TECHNICAL REPORT Lloyd M. Dunn, PhD & Douglas M. Dunn, PhD Overview Revisions in the New Edition

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1 TECHNICAL REPORT Lloyd M. Dunn, PhD & Dougls M. Dunn, PhD Overview... 1 Revisions in the New Edition... 1 Content Coverge... 2 Scores Reported... 2 Stndrdiztion of PPVT Evidence Bsed on Relibility... 8 Stndrd Error of Mesurement... 8 Evidence Bsed on Vlidity Summry Overview The Pebody Picture Vocbulry Test, Fourth Edition (PPVT 4) is n individully dministered, norm-referenced instrument tht ssesses receptive vocbulry for individuls ge 2 yers 6 months through 90 yers nd older. PPVT 4 is vilble in two prllel forms. Ech form contins trining items nd 228 test items, ech consisting of four full-color pictures s response options on pge. For ech item, the exminer sys word, nd the exminee responds by selecting the picture tht best illustrtes tht word s mening. PPVT 4 my be dministered by individuls with rnge of eductionl bckgrounds, including speech-lnguge pthologists, school psychologists, lerning disbilities specilists, nd eductionl dignosticins, who re trined in stndrdized test dministrtion. Professionls cn use PPVT 4 s prt of lrger ssessment bttery or simply s brod indictor of orl vocbulry or verbl bility. Revisions in the New Edition The gol for the PPVT revision (i.e., PPVT 4) ws to mke only those chnges tht would improve the ssessment process while preserving the nture of the instrument. Bsed on tht gol, the following fetures of erlier editions were retined in PPVT 4. Vocbulry nd illustrtions tht were crefully selected to represent the current U.S. popultions by sex, rce/ethnicity, nd culture Bsl nd ceiling rules printed in the record form A pronuncition guide for the items of gretest difficulty Administrtion of only those items tht re in the exminee s criticl rnge (i.e., items ner his or her vocbulry level) The following new fetures re introduced in PPVT 4: Illustrtions tht re lrger nd in full color New stimulus words hve replced mny older items Addition of very esy items to strengthen the test floor Stremlined procedures for dministering trining items Expnded interpretive options consisting of nlyses of item content by prt of speech (noun, verb, nd ttribute) New Growth Scle Vlue (GSV) scle for mesuring chnge

2 Content Coverge PPVT 4 test content covers brod rnge of receptive vocbulry levels, rnging from preschool through dulthood. The test items brodly smple words tht represent 20 content res (e.g., ctions, vegetbles, tools), prts of speech (nouns, verbs, ttributes), nd home nd school vocbulry. Scores Reported PPVT 4 results cn be reported s ge-bsed or grde-bsed stndrd scores (with men of 100 nd stndrd devition of 15) tht rnge from 20 to 160. In ddition to stndrd scores, percentiles, norml curve equivlents (NCEs), stnines, ge nd grde equivlents, nd growth scle vlue scores re vilble for reporting PPVT 4 results. Note: PPVT 4 cn be scored by hnd or by computer entry, using Person s Q-globl online scoring nd reporting system. Computer entry my be completed by entering individul item responses or by entering the rw score only. Stndrdiztion of PPVT 4 Stndrdiztion testing begn in the fll of 2005 nd ended in the spring of Dt were collected from smple of 3540 exminees ges 2 yers 6 months to 90 yers nd older by 450 exminers from 320 test sites. The PPVT 4 normtive smple is representtive of the English speking U.S. popultion of individuls ges 2 yers 6 months to 81 yers nd older (U.S. Census, 2004). The smple ws strtified for rce/ethnicity, self or primry cregiver eduction level, nd geogrphic region. Tbles nd Figure 4.1 present demogrphic informtion for the PPVT 4 stndrdiztion smple. 2

3 Tble 4.6 Representtion of the PPVT 4 Norm Smple, by Sex nd Femle Mle Totl N % Trget % N % Trget % N % 2:6 2: :0 3: :6 3: :0 4: :6 4: :0 5: :6 5: :0 6: :6 6: Totl 1,793 1,747 3,540 Note. N = 3,540. At ges 2:6 through 60, trget of 50% femle nd 50% mle ws used. At ges 61+, trget percentges were bsed on the U.S. popultion, using dt from Current Popultion Survey, Mrch 2004 (Bureu of the Census, 2004). Row percentges my not sum to 100% due to rounding. 3

4 Tble 4.7 Representtion of the PPVT 4 Norm Smple, by Rce/Ethnicity nd Rce/Ethnicity Africn Americn Hispnic White Other Totl N % N % N % N % N % b 2:6 2: :0 3: :6 3: :0 4: :6 4: :0 5: :6 5: Totl, U.S. Pop., :0 6: :6 6: Totl, U.S. Pop., Totl, U.S. Pop., Totl, U.S. Pop., Totl, U.S. Pop., Totl, U.S. Pop., U.S. Pop., U.S. Pop., U.S. Pop., Totl, ll ges , , U.S. Pop. c, ll ges Note. U.S. popultion dt from Current Popultion Survey, Mrch 2004 (Bureu of the Census, 2004). Includes Americn Indins, Alsk Ntives, Asin Americns, Pcific Islnders, nd ll other groups not clssified s Africn Americn, Hispnic, or White. b Row percentges my not sum to 100% due to rounding. c Weighted to mtch norm smple ge distribution. 4

5 Tble 4.8 Representtion of the PPVT 4 Norm Smple, by Eduction Level nd Prent or Exminee Eduction Level Grde 11 or Less Grde 12 or GED 1 3 Yers of College 4+ Yers of College Totl N % N % N % N % N % b 2:6 2: :0 3: :6 3: :0 4: :6 4: :0 5: :6 5: Totl, U.S. Pop., :0 6: :6 6: Totl, U.S. Pop., Totl, U.S. Pop., Totl, U.S. Pop., Totl, U.S. Pop., Totl, U.S. Pop., U.S. Pop., U.S. Pop., U.S. Pop., Totl, ll ges , , , U.S. Pop. c, ll ges Note. U.S. popultion dt from Current Popultion Survey, Mrch 2004 (Bureu of the Census, 2004). Exminee s eduction level ws used for ges 25 nd older. b Row percentges my not sum to 100% due to rounding. c Weighted to mtch norm smple ge distribution. 5

6 Tble 4.9 Representtion of the PPVT 4 Norm Smple, by Geogrphic Region nd Geogrphic Region Northest North Centrl South West Totl N % N % N % N % N % 2:6 2: :0 3: :6 3: :0 4: :6 4: :0 5: :6 5: Totl, U.S. Pop., :0 6: :6 6: Totl, U.S. Pop., Totl, U.S. Pop., Totl, U.S. Pop., Totl, U.S. Pop., Totl, U.S. Pop., Totl, U.S. Pop., Totl, ll ges , , U.S. Pop. b, ll ges Note. U.S. popultion dt from Current Popultion Survey, Mrch 2004 (Bureu of the Census, 2004). Row percentges my not sum to 100% due to rounding. b Weighted to mtch norm smple ge distribution. 6

7 Figure 4.1 Communities prticipting in the ntionl stndrdiztion progrm West (21.3%) North Centrl (23.1%) South (38.0%) Northest (17.6%) 7

8 Evidence Bsed on Relibility Relibility refers to the consistency of scores tht would theoreticlly be obtined if the sme exminee were repetedly tested on the sme test under identicl conditions. Although this could never be done, vrious estimtes of relibility re obtined in prctice. The relibility of PPVT 4 ws estimted using internl consistency (dt tht show test items within test re homogenous nd yield consistent estimtes of bility), lternte form relibility (dt tht show test forms, i.e., Form A nd Form B, re homogenous nd yield consistent estimtes of bility), nd test-retest stbility (dt tht show scores re stble cross repeted dministrtions). Split-hlf relibility ws clculted for ech of 28 ge groups in the ge norm smple. Split-hlf relibility is bsed on correltion of ech exminee s totl score on the odd-numbered items with his or her score on the even-numbered items. PPVT 4 split-hlf relibilities re good to excellent, rnging from.89 to.97 for the ge groups. Alternte form stbility ws clculted bsed on the dt of 508 exminees who took both Form A nd Form B of the test. Alternte form relibilities re good to excellent, rnging from.87 to.93. Test-retest stbility ws clculted bsed on the dt from 340 exminees who were dministered the sme form of PPVT 4 twice. Approximtely hlf of the smple took Form A, nd hlf of the smple took Form B. The test-retest correltions rnge from.92 to.96, indicting tht PPVT 4 performnce is highly stble over time. Stndrd Error of Mesurement The stndrd error of mesurement (SEM) is sttistic tht estimtes the mount of error present in n ssessment nd the SEM is directly relted to the test s relibility coefficients nd the vribility (stndrd devition) of the test scores. The smller the SEM, the more confident you cn be in the precision of the test results. The SEMs for PPVT 4 Form A nd Form B re shown in stndrd score units in Tble 5.1 for ge groups nd in Tble 5.2 for grde levels. The SEMs re bsed on the split-hlf relibilities. The verge SEM is the sme on Form A nd Form B both cross ges (M=3.6) nd cross grdes (M=3.7). 8

9 Tble 5.1 Split-Hlf nd Stndrd-Score SEMs, by N Split Hlf SEM b Form A Form B Form A Form B Form A Form B 2:6 2: :0 3: :6 3: :0 4: :6 4: :0 5: :6 5: :0 6: :6 6: Men c Note. N = 3,540. Adjusted to reflect the stndrd devition of scores in the entire ge group. b In stndrd score units, bsed on ech form s split-hlf relibility nd the ctul stndrd devition of stndrd scores for the entire ge group. c Weighted men, using Fisher s z trnsformtion for the relibilities. 9

10 Tble 5.2 Split-Hlf nd Stndrd-Score SEMs, by Grde nd Seson N Split-Hlf SEM b Grde Form A Form B Form A Form B Form A Form B Kindergrten, Fll Kindergrten, Spring , Fll , Spring , Fll , Spring , Fll , Spring , Fll , Spring , Fll , Spring , Fll , Spring , Fll , Spring , Fll , Spring , Fll , Spring , Fll , Spring , Fll , Spring , Fll , Spring Men c Note. N = 2,003. Adjusted to reflect the stndrd devition of scores in the entire grde group. b In stndrd score units, bsed on ech form s split-hlf relibility nd the ctul stndrd devition of stndrd scores for the entire grde group. c Weighted verge, using Fisher s z trnsformtion for relibilities. 10

11 Evidence Bsed on Vlidity Evidence of test vlidity refers to the degree to which specific dt, reserch, or theory supports tht test mesures the concepts it purports to mesure nd is pplicble to the intended popultion (AERA, APA, & NCME, in press). Different sources of evidence represent different spects of vlidity; however, these sources do not represent distinct types of vlidity. PPVT 4 ddresses evidence bsed on test content, correltions with other tests, nd studies with specil popultions. Content Vlidity. Content vlidity ddresses the question of whether the items in test dequtely smple the domins tht the test purports to mesure. Development of the PPVT 4 items included review of over twelve published reference works. The items were chosen on the bsis of frequency nd common usge to ensure n objective nd pproprite pprisl of stndrd Americn English vocbulry. The finl item set represents twenty content ctegories. Correltions With Other Tests. Three correltion studies compre PPVT 4 scores with scores obtined on instruments tht mesure vocbulry (Expressive Vocbulry Test, Second Edition), lnguge bility (Clinicl Evlution of Lnguge Fundmentls, Fourth Edition), nd reding chievement (Group Reding Assessment nd Dignostic Evlution). These studies provide convergent evidence of the vlidity of interpreting PPVT 4 scores s mesures of vocbulry becuse it is expected tht ny instrument tht mesures vocbulry will correlte strongly with other tests tht mesure vocbulry, nd t somewht lower, but still substntil, level with other spects of lnguge nd reding skills. The fourth study ws correltion between scores on the PPVT 4 nd PPVT-III, with the purpose of ssessing the degree of continuity in the construct mesured by the two editions. Correltions of PPVT 4 with Expressive Vocbulry Test, Second Edition (EVT -2). Correltions between PPVT 4 nd EVT-2 stndrd scores re presented for 3,540 exminees seprted into seven ge groups. The correltions re high nd uniform cross ge, rnging from.80 to.84. Correltions of PPVT 4 with Clinicl Evlution of Lnguge Fundmentls, Fourth Edition (CELF -4). Correltions between PPVT 4 nd CELF-4 stndrd scores re presented for 111 exminees seprted into two ge groups. The correltions re moderte to high, rnging from.67 to.75. Correltions of PPVT 4 with Group Reding Assessment nd Dignostic Evlution (GRADE ). A smple of 487 exminees in kindergrten through Grde 11 ws dministered PPVT 4 nd GRADE. Correltions between PPVT 4 nd GRADE totl test scores rnge from.43 to.79. Overll, the pttern of correltions supports the point tht vocbulry plys centrl role in reding comprehension. Correltions of PPVT 4 with Pebody Picture Vocbulry Test, Third Edition (PPVT-III). The PPVT 4 nd PPVT-III were dministered in counterblnced sequence to 322 exminees in five ge groups. Correltions between PPVT 4 nd PPVT-III re consistently high, rnging from.81 to.91, indicting tht there is strong reltionship between the two editions. Correltions With Specil Popultions. PPVT 4 is often used with individuls who re exceptionl in some wy. Studies were completed with 12 groups tht represent specific clinicl dignoses or specil eduction ctegories. Ech group s men PPVT 4 stndrd scores were compred to the generl popultion verge. Tbles present the differences between four clinicl smples (tht re commonly seen by speech-lnguge pthologists) nd the generl popultion, ll of which re sttisticlly significnt t the.001 level. 11

12 Tble 5.16 Lnguge Dely Smple: Averge PPVT -4 Score nd Comprison to Nonclinicl Reference Group N PPVT 4 Stndrd Score Men SD Difference From Nonclinicl Reference Group * Controlling for sex, rce/ethnicity, nd eduction level. *p <.001. Tble 5.18 Hering-Impirment Smples, s 4 Through 12: Averge PPVT-4 Score nd Comprison to Nonclinicl Reference Group Cochler Implnts N PPVT 4 Stndrd Score Men SD Difference From Nonclinicl Reference Group Yes * No * Controlling for sex, rce/ethnicity, nd eduction level. *p <.001. Tble 5.17 Lnguge Disorder Smples, by : Averge PPVT-4 Score nd Comprison to Nonclinicl Reference Group N PPVT 4 Stndrd Score Men SD Difference From Nonclinicl Reference Group * * Controlling for sex, rce/ethnicity, nd eduction level. *p <.001. Tble 5.19 Lerning-Disbility (Reding) Smple: Averge PPVT-4 Score nd Comprison to Nonclinicl Reference Group N PPVT 4 Stndrd Score Men Difference From Nonclinicl Reference Group * SD Controlling for sex, rce/ethnicity, nd eduction level. *p <.001. Summry PPVT 4 is quick mesure of receptive vocbulry for individuls ged 2 yers 6 months through 90 yers nd older. PPVT 4 ws developed using rigorous scientific procedures in order to ensure tht it would produce highly relible nd vlid scores. PPVT 4 cn be dministered s prt of lrger ssessment bttery or simply s brod indictor of orl vocbulry PersonClinicl.com Copyright 2013 Person Eduction, Inc. or its ffilite(s). All rights reserved. CELF, Clinicl Evlution of Lnguge Fundmentls, EVT, Q-globl, Alwys Lerning, Person, design for Psi, nd PsychCorp re trdemrks, in the U.S. nd/or other countries, of Person Eduction, Inc. or its ffilite(s). PPVT is trdemrk of Wscn Limited Prtnership /14

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