1 THE EFFECT OF FRAYER MODEL TO EXTEND STUDENTS VOCABULARY OF THE FIRST GRADE AT SMK PERBANKAN RIAU A THESIS Intended to Fulfill One of Requirements For Sarjana Degree in English Language Education By FEBRIYANTO ENGLISH STUDY PROGRAM LANGUAGE AND ARTS DEPARTMENT TEACHERS TRAINING AND EDUCATION FACULTY ISLAMIC UNIVERSITY OF RIAU 2010
2 APPROVAL OF THESIS THE EFFECT OF FRAYER MODEL TO EXTEND STUDENTS VOCABULARY OF THE FIRST GRADE AT SMK PERBANKAN RIAU Written and complied by: NAME : FEBRIYANTO INDEX : MAJOR : LANGUAGE AND ART STUDY PROGRAM : ENGLISH ADVISOR TEAM Sponsor Co-Sponsor Prof. Dr. Seno H Putra, M.Pd. Johari Afrizal, S.Pd., M.Ed. The Chairman of English Study Program Johari Afrizal, S.Pd., M.Ed. The thesis has been approved to be one of the requirements for the award of Sarjana Degree at Teacher s Training and Education Faculty of Islamic University of Riau Pekanbaru, September 22 nd, 2010 The First Dean Assistant Zakir Has, S.H., M.Pd.
3 BERITA ACARA BIMBINGAN SKRIPSI Telah bimbingan skripsi terhadap : Nama : FEBRIYANTO NIM : Program Studi Sponsor ( Pembimbing I ) Judul skripsi : Bahasa Inggris : Prof. Dr. Seno H Putra, M.Pd. : The Effect of Frayer Model to Extend Students Vocabulary of the First Grade at SMK Perbankan Riau No. Tanggal Catatan Sponsor Berita Bimbingan 1 06 Maret 2010 Sponsor Revised Chapter I 2 18 Maret 2010 Sponsor Revised Chapter II & III 3 06 April 2010 Sponsor Revised Chapter II (structure and punctuation) 4 13 April 2010 Sponsor Revised Chapter III (reference and space) 5 04 Juni 2010 Sponsor Revised Chapter I, II, & III 6 17 Juni 2010 Sponsor Acc Proposal 7 27 Agustus 2010 Sponsor Revised Chapter IV (table of pre-test and post-test result) 8 15 September 2010 Sponsor Revised Chapter V and Appendixes 9 22 September 2010 Sponsor Read-proof all chapters September 2010 Sponsor Allowed to joint thesis examination Paraf Pekanbaru, September 2010 Pembantu Dekan I Zakir Has, S.H., M.Pd.
4 BERITA ACARA BIMBINGAN SKRIPSI Telah bimbingan skripsi terhadap : Nama : FEBRIYANTO NIM : Program Studi Co-Sponsor ( Pembimbing II ) Judul skripsi : Bahasa Inggris : Johari Afrizal, S.Pd., M.Ed. : The Effect of Frayer Model to Extend Students Vocabulary of the First Grade at SMK Perbankan Riau No. Tanggal Catatan Sponsor Berita Bimbingan 1 08 Maret 2010 Co-Sponsor Revised Chapter I, II, & III 2 22 Maret 2010 Co-Sponsor Corrected structure and spelling 3 07 April 2010 Co-Sponsor Checked punctuation 4 15 April 2010 Co-Sponsor Add theory 5 05 Juni 2010 Co-Sponsor Revised Chapter I, II, & III 6 18 Juni 2010 Co-Sponsor Acc Proposal 7 26 Agustus 2010 Co-Sponsor Revised Chapter IV & V 8 16 September 2010 Co-Sponsor Checked structure, table of content and reference 9 23 September 2010 Co-Sponsor Read-proof all chapter September 2010 Co-Sponsor Allowed to joint thesis examination Paraf Pekanbaru, September 2010 Pembantu Dekan I Zakir Has, S.H., M.Pd.
5 LETTER OF NOTICE We, the sponsor and co-sponsor, hereby notify that : Name : FEBRIYANTO Index : Major Study Program : Language and Art : English Has completely written a thesis which entitled : THE EFFECT OF FRAYER MODEL TO EXTEND STUDENTS VOCABULARY OF THE FIRST GRADE AT SMK PERBANKAN RIAU and has been ready for being proposed. Thereby this notice is made for possible necessity. Sponsor Pekanbaru, September 22 nd, 2010 Co-Sponsor Prof. Dr. Seno H Putra, M.Pd. Johari Afrizal, S.Pd., M.Ed.
6 THE CANDIDATE HAS BEEN EXAMINED Day : Thursday Date : 30 th September 2010 THE COMMITTEE 1. Chairman : Prof. Dr. Seno H Putra, M.Pd. ( ) 2. Secretary : Johari Afrizal, S.Pd., M.Ed. ( ) 3. Examiners : Dra. Hj. Syofianis, M.Ed. ( ) Miranti Eka Putri, S.Pd., M.Ed. ( ) Khulaifiyah, S.Pd., M.Pd. ( ) 4. Witnesses : Dra. Betty Sailun, M.Ed. ( ) Drs. Aladin ( ) Pekanbaru, 30 September 2010 Dekan Drs. Amir Amjad, M.Pd.
7 ADMIDTANCE I admit that this thesis writing purely derived from my own ideas, except some quotations (deliberately and undeliberately) which where adapted or taken from various sources included in Reference. Scientifically, I took responsible for the truthfulness of the data and its content. Pekanbaru, September 22 nd, 2010 The Writer, FEBRIYANTO
8 TABLE OF CONTENTS ACKNOWLEDGEMENT ABSTRACT TABLE OF CONTENTS i LIST OF TABLES.. iv LIST OF APPENDICES v CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION Background of the Problem The Setting of Problem The Limitation of Problem The Formulation of Problem The Objective of Research The Need of Research The Hypothesis The Definition of Terms 7 CHAPTER II THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK The Concept of Frayer Model The Advantages of Using Frayer Model 12
9 2.3 Vocabulary The Importance of Vocabulary Frayer Model in Extending Students Vocabulary Other Research Findings of Frayer Model. 26 CHAPTER III RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Research Design Location And Time Population And Sample Population Sample The Specific Objective Of Research Research Instrument Data Collection Technique The Procedures of Research Pre-test Treatment Post-test Data Analysis Technique. 38 CHAPTER IV THE PRESENTATION OF THE RESEARCH FINDINGS The Result of Pre-test The Result of Post-test 46
10 4.3 Increasing of the Students Scores Hypothesis Testing.. 51 CHAPTER V CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTIONS Conclusion Theoretical Conclusion Research Finding Conclusion Suggestions 55 REFERENCE APPENDICES
11 LIST OF TABLES Table 2.1 Frayer Model: multiple uses 25 Table 3.1 The Research Design 29 Table 3.2 Sub Design of Research 29 Table 3.3 The Schedule of Research Activities. 30 Table 3.4 The distribution of population of the first year students of SMK Perbankan Riau.. 31 Table 3.5 The Topics in test.. 33 Table 3.6 Frayer Model Rubric 34 Table 4.1 The Pre-test Score of Students Table 4.2 The Calculated of the Students Pre-test Scores Table 4.3 The Presentation of the pre-test students scores. 45 Table 4.4 The Post-test Score of Students.. 46 Table 4.5 The Calculated of the Students Post-test Scores. 47 Table 4.6 The Presentation of the post-test students scores.. 48 Table 4.7 The average score of this group in pre-test and post-test 49 Table 4.8 The standard deviation of pre-test and post-test 49 Table 4.9 Increasing of the students scores.. 51
12 LIST OF APPENDICES Appendix 1 Appendix 2 Appendix 3 Appendix 4 Appendix 5 The Research Instrument of Vocabulary Test (Pre-test) The Research Instrument of Vocabulary Test (Post-test) The Score of Pre-test The Score of Post-test The Score of Frayer Model
13 CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION 1.1 Background of the Problem Based on the Competence-Base Curriculum for vocational school, the purposes of learning vocabulary are to make students have good interest and good competent in the four language skills. There are 4000 words stated within the Competence-Base Curriculum that should be achieved by students of vocational school for six semesters. All the words are stated within all of learning materials of speaking, reading, listening, and writing. To reach the purposes, the students of vocational school have to broaden their vocabulary mastery which means they have to recognize the vocabulary items and its meaning. Vocabulary is one of important aspects of language components (spelling, structure, and vocabulary) that should be achieved by students in learning English as a foreign language. Vocabulary is a basis for mastering four English language skills. Vocabulary means the words which are significant to be known by the students of language. It can be found in dictionary or other sources which are relevant. In learning vocabulary, students do not only know about the meaning of words from the dictionary but also they must have vocabulary knowledge. It means that students must be able to understand the concept of words. However, to enrich the vocabulary, we should precisely know about the context of the language, spoken or written which is stated in the four language skills such as speaking, listening, reading, and writing.
14 Limited vocabulary makes students can not develop their language skills and reach the learning purposes. Based on my survey at SMK Perbankan Riau and asked the English teachers there while I was following PPL(Field Practice Teaching Program), some of students just get score the average of 4.5 each semester in learning English vocabulary. It means that only few students get good scores and others have low vocabulary mastery. This case is caused by low interest from students in learning English. Students are still confused in understanding of words in context, they get difficulties to enter the meaning of words. Students have low practice of the vocabulary that they got in the school. Some of students just learn English from the school. Students have limited understanding for word function and structure. These are the areas that need greater attention. Students must be taught directly by explicitly teaching words. In content subjects such as language, history, and science, dozens of unfamiliar words bombard students each week words that students must be able to extract meaning from as they read. Therefore, vocabulary study before, during, and after reading should be integrated into the curriculum (Robb, 2000). We must train our students on the use of strategies to enhance understanding of word meaning (Armbruster & Osborne, 2001). In this case, the writer chooses Frayer model to extend students vocabulary as his research because Frayer model is an excellent graphic organizer that can be used to encourage students to learn more then just read the definition of words from the dictionary. It helps them learn subtleties and
15 nuances of particular words, which are reinforced by the visual organization of the information in graphic of Frayer model. Frayer model is a strategy that uses a graphic organizer for vocabulary building. It is developed to extend students vocabulary through building connections of key words, students prior knowledge and new concept from the context. The Frayer model is a word categorization activity that helps learners to develop their understanding of concepts. Two versions of the Frayer model can be used. In the first, students provide a definition, list characteristics, and provide examples and non-examples of the concept. In the second, students analyze a word's essential and nonessential characteristics and refine their understanding by choosing examples and non-examples of the concept. This strategy uses a graphic organizer in which can enhance students learning of vocabulary in all content areas. The topic of using Frayer model in extending students vocabulary is often occurring in the research study. In this research, the writer will make it different by adding dialogues as learning media. Promote collaboration by asking students to work in group discussion. Using Frayer rubric in assessing students Frayer attributes. According to Nuttal (1988:24) in Vera Kalsum (2005) vocabulary s proficiency effect not only the students reading skill but also speaking, listening, and writing skill. It is true that vocabulary plays an important role in learning English as a foreign language. Having good vocabulary ability will help not only someone s fluency in speaking skills but also towards other skills.
16 Therefore, the writer decide to carry out the research under the title THE EFFECT OF FRAYER MODEL TO EXTEND STUDENTS VOCABULARY OF THE FIRST GRADE AT SMK PERBANKAN RIAU. 1.2 The Setting of Problem Based on my experiences in doing teaching practice at SMK Perbankan Riau in last November, the writer find there are still many problems dealing with some of students. The students have low interest in learning English vocabulary, they do not have motivation in achieving the optimal target. They also get difficulties to do the task that given by the teachers because they have limited vocabulary, they are difficult to understand the meaning of words (definition, characteristics, and examples or non-examples) or they have low understanding of vocabulary knowledge, the students do not know or understand word function and structure that take an important role in mastering vocabulary. The students tend to imitate the sample task that is given by the teacher, they do not know what they should do and what strategy should be followed to make them easy in learning vocabulary especially for understanding words meaning based on the context. As we know, if the students still get many problems about their vocabulary ability, they will be difficult to perform all of English language skills because we can say that vocabulary is basic to be able to master those skills. Research shows that there are more words to be learned than can be directly taught in even the most ambitious program of vocabulary instruction.. There is a strategy for teaching vocabulary to students in which is Frayer model. It
17 is a strategy or a learning activity that can develop and increase students vocabulary knowledge by categorizing attributes and non-attributes of a word. By teaching word learning strategies over a period of time, students are provided a way to learn vocabulary independently. 1.3 The Limitation of Problem The problem of this research will focus on extending students vocabulary knowledge through Frayer model. It s always a good strategy to make students get more understanding of vocabulary. It helps students expand word meanings and discover relationships between vocabulary terms. The Frayer model provides students with the opportunity to understand what a concept is and what it is not. It gives students an opportunity to explain their understanding about a concept and to elaborate it by providing examples and non-examples from their own lives. 1.4 The Formulation of Problem Based on the limitation of problem above, formulation of problem is formulated as follows : 1. Is there any positive effect of Frayer model to extend students vocabulary ( in banking terminology ) of the first grade at SMK Perbankan Riau?
18 1.5 The Objective of Research The objective of research is : To find out the effect of Frayer model in extending students vocabulary of the first grade at SMK Perbankan Riau, especially in understanding the meaning of words ( definition, characteristics, and examples or non-examples ) of banking terminology in Frayer model attributes. 1.6 The Need of Research The needs of research are as follows : 1. To give contribution to English teachers at SMK Perbankan Riau about Frayer model as a good strategy in teaching vocabulary. It is an effective vocabulary instruction. Teachers can use it to assess students understanding of the vocabulary word. Teachers can determine if students are able to correctly apply the meaning of words. 2. To help students at the first grade of SMK Perbankan Riau to extend their vocabulary through Frayer model. It provides students with deep understanding of words. 3. To help the writer accomplish the purpose of getting sarjana degree in English language education. In short, to help the writer complete the requirements for a graduate degree.
19 1.7 The Hypothesis There are two hypotheses in this research, they are : 1. Null Hypothesis (Ho) There is no positive effect of Frayer model to extend students vocabulary at the first grade of SMK Perbankan Riau. 2. Alternative Hypothesis (Ha) There is positive effect of Frayer model to extend students vocabulary at the first grade of SMK Perbankan Riau. 1.8 The Definition of Terms In order to avoid misunderstanding and misinterpretation in reading this research, it is necessary to define the terms used, namely as follows : 1. Vocabulary is total numbers of word which (with the rules of combining them) make up the language; list of words used in a book usually with definition and translation (Hornby, 1974:959). In this paper, vocabulary means a list of words that should be acquired by the students at vocational school as stated in curriculum (Competence-Base Curriculum) 2. Frayer model is an efficient, engaging way for students to make meaning of a difficult, complicated concept (developed by Frayer, Frederick, and Klausmeier in 1969). In this research, Frayer model is used as a strategy in helping students to extend their vocabulary especially for understanding
20 the meaning of words (characteristics, definition, and examples or nonexamples). 3. Extend is making longer or larger than the condition before (Oxford Learner s Pocket Dictionary, 1991:146). In this study, extend means enhancing vocabulary knowledge of students in learning English. Students have prior knowledge and combined with understanding of concept. It will build their understanding of concept and their prior knowledge. So, the students can make the meaning of the word by their own word. It means students can extend their vocabulary.
21 CHAPTER II THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK 2.1 The Concept of Frayer Model Systematic vocabulary instruction is one of the most important instructional interventions that teachers can use, particularly with low achieving students (Marzano, Pickering & Pollock, 2001). The most effective vocabulary instruction is the kind that also improves comprehension (Dole, Sloan, & Trathen, 1995, p.452). Word meaning instruction that helps learners fit new words into and already existing conceptual network is substantially more effective than having students look up words in a dictionary or read words in interesting and relevant context (Eeds & Cockrum, 1985, pp ). The Frayer Model is one of that systematic vocabulary instructions. It was developed to analyze and assess attainment of concepts. The Frayer model was developed by Frayer, Frederick, and Klausmeier in The strategy uses a graphic organizer which consists of definition, characteristics, non-characteristics, examples, and non-examples. This strategy enhances learning of vocabulary words in all content areas. Teachers identify the critical words students need to know in order to understand a concept. Teachers from all content areas find this strategy very beneficial. For example, critical words for the concept of photosynthesis: chlorophyll, cells, chemical energy, and oxygen.
22 According to Sara Shoob and Cynthia Stout, 2008, the Frayel model helps students understand concepts. It allows students to see what a concept is and what it is not. Students also demonstrate their understanding by providing examples and non-examples. Sheryn Spencer Northey (2005)states that this graphic model also helps students learn new words by asking them to discover the relational aspects of words. This organizer is useful only for difficult but key concept in the unit. Furthermore, Stephanie Macceca (2007) states that the Frayer Model is a strategy in which students use the graphic organizer as a means to better understand a concept and to distinguish that concept from others they may know or may be learning. The framework of the Frayer model includes the concept word, the definition, the characteristics of the concept word, examples of the concept word, and non- examples of the concept word. It is important to include both examples and non- examples so that students are able to clarify what the concept word is and what it is not. The Frayer Model is especially useful in social studies for teaching vocabulary that describes complex concepts or vocabulary that describes concepts students may already know but can not yet clearly define. Using the Frayer model takes a substantial amount of the teacher s and students time and effort, but it provides students with a rich understanding of important concepts. Frayer model helps students create a broader concept of a definition, one that encourages them to integrate their own knowledge (Santa et. al., 2004). It also help students develop elaborated definitions, rather than simple, one or two word
23 descriptions. The Frayer Model is a vocabulary development tool. In contrast with a straight definition, the model helps to develop a better understanding of complex concepts by having students identify not just what something is, but what something is not. The center of the diagram shows the concept being defined, while the quadrants around the concept are used for providing the details. Words that work well with the Frayer Model include quadrilaterals, insects and democracies. According to Michael W. Kibby (1955 : 208) Frayer model is a model of hierarchy pr gradations of a student s knowledge of things and the words that signify them. This model orders these variations in terms of difficulty. Suggestions are also provided to help match methods of vocabulary instruction to individual students needs. Frayer model is instruction in teaching for concept understanding. This model can be used to manipulate, expand and extend the key concepts. We have used this graphic organizer as a partner assignment so that students can have time to discuss relationships and use the vocabulary in a meaningful manner. In an important study, Peters (1974) compare the Frayer model to a textbook method of teaching social studies vocabulary concepts to 360 ninth grade students. He found that both the good and poor readers in the Frayer group significantly increased their achievement and that the Frayer group outperformed the textbook method group. Monroe and Pendergrass (1997) compared the Frayer model to the definition only model in teaching mathematics vocabulary. The definition-only
24 model involved having students write the definition of the new word after an oral review of the word. The Frayer group outperform the control group after two weeks of instruction, and led Monroe and Pendegrass to declare that the model is an effective model of teaching mathematics vocabulary. In the World Analysis Diagram, we modify the Frayer model in two ways. First, we use Graves (1985) modification that adds a definition of the word, and then we include its origin, root word and affixes, and synonyms and antonyms. But we also place the entire structure in a graphic form. 2.2 The Advantages of Using Frayer Model Frayer model is a strategy that help students for developing their vocabulary mastery. There are some advantages that will be got by students through this strategy, they are : 1. It will help students to understand of new concept or words in relational approach. 2. Students will be easy to analyze and think about attributes and nonattributes of examples and non-examples of concept or words. 3. It provides graphic organizers for students regarding the concept or words they are learning. 4. It supports students learning vocabulary of a foreign language. 5. Frayer model develops understanding of key concepts and vocabulary. 6. It will make visual connections and personal associations.
25 Bob Moore s view in his website states that there are several advantages of Frayer model : 1) The process helps students make connection between what they know and what they will be learning. 2) Students learn how to examine a concept from a number of perspectives, how the concept relates to other concepts and information, and how to sort out the relevant features of a concept. 3) The model also allows students to practice extending their knowledge of a concept by classifying more than one example of that concept. Students go beyond merely associating a key term with a definition, thus learning the content more thoroughly and improving retention of the information. The Frayer model may be used before reading, during reading, or after reading to develop key concepts. From Adolescent Literacy (2008), this instructional strategy, Frayer Model, promotes critical thinking and helps students to identify and understand unfamiliar vocabulary. The Frayer Model can be used with the entire class, small groups, or for individual work. The Frayer Model draws on a student's prior knowledge to build connections among new concepts and creates a visual reference by which students learn to compare attributes and examples. Deborah Carlson (2006), talent development teacher at McKee Road Elementary School, a National School of Character wrote that this model is particularly good to use for helping students gain understanding of concepts and abstract ideas, though it works well with any new vocabulary words. The Frayer
26 Model is based on the work of Dr. Dorothy Frayer, who has recently retired from her position at Duquesne University as the associate academic vice president and founding director of the Center for Teaching Excellence. Essentially, the model promotes higher level thinking regarding the understanding of new concepts by looking at definition, characteristics, examples, and non-examples. Dr. Frayer believes that a deep understanding of concepts evolves through the recognition of examples and non-examples. By knowing what something is not, one has a greater understanding of what something is. Frayer model is helping students learn new things or concepts and the words that signify those things (sometimes called teaching meaning vocabulary, word meaning instruction, concept development, or vocabulary instruction). In spite of its centrality, there exists no model of this relation between things and their words that aids the teacher in teaching meaning vocabulary. And it appears that teachers do need better sources to help them teach concepts, after examining teachers manuals for guidelines for teaching meaning vocabulary, Graves and his collegues (Graves, 1987 : Ryder & Graves, 1994). The Frayer model of concept attainment was used to develop social studies materials which were compared to materials patterned after those found in many social studies textbooks. The Frayer model offers a systematic procedure for defining concepts. Frayer model is One method for teaching words for new and complex concepts focuses on having students identify critical attributes associated with a word (Frayer, Frederick, & Klausmeier, 1969).
27 2.3 Vocabulary Vocabulary is the knowledge of words and word meanings. As Steven Stahl (2005) puts it, "Vocabulary knowledge is knowledge; the knowledge of a word not only implies a definition, but also implies how that word fits into the world." Vocabulary knowledge is not something that can ever be fully mastered; it is something that expands and deepens over the course of a lifetime. Instruction in vocabulary involves far more than looking up words in a dictionary and using the words in a sentence. Vocabulary is acquired incidentally through indirect exposure to words and intentionally through explicit instruction in specific words and word-learning strategies. Furthermore, according to Fran Lehr, M.A., Lehr, Jean Osborn, M.Ed., and Dr. Elfrieda H. Hiebert state that vocabulary is more complex definitions. First, words come in two forms: oral and print. Oral vocabulary includes those words that we recognize and use in listening and speaking. Print vocabulary includes those words that we recognize and use in reading and writing. Second, word knowledge also comes in two forms, receptive and productive. Receptive vocabulary includes words that we recognize when we hear or see them. Productive vocabulary includes words that we use when we speak or write. Receptive vocabulary is typically larger than productive vocabulary, and may include many words to which we assign some meaning, even if we don t know their full definitions and connotations or ever use them ourselves as we speak and write (Kamil & Hiebert, in press).
28 In addtition, in education, the word vocabulary is used with varying meanings. For example, for beginning reading teachers, the word might be synonymous with sight vocabulary, by which they mean a set of the most common words in English that young students need to be able to recognize quickly as they see them in print. However, for teachers of upper elementary and secondary school students, vocabulary usually means the hard words that students encounter in content area textbook and literature selections. Nunan (1991:118) states that vocabulary is an important element in the acquisition of a second language. It is often assumed that when students do not learn new vocabulary words, they simply need to practice the words some more. According to Mark Kaprowski (2005), vocabulary is a set of words known to a person other entity, or that is part of a specific language. Words are symbol system of language. One is able to speak a language through learning a simple word from the stage of learning and the words that she / he learns more. It is true that whenever we think of language and language learning, we usually think of mastery of the words. George Ostles (1986, in Jumangin, 2006:5) states that words use by language or book or branch of science or author. The content of language can not be accepted by other persons without using appropriate vocabularies or words. Furthermore, River (1983, in Nunan, 1991:117) has also argued that the acquisition of an adequate vocabulary is essential for successful second language use because we will unable to use the structure and function we may have learnt for comprehensible communication without an extensive vocabulary. Vocabulary
29 is known or used by a person or group. The words which are known by individual in communication varied based on the function of words itself as a noun or verb function. While, Harris (1969:450) in Vera Kalsum classifies the word into the concepts of presenting things (noun), action (verb), or observable qualities (adjective and verbs). The concept of presenting relationships function words, such as conjunction and preposition. Vocabulary move is integrally linked with background knowledge. However, once students have built same background knowledge, teachers must move on to teaching words and concepts explicitly. Vocabulary is classified into two parts that are used in the four skills of learning English, they are word form and word meaning. Word form is named as noun, adjective, pronoun, verb, adverb, preposition, conjunction, and interjection. Based on the meaning of word, it is classified into lexical, grammatical, and experiential meaning (Robbinet, 1983:110). Lexical meaning is found in the dictionary. Grammatical meaning is derived from syntactic or grammatical relationship within the language. Experiential meaning is very special interpretation that is brought to each word by both speakers and hearers because of each person s particular, personal experiences and those experiences that are common to culture. It is necessary for students to storage the more new vocabulary. Feldman and Kinsella (2007) indicated that learning vocabulary must be based on the students active engagement in constructing understanding of the words/terms. Students gain most of their word knowledge through wide reading;
30 however, explicit instruction of specific words and their meanings also contributes greatly to their vocabulary development. According to Michael Graves (2000), there are four components of an effective vocabulary program: 1. wide or extensive independent reading to expand word knowledge; 2. instruction in specific words to enhance comprehension of texts containing those words; 3. instruction in independent word-learning strategies, and 4. word consciousness and word-play activities to motivate and enhance learning From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (June, 2009), a vocabulary is defined as "all the words known and used by a particular person". A person's vocabulary is the set of words they are familiar with in a language. A vocabulary usually grows and evolves with age, and serves as a useful and fundamental tool for communication and acquiring knowledge. However, the words known and used by a particular person do not constitute all the words a person is exposed to. By definition, a vocabulary includes the last two categories of this list: 1. Never encountered the word. 2. Heard the word, but cannot define it. 3. Recognize the word due to context or tone of voice. 4. Able to use the word but cannot clearly explain it. 5. Fluent with the word its use and definition.
31 Words are concepts, and Greenwood (2002) wrote that knowing the vocabulary, the words of a discipline, is the key to reading comprehension in that discipline. Hennings (2000) wrote that vocabulary is a key factor not only in reading, but also in listening comprehension, especially in secondary and postsecondary education. She warned that students who have limited vocabularies in our disciplines have problems understanding what they read in their textbooks and what they hear in our classes because words are building blocks, and students with limited word knowledge have too few building blocks with which to construct meanings (p.269). Graves and Penn (1986) identified three levels at which a word is known : unknown, acquainted, and established; Grennwood (2002) described a word at the acquainted level as one in which the user has heard the word and recognizes it, but is fuzzy about its meaning. He stated that our goal as content area teachers is to help students move words from the acquainted level to the established level (and of course, from unknown to established), at which they become automatic. Marcia and Rosenweig (1979) describe that the vocabulary is a language that needs continue growth and development for native and non-native speaker long after grammar and pronunciation are under reasonable control. The quality of students language skills both receptively and actively, depend very much on quality and quantity of their vocabulary. Further he said that the more vocabulary one has, the more he will be skillful in the language. The more vocabulary the learners have, the easier it is for them to develop the four language skills. According to Longman (1987:215), vocabulary is a list of
32 words used in alphabetical order and with explanation of their meaning. According to Hornby (1989:959), it is the total number of words which make up language. Harmer (1991:1) stated that knowledge of vocabulary is the key to understand both spoken and written language. It means that we need vocabulary in speaking and writing. Based on Harmer (1991:151), vocabulary is a store of words that we have and know the meaning. The students can express the words both spoken in written form with vocabulary. According to Deborah (Webster 2000) says that three main principles appear to underlie effective vocabulary teaching. First, learners should be provided with both deviational and contextual information about words. Second, learners should be encouraged to process information about at deeper level. Third, learners need multiple exposures to words. Stahl (2005) states that vocabulary is the knowledge of words. It is not just a definition, but it implies how the word fits into a sentence. Vocabulary is not something that can ever fully be mastered, but it is something that people can learn in a lifetime. Instruction of vocabulary involves far more than looking up words in a dictionary and using the word in a sentence. Penny in Elfiyenita (2006) states that vocabulary can be defined roughly, as the words we teach in the foreign language. She also presents a way to define the new words. It is a concise definition. Based on theories, the words to be used and talked about should be selected as far as they are related to the theme or subtheme being discussed.
33 Nunan (1991) proposes that in the early language stage of learning and using a foreign language, one is better served by vocabulary than grammar. By having vocabulary, the students will understand the meaning of sentences. In teaching vocabulary, teachers should explicitly teach both specific words and words learning strategies. Chaistain (1975) states that learning words is not efficient for product skill but they are important to practice as the objective in English learning. Students need to help plenty of vocabulary since repeating words happened because the students did not know substitution of the words. According to Michael Graves (2000), there are four components of an effective vocabulary program: 1. wide or extensive independent reading to expand word knowledge 2. instruction in specific words to enhance comprehension of texts containing those words 3. instruction in independent word-learning strategies, and 4. word consciousness and word-play activities to motivate and enhance learning 2.4 The Importance of Vocabulary Since the English now has been focused more on communicative, then one of the units every teacher of English should teach vocabulary. Event in English curriculumor vocational students, English teaching activities are emphasized and focused on students communicative ability by providing a number of
34 vocabularies. Nevertheless, the writer still needs to represent some proofs of the importance of vocabulary teaching. According to M.C.Gore (2004:23), mastery of the vocabulary concepts of a discipline provides the basic building blocks for comprehension and all higherorder thinking skills in that discipline. Teaching the vocabulary concepts is the most elemental, basic place to start, and in order to assure that our students with special needs learn that vocabulary, we must explicitly teach it. According to Karkowian (1984) in Wiwik (2006:14), vocabulary is crucial, mainly in oral and event in written communication. In communication oriented teaching, the most pressing concern for the learning is the need t master an adequate foreign language vocabulary; learning syntax comparatively less important in developing the ability to a successful interaction the target language This statement shows that learning a foreign language vocabulary is more important than learning a syntactical pattern in achieving the goal of communication. One of the final goals of oriented teaching is to make students able to interact with others. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (June, 2009), there are some importance of vocabulary : 1. An extensive vocabulary aids expressions and communication 2. Vocabulary size has been directly linked to reading comprehension. 3. Linguistic vocabulary is synonymous with thinking vocabulary 4. A person may be judged by others based on his or her vocabulary
35 Akmal (2003) in Wiwik (2006:14) states that there are three features of vocabulary: 1. The ability to understand the target language greatly depends on vocabulary mastery. 2. Vocabulary aspect acquisition is an important aspect of four skills in learning English. 3. The ability to write a foreign language presupposes knowledge of the lexical units of the foreign language. The need for rich and meaningful vocabulary knowledge in developing concepts in content areas is documented by research and is generally accepted by classroom teachers (Monroe & Panchyshyn, ). Vocabulary represents and provides access to concepts. It requires careful attention within the school curriculum (Gawned, 1990). Teachers need assistance in knowing how to provide meaningful vocabulary instruction in English. Student and teacher feedback indicated that this focus on vocabulary throughout the school played a major role in improved student learning. Furthermore, Nunan (1991:177) in Nursiah states that in the early stages of learning and using a foreign language, one is better served by vocabulary than grammar. For vocational school students, the vocabulary served is the vocabulary which has lexical meaning or function. The mastery of vocabulary of a foreign language is so important before learning grammar, since vocabulary is needed in oral communication. The speed of speaking depends on how many vocabulary someone knows. The lack of
36 experience of the appropriate context makes understanding the meaning of words used it extremely difficult. The students need an adequate mastery of vocabulary as well as grammar and phonology in order to be able to communicate effectively. Research indicates that student achievement will increase by 33 percentile points when vocabulary instruction focuses on specific words that are important to what they are learning (Stahl & Fairbanks, 1986). 2.5 Frayer Model in Extending Students Vocabulary Billmeyer (2003) concluded that Frayer model can be used as a strategy that enhances learning of vocabulary words in all content areas. Teachers identify the critical words students need to know in order to understand a concept. Teachers from all content areas find this strategy very beneficial. For example, critical words for the concept of photosynthesis: chlorophyll, cells, chemical energy, and oxygen. The Frayer Model is a graphical organizer used for word analysis and vocabulary building. This four-square model prompts students to think about and describe the meaning of a word or concept by: 1. Defining the term 2. Describing its essential characteristics 3. Providing examples of the ideas 4. Offering non-examples The Frayer model is an effective vocabulary instruction which use graphic organizer for helping students learn new concept and extend their vocabulary
37 divided into four components (definition, characteristics, examples, and nonexamples) for recording information related to the words or concept. There are some ways that students can follow to use the Frayer model: 1. Define the new concept giving its necessary attributes. When possible, it is also helpful to show a picture illustrating the concept. 2. Distinguish between the new concept and similar but different concepts with which it might be mistaken. In doing so, it may be appropriate to identify some accidental attributes that might falsely be considered to be necessary attributes of the new concept. 3. Give examples of the concept and explain why they are examples. 4. Give non-examples of the concept. 5. Present students with examples and non-examples and ask them to distinguish between the two. Table 2.1 Frayer Model: multiple uses Definition (in own words) Characteristics (WORD) Examples (from own life). Non-Examples
38 Definition: Well-planned and purposeful instruction that provides students with deep understanding of key words. Key Characteristics: 1. Teaching a small number of words providing student-friendly definitions. 2. Creating meaningful interactions with words that lead to deep processing. 3. Providing multiple exposures in a variety of contexts. Example: Students are hoped to give some samples that relate to the words. It is used so that students can have many choices to use those words. Non-Example: Students give some samples that do not relate to the words. It is used so that students can have many choices to use those words. 2.6 Other Research Findings of Frayer Model The Gorilla Family An Endangered Species Developed by D. Abraham and K. Vrielink states that Frayer model will teach students for concept understanding. This model can be used to manipulate, expand and extend the key concepts. We have used this graphic organizer as a partner assignment so that students can have time to discuss relationships and use the vocabulary in a meaningful manner. Building Background Knowledge for Academic Achievement; The Leon County Schools Systematic Vocabulary Instruction Project ; Training based on
39 Diane E. Paynter s original presentation Presented by Shannon Ayrish, Sharon Hinsley and Carol Purvis, January 27, 2007 made a conclusion that Frayer model is a strategy that can be used to create a visual representation forces students to process their linguistic understanding into nonlinguistic representations. It increases the probability that students will understand the words when they encounter them. Using Graphic Organizers to Teach Vocabulary: Does Available Research Inform Mathematics Instruction?; Journal article by Eula Ewing Monroe; Education, Vol. 118, 1998 summarizes available research on the use of graphic organizers in which is Frayer model. This adapted model was implemented with fourth graders during a 2-week period in a measurement unit comprising 10 lessons. This model, which was used at the end of the daily lesson in mathematics, involved collaborative student and teacher construction. When tested against a definition-only model, the Frayer model appeared to be effective. Definition (in own words) A mathematical shape that is a closed plane figure bounded by 3 or more line segments Examples (from own life) * Pentagon * Hexagon * Square Characteristics * Closed * Plane figure * More than 2 straight sides * 2 dimensional * Made of line segments (Polygon) Non-Examples * Circle * Cone * Arrow
40 Based on Billmeyer research (2003), Frayer model enhances learning of vocabulary words in science content areas. Teachers identify the critical words students need to know in order to understand a concept. Teachers from all content areas find this strategy very beneficial. For example, critical words for the concept of photosynthesis: chlorophyll, cells, chemical energy, and oxygen. Feldman and Kinsella (2007) in their research indicated that learning vocabulary in history field must be based on the students active engagement in constructing understanding of the words/terms. And Frayer model is a way to help students do it. Essential Characteristics A person seeking the legal end to slavery in the U.S.A. Non-essential Characteristics Northerner Race (ABOLITIONIST) Examples (from own life) Non-Examples John Brown Frederick Douglass Harriet Beecher Stowe Harriet Tubman Jefferson Davis John C. Calhoun Slave trader Cotton farmer
41 CHAPTER III RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 3.1 Research Design This is an experimental research focuses on the quantitative approach. This research uses pre-experimental design in which is one-group pretest-posttest design. It will involve one group as an experimental group without involving control group. The experimental group will be treated by using Frayer model. See Table 3.1. In this research, there are two variables. They are independent variable and dependent variable. The independent variable is Frayer model and students vocabulary is the dependent one. The design of this research drawn on Table 3.1 : Table 3.1 The Research Design X Frayer Model Z Y Students Vocabulary Where: X Y Z : Independent Variable : Dependent Variable : The Process of Applying Frayer Model Table 3.2 Sub Design of Research X
42 Where: : Pre-test : Post-test X : Treatment This research is intended to analyze and interpret a certain population by means of looking at the difference of result between pre-test and post-test of the experimental group. 3.2 Location and Time The research would be conducted at SMK Perbankan Riau. The time of this research would be started on July to August for 2010/2011 Academic Year. Table 3.3 The Schedule of Research Activities No Week Month / Year Class Activities 1 2 nd week July, 2010 XG Taking pre-test 2 3 rd week to 4 th July-August, XG Applying Frayer model week 2010 for different topics based 1 st week to 2 nd on curriculum in the week experimental group in teaching vocabulary 4 3 rd week August, 2010 XG Taking post test
43 3.3 Population and Sample Population The population of this research is all of the first year students at SMK Perbankan Riau in academic year 2010/2011. There are seven classes of the first year in SMK Perbankan Riau. There are 256 students of eight classes. The population of this research is assumed to have the same level of proficiency and the same background because they are taught the same material in teaching and learning process. Table 3.4 The distribution of population of the first year students of SMK Perbankan Riau No. Class Total of students 1 X A 33 2 X B 32 3 X C 32 4 X D 32 5 X E 32 6 X F 32 7 X G 31 8 XH 32 Total Sample Since the total of population is quite large, so the writer applies the sampling technique. The sampling technique that was used in this research was cluster random sampling. According to Ruseffendy (1994:84) in Wiwik Rahayu
44 (2004:26) defined cluster sampling is the way of taking the sample randomly and based on group or class. The writer gives the same right to each subject to get chance that will be chosen as the sample. By naming cards based on every first year class in SMK Perbankan Riau in which is X A, X B, X C, X D, X E, X F, XG and X H. After the writer mixed these cards for a moment, the writer took one card randomly as a sample of research and the chosen sample for the experimental group is X G in which the number of students is 31 persons. 3.4 The Specific Objective of Research The specific objectives of this research are as follows : 1. To find out positive effects toward the first grade students mastery in vocabulary by using Frayer model. 2. To know the improvement of the first grade students in learning process after using Frayer model. 3.5 Research Instrument In order to explore the research data, the writer applied vocabulary test. The writer used these instruments to know the students development in learning vocabulary based on the test given by the teacher. For vocabulary test, In pre-test, the students would be given test from text book. But in post-test, the students would be given test which is divided into two parts. Each part has 5 words that
45 must be looked for by the students both those words itself or those meaning. For the first part, the students were asked to be able to find the words from the meaning (definition, characteristics, and examples or non-examples), and the second part, students were asked to give the meaning (definition, characteristics, and examples or non-examples) of the words from the passages or dialogues that given by the teacher. The writer gave them the words which are familiar or known by the students which adapted from English Handbook for SMK entitled Communicative and Interactive English based on curriculum. The writer chose the source because it was appropriate with vocational school level and it was being used by the teacher in English teaching and learning process. Table 3.5 The Topics in test Pre Test Topic Treatment Time Post Test Topic Bank (45 minutes) 1. Communication 45 minutes 2. Mortgage 45 minutes 3. Auto loan 45 minutes 4. Electronic Banking 45 minutes 5. Investment 45 minutes 6. Devaluation 45 minutes 7. Income distribution 45 minutes Topic Checking Accounts (45 minutes) 8. Creditworthy 45 minutes consumer
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