Delyth Knight. Certified Music Judge LABBS Music Category Director

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1 Delyth Knight Certified Music Judge LABBS Music Category Director

2 1. No question is a stupid question. If you need to know, ask 2. We will make sure that all the basics are understood 3. All animals are equal and even the tutor is human 4. Sing whenever possible 5. This is part 1 of a 2-part course next part is right after this one 6. Have we got four parts? August

3 A bit of revision: Vocabulary Scales, major and minor Intervals and how to identify them Two-note chords Three-note chords Four-note chords Some tag singing along the way (illustrations) August

4 Vocabulary Scales Intervals August

5 Names of notes? August

6 Major scales have the same pattern of intervals between the notes: T T ½T T T T ½T Do re mi fa sol la te do August

7 A minor scale has a different pattern of intervals between the notes. Melodic minor: Flatten the 3 rd note Sharpen 6 th & 7 th going UP but flatten them going DOWN August

8 The harmonic minor is the same going up or down the scale: Flatten the 3 rd note going up or down Sharpen the 7 th note (only) both going up and down August

9 An interval is the distance between two notes. Count up the scale from the lower note until you reach the upper note The number of the upper note is the name of the interval. An interval is ALWAYS calculated upwards from the lower note and you count BOTH notes. August

10 Perfect: The octave, the 4th and the 5th are called perfect intervals. Major: All other intervals in the major scale are called major intervals C to D = major 2nd C to E = major 3rd C to F = perfect 4th C to G = perfect 5th C to A = major 6th C to B = major 7th C to C = perfect octave August

11 Major second: God save our gracious Queen... Major third: While shepherds watched... Perfect fourth: Should auld acquaintance... Perfect fifth: Baa baa black sheep Major sixth: And now..the end..is near... Perfect octave: Some-where over the rainbow Major seventh: Ba-li hai August

12 (1) If you flatten a perfect interval, the result is called a diminished interval. C to G is a diminished 5th C to F is a diminished 4 th (2) If you flatten a major interval, the result is called a minor interval. C to E is a minor 3rd C to D is a minor 2nd August

13 (3) If you flatten a minor interval, the result is, again, called a diminished interval. C to E is a diminished 3rd (4) If you sharpen either a perfect interval or a major interval, the result is called an augmented interval. C to G# is an augmented 5th C to F# is an augmented 4th August

14 Minor 3 rd : What ll I do Minor 2 nd :... It had to be you = semitone August

15 Django Bates' The Interval Song which he wrote for, and is sung by, his children: 6cY Intervals Roasting: vji&list=rddf074cl5vji August

16 Every scale must have all the letters in it A, B, C, D, E, F, G All chords should use the notes of that scale Some notes have enharmonic equivalents: e.g. on keyboard, C# and D share the same key But they have different functions in a scale and therefore in a chord Don t confuse the baritones, spell it correctly August

17 1. Two and three-note chords August

18 Two or more notes played together are called a chord The names for two-note chords are the same as for intervals between pairs of notes: 2 nd, 3 rd, 4 th, 5 th, 6 th, 7 th, octave Like intervals, two-note chords may be major, minor, diminished or augmented. August

19 A triad consists of three notes the note on which the triad is based (the root, R), plus the third (3) and the fifth (5) above it. The third may be major or minor The fifth may be augmented or diminished The interval between 3 rd and 5 th (which is also a third) may be major or minor In four part-harmony, one note will be sung by two parts ( doubled ) ideally the root August

20 1. Major triad: home chord. No sense of movement M3 + m3 August

21 Ladies key: E. Tonic chords at start of the chorus Tonic note is doubled August

22 2. Minor triad: plaintive-sounding chord. Home in minor keys m3 + M3 August

23 Triad chord of A minor. Root doubled August

24 3. Augmented triad: dissonant. Use when melody is on 5# # 4.Diminished triad: uncommon, used in place of dim7th August

25 2. Four-note chords August

26 Four different notes: created by adding multiples of major or minor thirds to basic triads Seventh: add a third to a triad Ninth: add another third to a 7 th Eleventh: add yet another third (uncommon) Thirteenth: add another third... More common than you d think because of voicing between tenor and bass, especially for men August

27 All 7 th chords have a innate instability and therefore a strong sense of movement Pull towards another chord Tension and release Hallmark of barbershop harmony Ring like bells! August

28 1. Major-minor 7 th : barbershop 7 th. Use lots! August

29 August

30 2. Major-major 7 th : dissonant. Best when melody is on major 7 th August

31 Heart of My Heart (The Story of the Rose) E major (tonic) chords: passing note in melody using M7 August

32 3. Minor-minor seventh: dissonant, modern feeling August

33 4. Diminished 7 th : strong sense of movement Half-diminished 7 th : likewise, a transition chord August

34 Sweet Adeline Diminished chord Half-diminished chord August

35 Add another 3 rd to a 7 th chord. May substitute for barbershop 7 th where melody is on 9 th Major-minor 7 th major 9 th August

36 G major chord, melody on 9 August

37 Add another 3 rd to an 11 th chord: only 4 voices so omit 5, 7, 9 and 11 and double the root. Looks like a 6 th without a 5 th hence alternate name: open 6 th. Use when melody is on 6 th August

38 An old tag: C-E-C-A = R-3-R-6 (13) August

39 Major 6 th : jazzy sounding chord. Little movement Minor 6 th : use sparingly. Features in Amen cadence August

40 E 6: R August

41 Minor 6 th in passing R August

42 Major 9 th : triad with added 9 th. Used where melody is on 9 th and harmony is triadic (stable) August

43 The Little Boy (Tom Gentry) G major (tonic) chord prevailing. R A in melody is the 9th August

44 Major triad Augmented triad Major-minor seventh Dominant seventh Augmented dominant seventh Minor sixth Half-diminished sevenths Major chords with added ninth Minor triad Diminished triad Minor seventh Major seventh Dominant seventh with flatted fifth Major sixth Diminished sevenths Incomplete dominant ninths See BHS Music Category definitions August

45 1. Write down the names of the notes - e.g. E, G, A, C 2. Stack them vertically in alphabetical order (ascending): A, C, E, G 3. Re-stack until you have a stack of major or minor thirds between each note - or as close as you can 4. Identify root, third, fifth 5. Identify any repeated notes or odd notes 6. Decide whether 3 is full or diminished or augmented 7. Decide whether 5 is full or diminished or augmented 8. Conclude whether it's a major or minor triad 9. Decide whether 4th note is a repeated note, or a 7th, and if so whether minor or major 10. If not a 7th identify what it is 11. Name that chord 12. If in doubt use the chord chart August

46 Any questions? Take a chord chart with you A copy of this presentation can be ed to you My August

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