Chapter 15: Acids, Bases, and Salts. 15.1: Acids and Bases

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Chapter 15: Acids, Bases, and Salts. 15.1: Acids and Bases"

Transcription

1 Chapter 15: Acids, Bases, and Salts Name: 15.1: Acids and Bases Define an Acid: Define a Base: Ex of an acid in aqueous solution: Ex of a base in aqueous solution: List some of the properties of acids & bases and some examples of each: ACIDS BASES What are the properties of acids caused by? What is the other name for this ion? Names and Uses of Common Acids: 1.) 2.) 3.) 4.) What are the properties of bases caused by? What is the other name for this ion? Names and Uses of Common Bases: 1.) 2.) 3.) Theories of Acids & Bases: Several theories have been proposed to answer the question What is an acid and what is a base? 1. Arrhenius Theory: Made by Svante Arrhenius in Define an Arrhenius acid: Ex: Define an Arrhenius base: Ex: 2. Bronsted-Lowry Theory: Made by Johannes Bronsted and Thomas Lowry in Define a Bronsted-Lowry acid: Define a Bronsted-Lowry base: Label the Bronsted-Lowry acid & base in the following chemical equation: HCl + H 2 O Cl - + H 3 O + Define a Conjugate acid: Define a Conjugate base: 1

2 In the following chemical equations, label which is the acid (A), base (B), conjugate acid (CA), and conjugate base (CB): HCl + H 2 O Cl - + H 3 O + H 2 O + NH 4 + H 3 O + + NH 3 Determine the conjugate base for each of the following acids: 1. HF 2. H 2 SO 4 3. HNO 3 4. NH 4 +1 Determine the conjugate acid for each of the following bases: 1. OH NH H 2 O 4. NH 3 Define amphoteric: In the following 2 reactions, label the acids and bases, illustrating that water is amphoteric: Ex 1: H 2 O + NH 3 OH - + NH 4 + Ex 2: H 2 O + H 2 SO 4 HSO H 3 O + In Ex 1, H 2 O is acting as a(n): In Ex 2, H 2 O is acting as a(n): 3. Lewis Acid-Lewis Base Theory: Made by Gilbert Lewis in early 1920 s. Define a Lewis acid: Define a Lewis base: Ex: How is the Bronsted-Lowry theory related to the Lewis theory? Give an example: 15.2: Reactions of Acids Reaction with Bases: also called. The products are always. Examples: Complete and balance the following neutralization reactions. Then, give the names and formulas of the salt that will form: 1.) HCl + Ca(OH) 2 2.) HNO 3 + KOH 3.) H 2 SO 4 + Al(OH) 3 2

3 4.) NaOH + HBr Describe the term dissociation (aka ): 15.5: Electrolytes and Nonelectrolytes Define Electrolyte: Solutions that contain lots of ions (charged particles) will conduct an electric current! The 3 classes of electrolytes are: Examples: Define Nonelectrolyte: Examples: The main difference between electrolytes & nonelectrolytes is that electrolytes are capable of. Will a salt (NaCl) water solution conduct an electric current? How about a sugar (C 6 H 12 O 6 ) water solution? Why or why not? Define Strong Electrolyte: List of Common Strong Acids: List of Common Strong Bases: Write the equation for a strong acid being dissociated in water: Write the equation for a strong base being dissociated in water: Write the equation for the dissociation of table salt: Define Weak Electrolyte: List of Common Weak Acids: List of Common Weak Bases: Write the equation for a weak acid being dissociated in water: Write the equation for a weak base being dissociated in water: Dissociation Calculations: 1.) What is the molarity of each ion in a solution of 0.20 M NaCl? 3

4 2.) What is the molarity of each ion in a solution of 0.40 M K 2 SO 4? Draw and label the ph scale: 15.9: Introduction to ph The concentration of in solution is measured by the ph scale. Lower ph = Higher ph = What are the equations to find the ph or poh of a solution? Determine the ph of the following solutions and determine if it is acidic or basic: 1. [H + ] = 1.0 x M 2. solution with a poh of [H + ] = 6.0 x 10-8 M Acid/base? Acid/base? Acid/base? M HNO M H 2 SO 4 6. [OH - ] = 1.0 x 10-4 M Acid/base? Acid/base? Acid/base? Determine the [H + ] of the following solutions: 1. a solution with a ph of a solution with a ph of a solution with a poh of 6.1 What is a good way to test the ph of a solution? Where do we see this in real life? Define Titration: 15.10: Neutralization Define Equivalence Point (aka ): 4

5 Draw an example of the graph formed from a titration: The formula we use for these calculations is: * In this equation, must also look at Ex 1: ml of M NaOH solution is required to neutralize ml of HCl. What is the concentration of the HCl solution? Ex 2: It takes 0.50L of 4.0 M H 2 SO 4 solution to completely neutralize 2.0L of Ca(OH) 2 solution. What is the concentration of the Ca(OH) 2 solution? Ex 3: 42.5 ml of 1.3M KOH are required to neutralize 50.0 ml of H 2 SO 4. Find the molarity of H 2 SO 4. Define Acid Rain: 15.12: Acid Rain What is the ph of unpolluted rain? Why is unpolluted rain slightly acidic, and not neutral? What are some of the causes of acid rain? What are some of the effects of acid rain? Define Ocean Acidification: What was the ph of ocean water in the 1700 s (pre-industrial)? What was the ph of ocean water in the 1990 s? What are the main causes for ocean acidification? What are some of the harmful effects of such acidification? 5

6 Brønsted-Lowry Acid/Base Worksheet 1. What's the Brønsted definition of an acid?...of a base? 2. In 1923, Johannes Brønsted (Danish) and Thomas Lowry (British) independently expanded the definition of Arrhenius acids and bases. A Brønsted-Lowry acid is a molecule or ion that is a hydrogen ion (H + ) donor. The hydrogen ion is also called a. A Brønsted- base is a or ion that is a proton acceptor. A -Lowry acid-base reaction involves the transfer of protons from the to the base. The molecular species that remains after a Brønsted-Lowry acid has given up a is called the conjugate base of that acid. The molecular species that is formed after a Brønsted-Lowry base a proton is called the of that base. The conjugate pair refers to an acid and its conjugate or a base with its conjugate. Note that in a conjugate pair, there is no reason why the acid should be while the base is charged. 3. What is the correct name for the H3O + ion? 4. Determine the conjugate base for the following acids: HCl: HNO 3 : NH 4 + : H 2 O: H 3 PO 4 : 5. Determine the conjugate acid for the following bases: OH -1 : Br -1 : NH 3 : H 2 O: CO 3-2 : 6. Identify the conjugate acid/base pairs in the following reactions: a. HCN + H2O H3O + + CN acid: base: conjugate base: conjugate acid: b. H2O + HSO4 - SO4-2 + H3O + acid: base: conjugate base: conjugate acid: 7. Write the equation for the ionization of HNO3 in water, labeling each acid/base pair: 8. Write the equation for the ionization of CO3-2 (a weak base) in water, labeling each acid/base pair: 9. Some acids have a unique property: the ability to donate more than one proton (H+) per molecule. A molecule that can donate one proton is called a monoprotic acid. A molecule that donates two protons is a protic acid. A molecule that can donate three protons is called a acid. 10.) Complete the following: +1 a. the conjugate base of NH 4-2 c. the conjugate acid of CO 3-1 e. the conjugate base of HSO 4-2 g. the conjugate base of HC 6 H 3 O 5 b. the conjugate base of H 3 PO 4 d. the conjugate acid of H 2 O -1 f. the conjugate base of H 2 PO 4 h. the conjugate acid of C 2 H 6 NH 11.) A substance that is capable of donating or accepting a proton is called. 6

7 ph of Solutions Name: 1. What is the ph scale? 2. What is ph a measure of? 3. Why is pure water considered neutral on the ph scale? 4. What is the equation used for finding ph? 5. What is the equation that relates to ph and poh? 6. Classify each of the following as acidic, neutral, or basic. The ph of each item is also listed. a) tomatoes: 4.2 e) soil: 5.5 b) eggs: 7.8 f) milk: 6.4 c) ammonia: 11.0 g) bleach: 12.0 d) tap water: 7.2 h) lye (NaOH): Are the following solutions acidic, neutral, or basic? a) [H + ] = 1 x 10-8 M e) [OH - ] = 1 x 10-3 M b) [H + ] = 7.3 x 10-1 M f) [OH - ] = 1 x 10-7 M c) [H + ] = 1.0 M g) [OH - ] = M d) [H + ] = 1 x 10-5 M h) [OH - ] = 4.9 x 10-6 M 8. What would be the ph of each of the following: (DANGER beware of tricks!) a) M HCl g) M HCl b) M HNO 3 h) M KOH c) M NaOH i) M HCl d) M HCl j) M HCl e) 1.0 M HBr k) 12 M KOH f) 1.0 M KOH l) 12 M HCl 9.) A solution contains g HCl in 560. ml solution. a) Write the equation for the dissociation of HCl: b.) What is the molarity of the HCl solution? c) What is the [H+]? d) What is the [OH-]? 7

UNIT 14 - Acids & Bases

UNIT 14 - Acids & Bases COMMON ACIDS NOTES lactic acetic phosphoric citric malic PROPERTIES OF ACIDS 1. 1. PROPERTIES OF BASES 2. 2. 3. 3. 4. 4. 5. 5. NAMING ACIDS NOTES Binary acids (H + one element) Practice: 1. hydro- - HF

More information

Acid/base Definitions. Acid/Base Definitions. Acid / Base Chemistry. Acid/Base Definitions. Identifying Acids and Bases

Acid/base Definitions. Acid/Base Definitions. Acid / Base Chemistry. Acid/Base Definitions. Identifying Acids and Bases Acids Identifying Acids and Bases Acid (anhydrides) contains H+ ions as the cation, with and other element as the anion Non-metal oxide H2SO4 HI P2O5 Bases Base (anhydrides) Contains OH- as the anion Combined

More information

Acids and Bases. Chapter 16

Acids and Bases. Chapter 16 Acids and Bases Chapter 16 The Arrhenius Model An acid is any substance that produces hydrogen ions, H +, in an aqueous solution. Example: when hydrogen chloride gas is dissolved in water, the following

More information

1. In which reaction is water acting only as a proton acceptor? 1) H 2 SO 4 (aq) + H 2 O ( ) HSO 4 (aq) + H 3 O + (aq)

1. In which reaction is water acting only as a proton acceptor? 1) H 2 SO 4 (aq) + H 2 O ( ) HSO 4 (aq) + H 3 O + (aq) 1. In which reaction is water acting only as a proton acceptor? 1) H 2 SO 4 (aq) H 2 O ( ) HSO 4 (aq) H 3 O (aq) NH 3 (g) H 2 O ( ) NH 4 (aq) OH (aq) CH 3 COO (aq) H 2 O ( ) CH 3 COOH(aq) OH (aq) H 2 O

More information

CHEM 10123/10125, Exam 2

CHEM 10123/10125, Exam 2 CHEM 10123/10125, Exam 2 March 7, 2012 (50 minutes) Name (please print) Please box your answers, and remember that significant figures, phases (for chemical equations), and units do count! 1. (13 points)

More information

Name period Unit 9: acid/base equilibrium

Name period Unit 9: acid/base equilibrium Name period Unit 9: acid/base equilibrium 1. What is the difference between the Arrhenius and the BronstedLowry definition of an acid? Arrhenious acids give H + in water BronstedLowry acids are proton

More information

6) Which compound is manufactured in larger quantities in the U.S. than any other industrial chemical?

6) Which compound is manufactured in larger quantities in the U.S. than any other industrial chemical? MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) Which statement concerning Arrhenius acid-base theory is not correct? A) Acid-base reactions must

More information

CHAPTERS 15 FAKE TEST QUESTIONS. 1. According to the Brønsted Lowry definition, which species can function both as an acid and as a base?

CHAPTERS 15 FAKE TEST QUESTIONS. 1. According to the Brønsted Lowry definition, which species can function both as an acid and as a base? You might need to know the following K values: CHAPTERS 15 FAKE TEST QUESTIONS CH 3 COOH K a = 1.8 x 10 5 Benzoic Acid K a = 6.5 x 10 5 HNO 2 K a = 4.5 x 10 4 NH 3 K b = 1.8 x 10 5 HF K a = 7.2 x 10 4

More information

CHAPTER 16: ACIDS AND BASES

CHAPTER 16: ACIDS AND BASES CHAPTER 16: ACIDS AND BASES Active Learning: 4, 6, 14; End-of-Chapter Problems: 2-25, 27-58, 66-68, 70, 75-77, 83, 90-91, 93-104 Chapter 15 End-of-Chapter Problems: 69-74, 125, 129, 133 16.1 ACIDS AND

More information

ionic substances (separate) based on! Liquid Mixtures miscible two liquids that and form a immiscible two liquids that form a e.g.

ionic substances (separate) based on! Liquid Mixtures miscible two liquids that and form a immiscible two liquids that form a e.g. Unit 7 Solutions, Acids & Bases Solution mixture + solvent - substance present in the amount solute - in the solvent solvent molecules solute particles ionic substances (separate) based on! Liquid Mixtures

More information

Chapter 19: Acids and Bases Homework Packet (50 pts) Name: Score: / 50

Chapter 19: Acids and Bases Homework Packet (50 pts) Name: Score: / 50 Chapter 19: Acids and Bases Homework Packet (50 pts) Topic pg Section 19.1 1-3 Section 19.2 3-6 Section 19.3 6-7 Section 19.4 8 Naming Acids 9 Properties of Acids/Bases 10-11 Conjugate Acid/Base Pairs

More information

Types of Reactions. What are Acids &Bases? Chapter 15. Acids & Bases. Definition? a) Arrhenius. b) Bronsted-Lowry. c) Lewis

Types of Reactions. What are Acids &Bases? Chapter 15. Acids & Bases. Definition? a) Arrhenius. b) Bronsted-Lowry. c) Lewis Chapter 15. Acids & Bases Acid/Base Definitions Types of Acids/bases Polyprotic Acids The Ion Product for Water The ph and Other p Scales Aqueous Solutions of Acids and Bases Hydrolysis The Common Ion

More information

CHM1 Review for Exam 12

CHM1 Review for Exam 12 Topics Solutions 1. Arrhenius Acids and bases a. An acid increases the H + concentration in b. A base increases the OH - concentration in 2. Strong acids and bases completely dissociate 3. Weak acids and

More information

Notes: Acids and Bases

Notes: Acids and Bases Name Chemistry Pre-AP Notes: Acids and Bases Period I. Describing Acids and Bases A. Properties of Acids taste ph 7 Acids change color of an (e.g. blue litmus paper turns in the presence of an acid) React

More information

Table 1. give a slippery feel. produce a piercing pain in a wound. are colorless when placed in phenolphthalein (an indicator).

Table 1. give a slippery feel. produce a piercing pain in a wound. are colorless when placed in phenolphthalein (an indicator). Acid/Base Basics How does one define acids and bases? In chemistry, acids and bases have been defined differently by two sets of theories. One is the Arrhenius definition, which revolves around the idea

More information

TOPIC 11: Acids and Bases

TOPIC 11: Acids and Bases TOPIC 11: Acids and Bases ELECTROLYTES are substances that when dissolves in water conduct electricity. They conduct electricity because they will break apart into Ex. NaCl(s)! Na + (aq) + Cl - (aq), and

More information

Chapter 14: Acids and Bases

Chapter 14: Acids and Bases Ch 14 Page 1 Chapter 14: Acids and Bases Properties of Acids Sour taste React with some metals Turns blue litmus paper red React with bases Some Common Acids HCl, hydrochloric acid H 2 SO 4, sulfuric acid

More information

Chem 1B Dr. White 1. Chapter 14 Acids and Bases. 14.1 Nature of Acids and Bases. A. Acids. B. Bases

Chem 1B Dr. White 1. Chapter 14 Acids and Bases. 14.1 Nature of Acids and Bases. A. Acids. B. Bases Chem 1B Dr. White 1 Chapter 14 Acids and Bases 14.1 Nature of Acids and Bases A. Acids B. Bases Chem 1B Dr. White 2 C. Arrhenius Definition 1. acid 2. base 3. Acid-base reaction involving Arrhenius acids

More information

Chapter 17. How are acids different from bases? Acid Physical properties. Base. Explaining the difference in properties of acids and bases

Chapter 17. How are acids different from bases? Acid Physical properties. Base. Explaining the difference in properties of acids and bases Chapter 17 Acids and Bases How are acids different from bases? Acid Physical properties Base Physical properties Tastes sour Tastes bitter Feels slippery or slimy Chemical properties Chemical properties

More information

Acids and Bases: A Brief Review, see also pp and pp Brønsted-Lowry Acids and Bases 143. The H + Ion in Water

Acids and Bases: A Brief Review, see also pp and pp Brønsted-Lowry Acids and Bases 143. The H + Ion in Water Quiz number 5 will be given in recitation next week, Feb 26Mar 2 on the first part of Chapter 16, to be covered in lectures this week. 16.1 Acids and Bases: A Brief Review 16.2 BronstedLowry Acids and

More information

Acid-Base (Proton-Transfer) Reactions

Acid-Base (Proton-Transfer) Reactions Acid-Base (Proton-Transfer) Reactions Chapter 17 An example of equilibrium: Acid base chemistry What are acids and bases? Every day descriptions Chemical description of acidic and basic solutions by Arrhenius

More information

Chapter 16: Acid-Base and Solubility Equilibria: Reactions in Soil and Water

Chapter 16: Acid-Base and Solubility Equilibria: Reactions in Soil and Water Chapter 16: Acid-Base and Solubility Equilibria: Reactions in Soil and Water Problems: 16.2-16.86 16.1 ACIDS AND BASES: THE BRØNSTED-LOWRY MODEL PROPERTIES OF ACIDS & BASES Acids produce hydrogen ions,

More information

CHAPTER 9. ANS: a. ANS: d. ANS: c. ANS: a. ANS: c

CHAPTER 9. ANS: a. ANS: d. ANS: c. ANS: a. ANS: c CHAPTER 9 1. Which one of the following is the acid in vinegar? a. acetic acid b. citric acid c. muriatic acid d. ascorbic acid 2. Which is a basic or alkaline substance? a. gastric fluid b. black coffee

More information

Q1: What is the ph Scale? Q6: As acids become more acidic, their ph values

Q1: What is the ph Scale? Q6: As acids become more acidic, their ph values Q1: What is the ph Scale? Q6: As acids become more acidic, their ph values increase or decrease? Q2: The range of values of the ph scale is: Q7: As bases become more alkaline, their ph values increase

More information

Acids and Bases: Definitions. Brønsted-Lowry Acids and Bases. Brønsted-Lowry Acids and Bases CHEMISTRY THE CENTRAL SCIENCE

Acids and Bases: Definitions. Brønsted-Lowry Acids and Bases. Brønsted-Lowry Acids and Bases CHEMISTRY THE CENTRAL SCIENCE CHEMISTRY THE CENTRAL SCIENCE Professor Angelo R. Rossi Department of Chemistry Spring Semester Acids and Bases: Definitions Arrhenius Definition of Acids and Bases Acids are substances which increase

More information

An acid is a substance that produces H + (H 3 O + ) Ions in aqueous solution. A base is a substance that produces OH - ions in aqueous solution.

An acid is a substance that produces H + (H 3 O + ) Ions in aqueous solution. A base is a substance that produces OH - ions in aqueous solution. Chapter 8 Acids and Bases Definitions Arrhenius definitions: An acid is a substance that produces H + (H 3 O + ) Ions in aqueous solution. A base is a substance that produces OH - ions in aqueous solution.

More information

Chapter 14 - Acids and Bases

Chapter 14 - Acids and Bases Chapter 14 - Acids and Bases 14.1 The Nature of Acids and Bases A. Arrhenius Model 1. Acids produce hydrogen ions in aqueous solutions 2. Bases produce hydroxide ions in aqueous solutions B. Bronsted-Lowry

More information

Acid Base Concepts. Arrhenius concept. Hydronium Ion. Page 1

Acid Base Concepts. Arrhenius concept. Hydronium Ion. Page 1 Acid Base Concepts Page 1 The Swedish chemist, Svante Arrhenius, framed the first successful concept of acids and bases. He defined acids and bases in terms of their effect on water. According to Arrhenius,

More information

Strong Acids (Know These) Announcements & Agenda (02/23/07) Strengths of Acids/Bases - Ionization. Last Time: Last Time: nsted-lowry Acids & Bases

Strong Acids (Know These) Announcements & Agenda (02/23/07) Strengths of Acids/Bases - Ionization. Last Time: Last Time: nsted-lowry Acids & Bases Announcements & Agenda (0//07) You should be reading Ch 0 this weekend! Quiz Today! Open Review Sessions @ pm on Wed. Low attendance this week Last Time: Bronsted nsted-lowry Acids & Bases acids donate

More information

CHEMISTRY 101 EXAM 3 (FORM B) DR. SIMON NORTH

CHEMISTRY 101 EXAM 3 (FORM B) DR. SIMON NORTH 1. Is H 3 O + polar or non-polar? (1 point) a) Polar b) Non-polar CHEMISTRY 101 EXAM 3 (FORM B) DR. SIMON NORTH 2. The bond strength is considerably greater in HF than in the other three hydrogen halides

More information

CHEMISTRY 101 EXAM 3 (FORM A) DR. SIMON NORTH

CHEMISTRY 101 EXAM 3 (FORM A) DR. SIMON NORTH CHEMISTRY 101 EXAM 3 (FORM A) DR. SIMON NORTH 1. When considering conjugate acids and bases, (2 points) a) Strong acids have strong conjugate bases. b) Strong bases have strong conjugate acids. c) Weak

More information

If we write these equations in ionic form, in each case the net ionic equation is the same; H 3 O + (aq) + OH - (aq) H 2H 2 O(l)

If we write these equations in ionic form, in each case the net ionic equation is the same; H 3 O + (aq) + OH - (aq) H 2H 2 O(l) CHEM 1105 ACIDS AND BASES 1. Early Definitions Taste: Effect on Indicators: Neutralization: acids - sour; bases - bitter acids turn blue litmus red; bases turn red litmus blue phenolphthalein is colourless

More information

1. For the equilibrium that exists in an aqueous solution of nitrous acid (HNO 2, a weak acid), the equilibrium constant expression is:

1. For the equilibrium that exists in an aqueous solution of nitrous acid (HNO 2, a weak acid), the equilibrium constant expression is: 1. For the equilibrium that exists in an aqueous solution of nitrous acid (HNO 2, a weak acid), the equilibrium constant expression is: a) K = [H+ ][NO 2 ] [HNO 2 ] b) K = [H+ ][N][O] 2 [HNO 2 ] c) K =

More information

Name: Per: Date: Unit 11 - Acids, Bases and Salts Chemistry Accelerated Chemistry I Define each of the following: 1. Acidic hydrogens.

Name: Per: Date: Unit 11 - Acids, Bases and Salts Chemistry Accelerated Chemistry I Define each of the following: 1. Acidic hydrogens. Name: Per: Date: Unit 11 - Acids, Bases and Salts Chemistry Accelerated Chemistry I Define each of the following: 1. Acidic hydrogens 2. Binary acids 3. Oxyacids 4. Carboxylic acid 5. Amines Name the following

More information

Acids and Bases HW PSI Chemistry

Acids and Bases HW PSI Chemistry Acids and Bases HW PSI Chemistry Name 1) According to the Arrhenius concept, an acid is a substance that. A) is capable of donating one or more H + B) causes an increase in the concentration of H + in

More information

I. Definitions: Name: Period: Date: 1. Arrhenius (1887)- produce in aqueous solutions produce in aqueous solutions

I. Definitions: Name: Period: Date: 1. Arrhenius (1887)- produce in aqueous solutions produce in aqueous solutions Name: Period: Date: I. Definitions: 1. Arrhenius (1887)- produce in aqueous solutions produce in aqueous solutions 2. Bronsted-Lowry (1923) 3. Lewis (1923), so only allows for aqueous solutions only protic

More information

3. Which of the following describes a conjugate acid-base pair for the following equilibrium? CN - (aq) + CH 3 NH 3 + (aq) H 2 CO 3 (aq) + H 2 O (l)

3. Which of the following describes a conjugate acid-base pair for the following equilibrium? CN - (aq) + CH 3 NH 3 + (aq) H 2 CO 3 (aq) + H 2 O (l) Acids, Bases & Redox 1 Practice Problems for Assignment 8 1. A substance which produces OH ions in solution is a definition for which of the following? (a) an Arrhenius acid (b) an Arrhenius base (c) a

More information

Note: (H 3 O + = hydronium ion = H + = proton) Example: HS - + H 2 O H 3 O + + S 2-

Note: (H 3 O + = hydronium ion = H + = proton) Example: HS - + H 2 O H 3 O + + S 2- AcidBase Chemistry Arrhenius acid: Substance that dissolves in water and provides H + ions Arrhenius base: Substance that dissolves in water and provides OH ions Examples: HCl H + and Cl Acid NaOH Na +

More information

Unit Two: Acids and Bases

Unit Two: Acids and Bases Section One: Theoretical Stuff Unit Two: Acids and Bases The concept of acids and bases has existed for centuries. We can discuss them two ways, operational definitions and theoretical definitions. 1.

More information

Chem101: General Chemistry Lecture 9 Acids and Bases

Chem101: General Chemistry Lecture 9 Acids and Bases : General Chemistry Lecture 9 Acids and Bases I. Introduction A. In chemistry, and particularly biochemistry, water is the most common solvent 1. In studying acids and bases we are going to see that water

More information

Talk in. Arrhenius Acid- Base Definition and ph

Talk in. Arrhenius Acid- Base Definition and ph Talk in. Arrhenius Acid Base Definition and ph When we think of acids, we typically think of the Arrhenius definition. Svante Arrhenius (18591927) Arrhenius Acid = Any compound that increases the hydronium

More information

1. Read P. 368-375, P. 382-387 & P. 429-436; P. 375 # 1-11 & P. 389 # 1,7,9,12,15; P. 436 #1, 7, 8, 11

1. Read P. 368-375, P. 382-387 & P. 429-436; P. 375 # 1-11 & P. 389 # 1,7,9,12,15; P. 436 #1, 7, 8, 11 SCH3U- R.H.KING ACADEMY SOLUTION & ACID/BASE WORKSHEET Name: The importance of water - MAKING CONNECTION READING 1. Read P. 368-375, P. 382-387 & P. 429-436; P. 375 # 1-11 & P. 389 # 1,7,9,12,15; P. 436

More information

Acids and Bases: A Brief Review

Acids and Bases: A Brief Review Acids and : A Brief Review Acids: taste sour and cause dyes to change color. : taste bitter and feel soapy. Arrhenius: acids increase [H ] bases increase [OH ] in solution. Arrhenius: acid base salt water.

More information

Acids and Bases. An Introduction. David A Katz Department of Chemistry Pima Community College, Tucson, AZ, USA

Acids and Bases. An Introduction. David A Katz Department of Chemistry Pima Community College, Tucson, AZ, USA Acids and Bases An Introduction David A Katz Department of Chemistry Pima Community College, Tucson, AZ, USA Properties of Acids 1. Sour taste (examples: vinegar, citric acid, lemon juice) 2. Turns litmus

More information

H 2 O + HNO 3 H 3 O + + NO 3

H 2 O + HNO 3 H 3 O + + NO 3 Properties Unit 12 Acids & Bases electrolytes sour taste turn litmus red react with metals to form 2 gas vinegar, soda, citrus fruits electrolytes bitter taste turn litmus blue slippery feel ammonia, lye,

More information

Chapter 15 Acids and Bases reading guide.

Chapter 15 Acids and Bases reading guide. Chapter 15 Acids and Bases reading guide. Be active while reading the text. Take notes, think about what you ve read, and ask yourself questions while reading. Use this document as a guide for making your

More information

Since we will be dealing with aqueous acid and base solution, first we must examine the behavior of water.

Since we will be dealing with aqueous acid and base solution, first we must examine the behavior of water. Acids and Bases Know the definition of Arrhenius, Bronsted-Lowry, and Lewis acid and base. Autoionization of Water Since we will be dealing with aqueous acid and base solution, first we must examine the

More information

UNIT (6) ACIDS AND BASES

UNIT (6) ACIDS AND BASES UNIT (6) ACIDS AND BASES 6.1 Arrhenius Definition of Acids and Bases Definitions for acids and bases were proposed by the Swedish chemist Savante Arrhenius in 1884. Acids were defined as compounds that

More information

Chapter 13 & 14 Practice Exam

Chapter 13 & 14 Practice Exam Name: Class: Date: Chapter 13 & 14 Practice Exam Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. Acids generally release H 2 gas when they react with a.

More information

Acids and Bases. Basic Definitions & Concepts

Acids and Bases. Basic Definitions & Concepts Acids and Bases CHEM 102! T. Hughbanks! Basic Definitions & Concepts Most basic concepts are given clearly in your text - these notes will only list these as topics discussed, so there will be less detail.!

More information

1. Identify the Bronsted-Lowry acids and bases and the conjugate acid base pairs in the following reactions.

1. Identify the Bronsted-Lowry acids and bases and the conjugate acid base pairs in the following reactions. Exercise #1 Brønsted-Lowry s and Bases 1. Identify the Bronsted-Lowry acids and bases and the conjugate acid base pairs in the following reactions. (a) HCl(aq) + H 2 O(l) H 3 O + (aq) + Cl (aq) (b) H 2

More information

Acids and Bases. Ch a pt e r Aqueous Equilibria: Chemistry 4th Edition McMurry/Fay. MOH(aq) M + (aq) + OH (aq)

Acids and Bases. Ch a pt e r Aqueous Equilibria: Chemistry 4th Edition McMurry/Fay. MOH(aq) M + (aq) + OH (aq) 15 Ch a pt e r Aqueous Equilibria: Acids and Bases Chemistry th Edition McMurry/Fay Dr. Paul Charlesworth Michigan Technological University AcidBase Concepts 01 Arrhenius Acid: A substance which dissociates

More information

AP Chemistry- Acids and Bases General Properties of Acids and Bases. Bases- originally defined as any substance that neutralized an acid

AP Chemistry- Acids and Bases General Properties of Acids and Bases. Bases- originally defined as any substance that neutralized an acid AP Chemistry Acids and Bases General Properties of Acids and Bases Acids Electrolyte Taste Litmus Phenolphthalein React with metals to give off H 2 gas H 2 SO 4 (aq) + Mg (s) MgSO 4 (aq) + H 2 (g) Ionize

More information

Lecture 6. Classes of Chemical Reactions

Lecture 6. Classes of Chemical Reactions Lecture 6 Classes of Chemical Reactions Lecture 6 Outline 6.1 The Role of Water as a Solvent 6.2 Precipitation Reactions 6.3 Acid-Base Reactions 1 Electron distribution in molecules of H 2 and H 2 O The

More information

VONDRACEK WKS 13.1 Conjugates Using Brönsted-Lowry s Definition (2 pages)

VONDRACEK WKS 13.1 Conjugates Using Brönsted-Lowry s Definition (2 pages) VONDRACEK WKS 13.1 Conjugates Using Brönsted-Lowry s Definition (2 pages) Give the conjugate acid of the following bases: BASE CONJUGATE ACID BASE CONJUGATE ACID H2O ClO acetate H2PO4 NH3 HSO4 hydroxide

More information

ph of strong acid and base

ph of strong acid and base ph of strong acid and base What does strong mean in terms of acids and bases? Solubility. Basically, if you say an acid or base is strong, then it dissociates 100% in water. These types of situations are

More information

Acid and Base Multiple Choice

Acid and Base Multiple Choice Acid and Base Multiple Choice January 1999 21. Consider the following acidbase equilibrium: HCO 3 + H 2 O H 2 CO 3 + OH In the reaction above, the BrönstedLowry acids are A. H 2 O and OH B. HCO 3 and OH

More information

BRØNSTED ACIDS & BASES

BRØNSTED ACIDS & BASES ACIDS & BASES BRØNSTED ACIDS & BASES BRØNSTED ACIDS & BASES Brønsted acids are proton donors. Brønsted bases are proton acceptors. Amphoteric species can act as either an acid or a base, depending on the

More information

Answer the following questions on notebook paper, to be collected and graded for correctness.

Answer the following questions on notebook paper, to be collected and graded for correctness. nswer the following questions on notebook paper, to be collected and graded for correctness. 1. Name the following binary acids: a. HCl hydrochloric acid b. HF hydrofluoric acid c. H 2 S hydrosulfuric

More information

Ch Acids and Bases. Arrhenius Definition Acids produce hydrogen ions in aqueous solution. Bases produce hydroxide ions when dissolved in water.

Ch Acids and Bases. Arrhenius Definition Acids produce hydrogen ions in aqueous solution. Bases produce hydroxide ions when dissolved in water. Ch 15-16 Acids and Bases Arrhenius Definition Acids produce hydrogen ions in aqueous solution. Bases produce hydroxide ions when dissolved in water. Limits to aqueous solutions. Only one kind of base.

More information

TYPES OF CHEMICAL REACTION

TYPES OF CHEMICAL REACTION TYPES OF CHEMICAL REACTION I. METATHESIS REACTIONS (or DOUBLE DISPLACEMENT RXNS) In these reactions the ions of the reactants are exchanged: A + B (aq) + C + D (aq) AD (?) + CB (?) Double Displacement

More information

Chapter 16 Acid-Base Equilibria

Chapter 16 Acid-Base Equilibria Chapter 16 AcidBase Equilibria Acids and bases are found in many common substances and are important in life processes. Group Work: Make a list of some common acids and bases. How do we know which is which?

More information

CHEM 101/105 Aqueous Solutions (continued) Lect-07

CHEM 101/105 Aqueous Solutions (continued) Lect-07 CHEM 101/105 Aqueous Solutions (continued) Lect-07 aqueous acid/base reactions a. a little bit more about water Water is a polar substance. This means water is able to "solvate" ions rather well. Another

More information

Acid-Base Equilibrium

Acid-Base Equilibrium AcidBaseEquil 1 Acid-Base Equilibrium See AqueousIons in Chemistry 1110 online notes for review of acid-base fundamentals! Acid- Base Reaction in Aqueous Salt Solutions Recall that use [ ] to mean concentration

More information

Titrations. Acid-Base Indicators and Titration Curves. Shapes of Titration Curves. A titration curve is a graphical history of a titration

Titrations. Acid-Base Indicators and Titration Curves. Shapes of Titration Curves. A titration curve is a graphical history of a titration Acid-Base Indicators and Titration Curves Titrations In a titration a solution of accurately known concentration is added gradually added to another solution of unknown concentration until the chemical

More information

Aqueous Solutions. Water is the dissolving medium, or solvent. Some Properties of Water. A Solute. Types of Chemical Reactions.

Aqueous Solutions. Water is the dissolving medium, or solvent. Some Properties of Water. A Solute. Types of Chemical Reactions. Aqueous Solutions and Solution Stoichiometry Water is the dissolving medium, or solvent. Some Properties of Water Water is bent or V-shaped. The O-H bonds are covalent. Water is a polar molecule. Hydration

More information

Acid-Base 2/27/2012. Definitions of Acids/Bases. Acid-Base Behavior. Arrhenius Definition. Arrhenius Definition

Acid-Base 2/27/2012. Definitions of Acids/Bases. Acid-Base Behavior. Arrhenius Definition. Arrhenius Definition Acids Taste sour Burn Skin Turn Litmus Red Dissolve metals Citrus fruit Vitamin C (Ascorbic Acid) Vinegar Battery Acid Bases Taste Bitter Behavior Burn Skin/Feel Slippery Turn Litmus Blue Soap Ammonia

More information

CHEM 1212 Test II. MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.

CHEM 1212 Test II. MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. CHEM 1212 Test II MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that est completes the statement or answers the question. 1) At 1000 K, the equilirium constant for the reaction is K p = 0.013. 2NO (g) +

More information

Q.1 Classify the following according to Lewis theory and Brønsted-Lowry theory.

Q.1 Classify the following according to Lewis theory and Brønsted-Lowry theory. Acid-base A4 1 Acid-base theories ACIDS & BASES - IONIC EQUILIBRIA 1. LEWIS acid electron pair acceptor H, AlCl 3 base electron pair donor NH 3, H 2 O, C 2 H 5 OH, OH e.g. H 3 N: -> BF 3 > H 3 N BF 3 see

More information

Name: Date: (aq) Ag(S 2 O 3 ) 2. (aq) K 2 = 4.7 x 10 13

Name: Date: (aq) Ag(S 2 O 3 ) 2. (aq) K 2 = 4.7 x 10 13 Name: Date: 1. The solubility of silver bromide can be increased by dissolving it in a solution containing the thiosulfate anion. AgBr(s) Ag + (aq) + Br - (aq) K 1 = 7.7 x 10-13 Ag + (aq) + 2S 2 O 3 2-

More information

16. What is the H 3 O + concentration of a solution that has an OH concentration of 1 10 3 M? 1) 1 10 4 M 3) 1 10 11 M

16. What is the H 3 O + concentration of a solution that has an OH concentration of 1 10 3 M? 1) 1 10 4 M 3) 1 10 11 M 1. If the [OH ] = 1 10 4 at 298 K for a given solution, the [H + ] of the solution is equal to 1) 1 10 14 3) 1 10 6 2) 1 10 10 4) 1 10 4 2. Based on Reference Table V, which is the strongest base? 1) NO

More information

We were able to use the RICE expression to determine the ph for the autodissociation of water H 2 O H + + OH - with [H + ] = K w 0.

We were able to use the RICE expression to determine the ph for the autodissociation of water H 2 O H + + OH - with [H + ] = K w 0. 1 Lecture 10: The Strong Acid/Strong Base Equilibrium Calculation After an entire lecture on water with nothing added, you must be pumped to know that in this lecture something will actually be added to

More information

CH302 Exam 4 Practice Problems (buffers, titrations, Ksp)

CH302 Exam 4 Practice Problems (buffers, titrations, Ksp) CH302 Exam 4 Practice Problems (buffers, titrations, Ksp) 1 Equilibrium Constants The following equilibrium constants will be useful for some of the problems. Substance Constant Substance Constant HCO

More information

Chemistry 3202. Unit 2 Acids and Bases

Chemistry 3202. Unit 2 Acids and Bases Chemistry 3202 Unit 2 Acids and Bases Definitions of Acids and Bases An operational definition is one that is based on the observable properties, behaviours or uses of an entity. The earliest definitions

More information

Auto-ionization of Water

Auto-ionization of Water 2H 2 O H 3 O + + OH Hydronium ion hydroxide ion Q: But how often does this happen? This is the fundamental concept of all acid-base chemistry In pure water, how much of it is water and how much is ions?

More information

NH 3 + H 2 O + OH - NH 4. Acid-Base Concepts -- Chapter 15 + H + Conjugate Acid-Base Pairs: - H + base. acid

NH 3 + H 2 O + OH - NH 4. Acid-Base Concepts -- Chapter 15 + H + Conjugate Acid-Base Pairs: - H + base. acid Acid-Base Concepts -- Chapter 15 1. Arrhenius Acid-Base Concept (last semester) Acid: H+ supplier Base: OH- supplier 2. Brønsted-Lowry Acid-Base Concept (more general) (a) Definition (H+ transfer) Acid:

More information

Ch 15: Acids and Bases

Ch 15: Acids and Bases Ch 15: Acids and Bases A c i d s a n d B a s e s C h 1 5 P a g e 1 Homework: Read Chapter 15 Work out sample/practice exercises in the sections, Bonus problems: 39, 41, 49, 63, 67, 83, 91, 95, 99, 107,

More information

Worksheet 4-2 Bronsted Acids and Equilibria

Worksheet 4-2 Bronsted Acids and Equilibria Worksheet 42 Bronsted Acids and Equilibria Worksheet 42 Bronsted Acids and Equilibria Name Date Due Hand In With Corrections by 1. Write the formula for a proton 2. Write the formula for a hydrated proton

More information

Summary of MQ2 Results: Mean =124 (71 %) Hi = 175. Lo = 32. Your scores will be posted on WebCT

Summary of MQ2 Results: Mean =124 (71 %) Hi = 175. Lo = 32. Your scores will be posted on WebCT Summary of MQ2 Results: Mean =124 (71 %) Hi = 175 Lo = 32 Your scores will be posted on WebCT 16.5 Strong Acids and Bases Strong Acids Strong Bases 16.6 Weak Acids Calculating K a from ph Using K a to

More information

Chapter 15 Acids and Bases. Fu-Yin Hsu

Chapter 15 Acids and Bases. Fu-Yin Hsu Chapter 15 Acids and Bases Fu-Yin Hsu Stomach Acid and Heartburn The cells that line your stomach produce hydrochloric acid. To kill unwanted bacteria To help break down food To activate enzymes that break

More information

Suggested Problems: p. 625-627 #58, 59, 65, 69, 74, 80, 85, 86, 90, 92, 93, 98, 99

Suggested Problems: p. 625-627 #58, 59, 65, 69, 74, 80, 85, 86, 90, 92, 93, 98, 99 Chemistry I Accelerated Study Guideline - Chapter 19 Acids, Bases and Salts ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ By the end of this unit, the skills you should

More information

I N V E S T I C E D O R O Z V O J E V Z D Ě L Á V Á N Í CHEMICAL REACTIONS

I N V E S T I C E D O R O Z V O J E V Z D Ě L Á V Á N Í CHEMICAL REACTIONS Chemical reaction = process during which original substances change to new substances, reactants turn to... The bonds of reactants... and new bonds are... The classification of reactions: 1. Classification

More information

ACID-BASE REACTIONS/ THE PH CONCEPT.

ACID-BASE REACTIONS/ THE PH CONCEPT. Dr Mike Lyons School of Chemistry Trinity College Dublin. melyons@tcd.ie ACID-BASE REACTIONS/ THE PH CONCEPT. Chemistry Preliminary Course 2011 1 Lecture topics. 2 lectures dealing with some core chemistry

More information

Write the acid-base equilibria connecting all components in the aqueous solution. Now list all of the species present.

Write the acid-base equilibria connecting all components in the aqueous solution. Now list all of the species present. Chapter 16 Acids and Bases Concept Check 16.1 Chemists in the seventeenth century discovered that the substance that gives red ants their irritating bite is an acid with the formula HCHO 2. They called

More information

Chapter 4 Aqueous Reactions and Solution Stoichiometry

Chapter 4 Aqueous Reactions and Solution Stoichiometry CHE Chapter Chapter Aqueous Reactions and Solution Stoichiometry. The total concentration of ions in a 0.50 M solution of HCl is. (a)..000 M (b). 0.5 M (c). 0.500 M (d). 0.065 M Explanation: Since HCl

More information

Aqueous Ions and Reactions

Aqueous Ions and Reactions Aqueous Ions and Reactions (ions, acids, and bases) Demo NaCl(aq) + AgNO 3 (aq) AgCl (s) Two clear and colorless solutions turn to a cloudy white when mixed Demo Special Light bulb in water can test for

More information

Chapter 4 Notes - Types of Chemical Reactions and Solution Chemistry

Chapter 4 Notes - Types of Chemical Reactions and Solution Chemistry AP Chemistry A. Allan Chapter 4 Notes - Types of Chemical Reactions and Solution Chemistry 4.1 Water, the Common Solvent A. Structure of water 1. Oxygen's electronegativity is high (3.5) and hydrogen's

More information

Chapter 16 Acid-Base Equilibria

Chapter 16 Acid-Base Equilibria Chapter 16 Acid-Base Equilibria Learning goals and key skills: Understand the nature of the hydrated proton, represented as either H + (aq) or H 3 O + (aq) Define and identify Arrhenuis acids and bases.

More information

EOC Review Acids Bases and Salts

EOC Review Acids Bases and Salts EOC Review Acids Bases and Salts 1.Identify the Bronsted-Lowry acid and base in each of the following reactions. 2.The hydroxide ion is 3. The hydronium ion is 4.HCl is a strong/weak acid? 5.CH 3 COOH

More information

stronger than the attraction of the water to either the Pb 2+ or SO 4

stronger than the attraction of the water to either the Pb 2+ or SO 4 Reactions in solution Precipitation reactions not all ionic compounds are soluble in water. If PbSO 4 is added to water none of the lead(ii)sulfate will dissolve (the interaction between Pb 2+ and SO 4

More information

p3 Recognizing Acid/Base Properties when p11 Recognizing Basic versus Nonbasic

p3 Recognizing Acid/Base Properties when p11 Recognizing Basic versus Nonbasic General Chemistry II Jasperse Acid-Base Chemistry. Extra Practice Problems 1 General Types/Groups of problems: Conceptual Questions. Acids, Bases, and p1 K b and pk b, Base Strength, and using K b or p7-10

More information

4. Acid Base Chemistry

4. Acid Base Chemistry 4. Acid Base Chemistry 4.1. Terminology: 4.1.1. Bronsted / Lowry Acid: "An acid is a substance which can donate a hydrogen ion (H+) or a proton, while a base is a substance that accepts a proton. B + HA

More information

6.01 Basics of Chemical Equilibrium

6.01 Basics of Chemical Equilibrium 6.01 Basics of Equilibrium Constant Equilibrium and Thermodynamics Solubility Products Complex Formation Protic Acids and Bases Strength of Acids and Bases Solving Equilibrium Problems Recommended Problem

More information

Chapter 4: Reaction in Aqueous Solution

Chapter 4: Reaction in Aqueous Solution Chapter 4: Reaction in Aqueous Solution What is a Solution? Solute + substance dissolved typically smaller quantity Solvent! dissolving medium typically larger quantity Solution homogeneous mixture variable

More information

Worksheet 23 Strong Acid/Strong Base Titrations

Worksheet 23 Strong Acid/Strong Base Titrations Worksheet 2 Strong Acid/Strong Base Titrations A. Initial ph This is always determined based solely on the initial concentration of the acid or base being titrated. Every mole of acid or base will produce

More information

Q.1 Classify the following according to Lewis theory and Brønsted-Lowry theory.

Q.1 Classify the following according to Lewis theory and Brønsted-Lowry theory. Acid-base 2816 1 Acid-base theories ACIDS & BASES - IONIC EQUILIBRIA LEWIS acid electron pair acceptor H +, AlCl 3 base electron pair donor NH 3, H 2 O, C 2 H 5 OH, OH e.g. H 3 N: -> BF 3 > H 3 N + BF

More information

Chapter 4: Solution Stoichiometry Cont. Aqueous Solutions

Chapter 4: Solution Stoichiometry Cont. Aqueous Solutions Chapter 4: Solution Stoichiometry Cont. 1 Aqueous Solutions Molarity (dilution calculations, solution stoichiometry); Solubility and Solubility Rules Molecular, Ionic and Net Ionic Equations Precipitation

More information

Reactions in solution. A subset of chemical reactions

Reactions in solution. A subset of chemical reactions Reactions in solution A subset of chemical reactions Learning objectives Define solution and its components Distinguish among strong, weak and non-electrolyte Identify strong acids and strong bases Apply

More information

Topic 8 Acids and bases 6 hours

Topic 8 Acids and bases 6 hours Topic 8 Acids and bases 6 hours Hydronium ion (H3O + ) = more stable form of hydrogen ion (H + ) H + + H2O H3O + 8.1 Theories of acids and bases 2 hours 1. Arrhenius H-X / M-OH ACID a substance that dissociates

More information

Lecture Summary #21

Lecture Summary #21 21.1 5.111 Lecture Summary #21 AcidBase Equilibrium Read Chapter 10 Topics: Classification of AcidBases, Autoionization of Water, p unction, Strength of Acids and Bases, Equilibrium Involving Weak Acids.

More information