: Newton s laws of motion and gravitation describe and predict the motion

Chapter 8: Conservation of Energy

Chapter 8: Conservation of Energy This chapter actually completes the argument established in the previous chapter and outlines the standing concepts of energy and conservative rules of total energy. I

Assignment Work (Physics) Class :Xi Chapter :04: Motion In PLANE

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. Assignment Work (Physics) Class :Xi Chapter :04: Motion In PLANE State law of parallelogram of vector addition and derive expression for resultant of two vectors

Physics 11 Fall 2012 Practice Problems 4 - Solutions

Physics 11 Fall 01 Practice Problems 4 - s 1. Under what conditions can all the initial kinetic energy of an isolated system consisting of two colliding objects be lost in a collision? Explain how this

Physics 1000 Final Examination. December A) 87 m B) 46 m C) 94 m D) 50 m

Answer all questions. The multiple choice questions are worth 4 marks and problems 10 marks each. 1. You walk 55 m to the north, then turn 60 to your right and walk another 45 m. How far are you from where

8. As a cart travels around a horizontal circular track, the cart must undergo a change in (1) velocity (3) speed (2) inertia (4) weight

1. What is the average speed of an object that travels 6.00 meters north in 2.00 seconds and then travels 3.00 meters east in 1.00 second? 9.00 m/s 3.00 m/s 0.333 m/s 4.24 m/s 2. What is the distance traveled

Chapter 7: Momentum and Impulse

Chapter 7: Momentum and Impulse 1. When a baseball bat hits the ball, the impulse delivered to the ball is increased by A. follow through on the swing. B. rapidly stopping the bat after impact. C. letting

PS-5.1 Explain the relationship among distance, time, direction, and the velocity of an object.

PS-5.1 Explain the relationship among distance, time, direction, and the velocity of an object. It is essential for students to Understand Distance and Displacement: Distance is a measure of how far an

CHAPTER 6 WORK AND ENERGY

CHAPTER 6 WORK AND ENERGY CONCEPTUAL QUESTIONS. REASONING AND SOLUTION The work done by F in moving the box through a displacement s is W = ( F cos 0 ) s= Fs. The work done by F is W = ( F cos θ). s From

ch 15 practice test Multiple Choice Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.

ch 15 practice test Multiple Choice Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. Work is a transfer of a. energy. c. mass. b. force. d. motion. 2. What

Instructor Are you ready for the last force in out unit on forces? I guess we ve saved the most common one for last. That s the force of gravity.

Physics 505 Gravity (Read objectives on screen.) Are you ready for the last force in out unit on forces? I guess we ve saved the most common one for last. That s the force of gravity. Ouch! Legend has

ENERGY Types of Energy and Energy Transfers

ENERGY Types of Energy and Energy Transfers Energy is the ability to make something useful happen. These types Light Kinetic an object has due to its motion. Chemical can be released when chemical reactions

Chapter 6: Energy and Oscillations. 1. Which of the following is not an energy unit? A. N m B. Joule C. calorie D. watt E.

Chapter 6: Energy and Oscillations 1. Which of the following is not an energy unit? A. N m B. Joule C. calorie D. watt E. kwh 2. Work is not being done on an object unless the A. net force on the object

Newton s Third Law. Newton s Third Law of Motion. Action-Reaction Pairs

Section 4 Newton s Third Law Reading Preview Key Concepts What is Newton s third law of motion? How can you determine the momentum of an object? What is the law of conservation of momentum? Key Terms momentum

Work, Energy & Momentum Homework Packet Worksheet 1: This is a lot of work!

Work, Energy & Momentum Homework Packet Worksheet 1: This is a lot of work! 1. A student holds her 1.5-kg psychology textbook out of a second floor classroom window until her arm is tired; then she releases

AP Physics Energy and Springs

AP Physics Energy and Springs Another major potential energy area that AP Physics is enamored of is the spring (the wire coil deals, not the ones that produce water for thirsty humanoids). Now you ve seen

LeaPS Workshop March 12, 2010 Morehead Conference Center Morehead, KY Word Bank: Acceleration, mass, inertia, weight, gravity, work, heat, kinetic energy, potential energy, closed systems, open systems,

Lab 5: Conservation of Energy

Lab 5: Conservation of Energy Equipment SWS, 1-meter stick, 2-meter stick, heavy duty bench clamp, 90-cm rod, 40-cm rod, 2 double clamps, brass spring, 100-g mass, 500-g mass with 5-cm cardboard square

AP1 WEP. Answer: E. The final velocities of the balls are given by v = 2gh.

1. Bowling Ball A is dropped from a point halfway up a cliff. A second identical bowling ball, B, is dropped simultaneously from the top of the cliff. Comparing the bowling balls at the instant they reach

Work and Conservation of Energy

Work and Conservation of Energy Topics Covered: 1. The definition of work in physics. 2. The concept of potential energy 3. The concept of kinetic energy 4. Conservation of Energy General Remarks: Two

Unit 3 Practice Test: Dynamics

Unit 3 Practice Test: Dynamics Multiple Choice Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. What is the common formula for work? a. W = F x c. W = Fd

Concept Review. Physics 1

Concept Review Physics 1 Speed and Velocity Speed is a measure of how much distance is covered divided by the time it takes. Sometimes it is referred to as the rate of motion. Common units for speed or

10.1 Quantitative. Answer: A Var: 50+

Chapter 10 Energy and Work 10.1 Quantitative 1) A child does 350 J of work while pulling a box from the ground up to his tree house with a rope. The tree house is 4.8 m above the ground. What is the mass

Work. Work = Force distance (the force must be parallel to movement) OR Work = (Force)(cos θ)(distance)

Work Work = Force distance (the force must be parallel to movement) OR Work = (Force)(cos θ)(distance) When you are determining the force parallel to the movement you can do this manually and keep track

Physics 271 FINAL EXAM-SOLUTIONS Friday Dec 23, 2005 Prof. Amitabh Lath

Physics 271 FINAL EXAM-SOLUTIONS Friday Dec 23, 2005 Prof. Amitabh Lath 1. The exam will last from 8:00 am to 11:00 am. Use a # 2 pencil to make entries on the answer sheet. Enter the following id information

FALL 2015 Pre-Test Solution for Exam 3 10/29/15 Time Limit: 75 Minutes

PHYC 151-002 FALL 2015 Pre-Test Solution for Exam 3 10/29/15 Time Limit: 75 Minutes Name (Print): This exam contains 10 pages (including this cover page) and 8 problems. Check to see if any pages are missing.

Physics Midterm Review. Multiple-Choice Questions

Physics Midterm Review Multiple-Choice Questions 1. A train moves at a constant velocity of 90 km/h. How far will it move in 0.25 h? A. 10 km B. 22.5 km C. 25 km D. 45 km E. 50 km 2. A bicyclist moves

Elastic and Inelastic Collisions

Elastic and Inelastic Collisions Different kinds of collisions produce different results. Sometimes the objects stick together. Sometimes the objects bounce apart. What is the difference between these

Energy and Angular Momentum. Laws of Conservation.

Energy and Angular Momentum. Laws of Conservation. Announcements n Homework # 2 is due on Friday, Oct. 7 th. n First in-class exam will take place on Thursday, October 6th. Please, remember your STUDENT

Momentum, impulse and energy

Lecture 9 Momentum, impulse and energy Pre-reading: KJF 9.1 and 9.2 MOMENTUM AND IMPULSE KJF chapter 9 before after COLLISION complex interaction 3 Linear Momentum of a Body We define the momentum of an

Kinematics: The Gravity Lab Teacher Advanced Version (Grade Level: 8 12) *** Experiment with Audacity and Excel to be sure you know how to do what s needed for the lab*** Kinematics is the study of how

Chapter 7 Momentum and Impulse

Chapter 7 Momentum and Impulse Collisions! How can we describe the change in velocities of colliding football players, or balls colliding with bats?! How does a strong force applied for a very short time

Potential and Kinetic Energy: The Roller Coaster Lab Student Advanced Version

Potential and Kinetic Energy: The Roller Coaster Lab Student Advanced Version Key Concepts: Energy is the ability of a system or object to perform work. It exists in various forms. Potential Energy is

Proving the Law of Conservation of Energy

Table of Contents List of Tables & Figures: Table 1: Data/6 Figure 1: Example Diagram/4 Figure 2: Setup Diagram/8 1. Abstract/2 2. Introduction & Discussion/3 3. Procedure/5 4. Results/6 5. Summary/6 Proving

THE CONSERVATION OF ENERGY - PENDULUM -

THE CONSERVATION OF ENERGY - PENDULUM - Introduction The purpose of this experiment is to measure the potential energy and the kinetic energy of a mechanical system and to quantitatively compare the two

WORKSHEET: KINETIC AND POTENTIAL ENERGY PROBLEMS

WORKSHEET: KINETIC AND POTENTIAL ENERGY PROBLEMS 1. Stored energy or energy due to position is known as Potential energy. 2. The formula for calculating potential energy is mgh. 3. The three factors that

III. Applications of Force and Motion Concepts. Concept Review. Conflicting Contentions. 1. Airplane Drop 2. Moving Ball Toss 3. Galileo s Argument

III. Applications of Force and Motion Concepts Concept Review Conflicting Contentions 1. Airplane Drop 2. Moving Ball Toss 3. Galileo s Argument Qualitative Reasoning 1. Dropping Balls 2. Spinning Bug

2After completing this chapter you should be able to

After completing this chapter you should be able to solve problems involving motion in a straight line with constant acceleration model an object moving vertically under gravity understand distance time

Lesson 39: Kinetic Energy & Potential Energy

Lesson 39: Kinetic Energy & Potential Energy Total Mechanical Energy We sometimes call the total energy of an object (potential and kinetic) the total mechanical energy of an object. Mechanical energy

PH2213 : Examples from Chapter 4 : Newton s Laws of Motion. Key Concepts

PH2213 : Examples from Chapter 4 : Newton s Laws of Motion Key Concepts Newton s First and Second Laws (basically Σ F = m a ) allow us to relate the forces acting on an object (left-hand side) to the motion

AP Physics - Chapter 8 Practice Test

AP Physics - Chapter 8 Practice Test Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. A single conservative force F x = (6.0x 12) N (x is in m) acts on

Unit 1: Vectors. a m/s b. 8.5 m/s c. 7.2 m/s d. 4.7 m/s

Multiple Choice Portion 1. A boat which can travel at a speed of 7.9 m/s in still water heads directly across a stream in the direction shown in the diagram above. The water is flowing at 3.2 m/s. What

Summary Notes. to avoid confusion it is better to write this formula in words. time

National 4/5 Physics Dynamics and Space Summary Notes The coloured boxes contain National 5 material. Section 1 Mechanics Average Speed Average speed is the distance travelled per unit time. distance (m)

BE VERY CAREFUL WHENEVER THE LAUNCHER IS IN THE COMPRESSED POSITION. ALWAYS NOTIFY THE CLASS BEFORE FIRING THE LAUNCHER.

OBJECTIVES: LAB #5: THE BALLISTIC PENDULUM To study the dynamics of a ballistic pendulum using the laws of conservation of momentum and energy. EQUIPMENT: Equipment Needed Qty Equipment Needed Qty Ballistic

Exampro GCSE Physics. P2 Momentum and Energy Calculations Self Study Higher tier. Name: Class: Author: Date: Time: 110. Marks: 110.

Exampro GCSE Physics P2 Momentum and Energy Calculations Self Study Higher tier Name: Class: Author: Date: Time: 0 Marks: 0 Comments: Page of 33 Q. The figure below shows a skateboarder jumping forwards

356 CHAPTER 12 Bob Daemmrich

Standard 7.3.17: Investigate that an unbalanced force, acting on an object, changes its speed or path of motion or both, and know that if the force always acts toward the same center as the object moves,

Lab 8 Impulse and Momentum

b Lab 8 Impulse and Momentum What You Need To Know: The Physics There are many concepts in physics that are defined purely by an equation and not by a description. In some cases, this is a source of much

Product Instructions: Linear Air Track

FO060 The Linear Air Track facilitates the study of linear motion under conditions of low friction. Air track blower This pressure is released through the series of drilled holes along the track, creating

Introduction Assignment

Physics 11 Introduction Assignment This assignment is intended to familiarize you with some of the basic concepts and skills related to Physics 11. This is the first meaningful assignment for Physics 11,

Physics 100 prac exam2

Physics 100 prac exam2 Student: 1. Earth's gravity attracts a person with a force of 120 lbs. The force with which the Earth is attracted towards the person is B. small but not zero. C. billions and billions

STAAR Tutorial: Motion, Speed, Velocity and Acceleration

Name: Teacher: Period: Date: STAAR Tutorial: Motion, Speed, Velocity and Acceleration TEK 6.8C (Supporting): Calculate average speed using distance and time measurements. TEK 6.8D (Supporting: Measure

Chapter 4 Dynamics: Newton s Laws of Motion. Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

Chapter 4 Dynamics: Newton s Laws of Motion Force Units of Chapter 4 Newton s First Law of Motion Mass Newton s Second Law of Motion Newton s Third Law of Motion Weight the Force of Gravity; and the Normal

Physics 2A, Sec B00: Mechanics -- Winter 2011 Instructor: B. Grinstein Final Exam

Physics 2A, Sec B00: Mechanics -- Winter 2011 Instructor: B. Grinstein Final Exam INSTRUCTIONS: Use a pencil #2 to fill your scantron. Write your code number and bubble it in under "EXAM NUMBER;" an entry

9. Momentum and Collisions in One Dimension*

9. Momentum and Collisions in One Dimension* The motion of objects in collision is difficult to analyze with force concepts or conservation of energy alone. When two objects collide, Newton s third law

Energy transformations

Energy transformations Objectives Describe examples of energy transformations. Demonstrate and apply the law of conservation of energy to a system involving a vertical spring and mass. Design and implement

PSI AP Physics B Kinematics Multiple-Choice Questions

PSI AP Physics B Kinematics Multiple-Choice Questions 1. An object moves around a circular path of radius R. The object starts from point A, goes to point B and describes an arc of half of the circle.

Newton s Third Law, Momentum, Center of Mass

Team: Newton s Third Law, Momentum, Center of Mass Newton s Third Law is a deep statement on the symmetry of interaction between any two bodies in the universe. How is the pull of the earth on the moon

PHYS 117- Exam I. Multiple Choice Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.

PHYS 117- Exam I Multiple Choice Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. Car A travels from milepost 343 to milepost 349 in 5 minutes. Car B travels

Work-Energy Bar Charts

Name: Work-Energy Bar Charts Read from Lesson 2 of the Work, Energy and Power chapter at The Physics Classroom: http://www.physicsclassroom.com/class/energy/u5l2c.html MOP Connection: Work and Energy:

Day 18 ENERGY CONSERVATION. 1 Introduction: More Kinds of Energy

Day 18 ENERGY CONSERVATION 1 Introduction: More Kinds of Energy Suppose I move an object between two points in space. Also suppose that a force acts on the object as it moves. If the work done by the force

Mechanics Cycle 2 Chapter 2+ Chapter 2+

Chapter 2+ 1D Constant Acceleration: Throw-up and Catch-up Revisit: Constant acceleration in 1D Learn: 1D Throw-up problems: Knowing what variables to look for Catch-up: Intersections of two 1D trajectories

2Elastic collisions in

After completing this chapter you should be able to: solve problems about the impact of a smooth sphere with a fixed surface solve problems about the impact of smooth elastic spheres. In this chapter you

Our Dynamic Universe

North Berwick High School Department of Physics Higher Physics Unit 1 Section 3 Our Dynamic Universe Collisions and Explosions Section 3 Collisions and Explosions Note Making Make a dictionary with the

BROCK UNIVERSITY. PHYS 1P21/1P91 Solutions to Mid-term test 26 October 2013 Instructor: S. D Agostino

BROCK UNIVERSITY PHYS 1P21/1P91 Solutions to Mid-term test 26 October 2013 Instructor: S. D Agostino 1. [10 marks] Clearly indicate whether each statement is TRUE or FALSE. Then provide a clear, brief,

Name Date Class. The Nature of Force and Motion (pages ) 2. When one object pushes or pulls another object, the first object is

CHAPTER 4 MOTION AND FORCES SECTION 4 1 The Nature of Force and Motion (pages 116-121) This section explains how balanced and unbalanced forces are related to the motion of an object. It also explains

Teacher Guide. Including Student Activities. Module 1: Tracing Energy Transformations

Teacher Guide Including Student Activities Module 1: Tracing Energy Transformations ACTIVITY GUIDE Module 1: Tracing Energy Transformations Summary: We use energy on a daily basis. We use it to make our

Motion in One Dimension - Grade 10

Chapter 3 Motion in One Dimension - Grade 10 3.1 Introduction This chapter is about how things move in a straight line or more scientifically how things move in one dimension. This is useful for learning