1 int. j. math. educ. sci. technol., 2003 vol. 34, no. 1, Coupled spring equations TEMPLE H. FAY* Technikon Pretoria and Mathematics, University of Southern Mississippi, Box 5045, Hattiesburg, MS , USA and SARAH DUNCAN GRAHAM University of Southern Mississippi (Received 12 September 2002) Coupled spring equations for modelling the motion of two springs with weights attached, hung in series from the ceiling are described. For the linear model using Hooke s Law, the motion of each weight is described by a fourthorder linear differential equation. A nonlinear model is also described and damping and external forcing are considered. The model has many features that permit the meaningful introduction of many concepts including: accuracy of numerical algorithms, dependence on parameters and initial conditions, phase and synchronization, periodicity, beats, linear and nonlinear resonance, limit cycles, harmonic and subharmonic solutions. These solutions produce a wide variety of interesting motions and the model is suitable for study as a computer laboratory project in a beginning course on differential equations or as an individual or a small-groupundergraduate research project. 1. Introduction The classical syllabus for beginning differential equations is rapidly changing from emphasizing solution techniques for a variety of types of differential equations to emphasizing systems and more qualitative aspects of the theory of ordinary differential equations. In particular, there is an emphasis on nonlinear equations due largely to the wide availability of high powered numerical algorithms and almost effortless graphics capabilities that come with computer algebra systems such as Mathematica and Maple. In this article, we investigate an old problem that appears now to be relegated to the exercises in texts, if it appears at all (see for example [1, pp ]). This is the problem of two springs and two weights attached in series, hanging from the ceiling. Under the assumption that the restoring forces behave according to Hooke s Law, this two degrees of freedom problem is modelled by a pair of coupled, second-order, linear differential equations. By differentiating and substituting one equation into the other, the motion of each weight can be shown to be determined by a linear, fourth-order differential equation. We like this example for this very reason, most models in elementary texts are only of second order. Moreover, the questions about phase now have a very nice physical interpretation; * The author to whom correspondence should be addressed. International Journal of Mathematical Education in Science and Technology ISSN X print/issn online # 2003 Taylor & Francis Ltd DOI: /
2 66 T. H. Fay and S. D. Graham we can investigate when the motions of the two weights are synchronized (in phase) or opposing each other (1808 out of phase). By tinkering with the spring constants, oscillatory motions can be produced that are much more interesting than those obtained from the classical single spring model. Moreover, there are other phenomena that can be investigated. We also demonstrate, through examples, that interesting motions can arise when a slight nonlinearity is introduced in an attempt to make the restoring force more physically meaningful. In this situation, periodicity of the solutions becomes a more delicate matter. If forcing is introduced, subharmonic solutions of long periods can be found which again exhibit more interesting motions than for the classical linear case. There is the opportunity here for many numerical and graphical investigations to be made by students. Periodicity, amplitude, phase, sensitivity to inital conditions, and many more concepts can be investigated by modifying the parameters in the model. And of course, it would not be difficult for students to derive a model for three springs and three weights (or more), and to investigate the various motions that could arise from both linear and nonlinear restoring forces. 2. The coupled spring model The model consists of two springs and two weights. One spring, having spring constant k 1, is attached to the ceiling and a weight of mass m 1 is attached to the lower end of this spring. To this weight, a second spring is attached having spring constant k 2. To the bottom of this second spring, a weight of mass m 2 is attached and the entire system appears as illustrated in figure 1. Allowing the system to come to rest in equilibrium, we measure the displacement of the centre of mass of each weight from equilibrium, as a function of time, and denote these measurements by x 1 ðtþ and x 2 ðtþ respectively Assuming Hooke s Law Under the assumption of small oscillations, the restoring forces are of the form k 1 l 1 and k 2 l 2 where l 1 and l 2 are the elongations (or compressions) of Figure 1. The coupled springs.
3 Coupled spring equations 67 the two springs. Since the upper mass is attached to both springs, there are two restoring forces acting upon it: an upward restoring force k 1 x 1 exerted by the elongation (or compression) x 1 of the first spring; an upward force k 2 ðx 2 x 1 Þ from the second spring s resistance to being elongated (or compressed) by the amount x 2 x 1. The second mass only feels the restoring force from the elongation (or compression) of the second spring. If we assume there are no damping forces present, then Newton s Law implies that the two equations representing the motions of the two weights are m 1 x 1 ¼ k 1 x 1 k 2 ðx 1 x 2 Þ m 2 x 2 ¼ k 2 ðx 2 x 1 Þ ð2:1þ Thus we have a pair of coupled second-order linear differential equations. In order to find an equation for x 1 that doesn t involve x 2, we solve the first equation for x 2, obtaining x 2 ¼ m 1 x 1 k 2 þ k 1 þ k 2 k 2 x 1 ð2:2þ Substituting for x 2 in the second differential equation (2.1), and simplifying, we obtain m 1 m 2 x ð4þ 1 þðm 2 k 1 þ k 2 ðm 1 þ m 2 ÞÞ x 1 þ k 1 k 2 x 1 ¼ 0 ð2:3þ Hence the motion of the first weight is determined by this fourth-order linear differential equation. Now to find an equation that only involves x 2, we solve the second equation (2.1) for x 1 : x 1 ¼ m 2 k 2 x 2 þ x 2 ð2:4þ and substitute into the first equation (2.1), producing the equation m 1 m 2 x ð4þ 2 þðm 2 k 1 þ k 2 ðm 1 þ m 2 ÞÞ x 2 þ k 1 k 2 x 2 ¼ 0 ð2:5þ This is exactly the same fourth-order equation as that for the motion of the first weight. Thus the motions of each weight obey the same differential equation, and it is only the initial displacements and initial velocities that are needed in order to completely determine any specific case. Typically, in a model of this sort, we would be given the initial displacements x 1 ð0þ and x 2 ð0þ, and the initial velocities _x 1 ð0þ and _x 2 ð0þ. But in order to solve equations (2.3) and (2.5), we need to know the values of x 1 ð0þ, x EEE 1 ð0þ, x 2 ð0þ and xeee 2 ð0þ. The values of the second derivatives are determined by evaluating equations (2.2) and (2.4) at time t ¼ 0. The values of the third derivatives are obtained by evaluating the derivatives of equations (2.2) and (2.4) at time t ¼ 0. Thus the motions for any set of initial conditions are determined by solving two fourthorder initial value problems. Alternatively, we can turn this pair of coupled second-order equations into a system of four first-order equations by setting _x 1 ¼ u and _x 2 ¼ v, so we have
4 68 T. H. Fay and S. D. Graham _x 1 ¼ u _u ¼ k 1 m 1 x 1 k 2 m 1 ðx 1 x 2 Þ _x 2 ¼ v ð2:6þ _v ¼ k 2 m 2 ðx 2 x 1 Þ and we need only consider the four initial conditions x 1 ð0þ, uð0þ, x 2 ð0þ, and vð0þ Some examples with identical weights Let us consider the model having the two weights of the same mass. This model may be normalized by setting m 1 ¼ m 2 ¼ 1. In the case of no damping and no external forcing, the characteristic equation of the differential equations (2.3) and (2.5) is which has the roots m 4 þðk 1 þ 2k 2 Þm 2 þ k 1 k 2 ¼ 0 rffiffi qffiffi 1 2 k 1 k k 2 1 þ 4k2 2 ð2:7þ ð2:8þ Example 2.1. Describe the motion for spring constants k 1 ¼ 6 and k 2 ¼ 4 with initial conditions ðx 1 ð0þ; _x 1 ð0þ, x 2 ð0þ, _x 2 ð0þþ ¼ ð1; 0; 2; 0Þ. p It is easy to see that the roots of the characteristic equation are p 2 i and 2 3 i. Thus the general solution to equations (2.3) and (2.5) is p p xðtþ ¼c 1 cos 2 t þ c2 sin p 2 t þ c3 cos 2 p 3 t þ c4 sin 2 3 t ð2:9þ It is also easy to compute that ðx 1 ð0þ; _x 1 ð0þ; x 1 ð0þ; EEE x1ð0þþ ¼ ð1; 0; 2; 0Þ. This leads to the two pairs of simultaneous equations p p c 1 þ c 3 ¼ 1 2 c2 þ 2 3 c4 ¼ 0 p 2c 1 12c 3 ¼ 2 2 p 2 c2 24 ð2:10þ 3 c4 ¼ 0 whose solutions are c 1 ¼ 1, c 3 ¼ 0, and c 2 ¼ c 4 ¼ 0. Thus the unique solution for x 1 ðtþ is p x 1 ðtþ ¼cos 2 t ð2:11þ It is also easy to compute that ðx 2 ð0þ; _x 2 ð0þ; x 2 ð0þ; EEE x2ð0þþ ¼ ð2; 0; 2; 0Þ. This leads to the two pairs of simultaneous equations p p c 1 þ c 3 ¼ 2 2 c2 þ 2 3 c4 ¼ 0 p 2c 1 12c 3 ¼ 4 2 p 2 c2 24 ð2:12þ 3 c4 ¼ 0 whose solutions are c 1 ¼ 2, c 3 ¼ 0, and c 2 ¼ c 4 ¼ 0. The unique solution for x 2 ðtþ is p x 2 ðtþ ¼2 cos 2 t ð2:13þ
5 Coupled spring equations 69 The motion here is synchronized and thus the weights move in phase with each other, having the same period of motion, merely having different amplitudes; this is shown in figure 2.1. Since the motion is simple periodic motion, the phase portraits for x 1 and x 2 are simple closed curves (ellipses) as shown in the left-hand frame in figure 2.2. Shown in the right-hand frame of figure 2.2 is a plot of x 1 against x 2 ; observe this plot is a straight line of slope 2. The next example illustrates 1808 out of phase motion. Example 2.2. Describe the motion for spring constants k 1 ¼ 6 and k 2 ¼ 4 with initial conditions ðx 1 ð0þ; _x 1 ð0þ; x 2 ð0þ; _x 2 ð0þþ ¼ ð 2; 0; 1; 0Þ. In this example, for x 1, we have c 1 ¼ 0, c 3 ¼ 2, and c 2 ¼ c 4 ¼ 0, and accordingly Figure 2.1. Plot of x 1 and x 2 showing synchronized motion. Figure 2.2. Plots for Example 2.1.
6 70 T. H. Fay and S. D. Graham p x 1 ðtþ ¼ 2cos 2 3 t For x 2, we have c 1 ¼ 0, c 3 ¼ 1, and c 2 ¼ c 4 ¼ 0; thus p x 2 ðtþ ¼cos 2 3 t ð2:14þ ð2:15þ While the first weight is moving downward, the second weight is moving upward and when the first is moving upward, the second is moving downward. Again both motions have the same period, the motions are 1808 out of phase. This is shown in the left-hand frame of figure 2.3. In the right-hand frame we plot x 1 against x 2 and observe a straight line of slope 1. Generally speaking, the motions of the two weights will pnot be periodic, since the solutions for x 1 and x 2 are linear combinations of sin p p p 2 t, cos 2 t, sin 2 3 t, and cos 2 p p 3 t and the ratio of the frequencies 2 and 2 3 is not rational. For more on the period of such combinations we refer the reader to . By tinkering with the parameters in this model, more interesting motions than those just described can be obtained. Example 2.3. Describe the motion for spring constants k 1 ¼ 0:4 and k 2 ¼ 1:808 with initial conditions ðx 1 ð0þ; _x 1 ð0þ; x 2 ð0þ; _x 2 ð0þþ ¼ ð1=2; 0; 1=2; 7=10Þ. From equation (2.8), we see that it is the k 1 and k 2 values that completely determine the period and hence frequency of the response of this symmetric weight problem. Essentially the initial conditions only affect the amplitude and phase of the solutions. Thus, using a numerical solver and tweaking the k values and experimenting with the initial conditions led to the choice of parameters in this example. This type of numerical and graphical interactive investigation can be carried out with a computer algebra system almost effortlessly. The phase portraits for the two solutions are shown in the toprow of figure 2.4. These portraits show an interesting (almost?) period motion. Plots of the actual solutions are shown in the middle row. Plotting both solutions together on the same coordinate system also shows an interesting pattern. This is shown in the left-hand frame of the bottom row of figure 2.4. Finally, the plot of x 1 against x 2 shown in the right-hand frame of the bottom row of figure 2.4 appears to be a Lissajous type curve. Student problem. Verify analytically the solutions to this initial value problem are periodic. Find the period. Use the analytic solution to produce other periodic motions. Figure 2.3. Plots for Example 2.2.
7 Coupled spring equations 71 Figure 2.4. Plots for Example Damping The most common type of damping encountered in beginning courses is that of viscous damping; the damping force is proportional to the velocity. The damping of the first weight depends solely on its velocity and not the velocity of the second weight, and vice versa. We add viscous damping to the model by adding the term
8 72 T. H. Fay and S. D. Graham 1 _x 1 to the first equation and 2 _x 2 to the second equation (2.1). We assume that the damping coefficients 1 and 2 are small. The model becomes m 1 x 1 ¼ 1 _x 1 k 1 x 1 k 2 ðx 1 x 2 Þ m 2 x 2 ¼ 2 _x 2 k 2 ðx 2 x 1 Þ ð2:16þ To obtain an equation for the motion x 1 which does not involve x 2, we solve the first equation (2.16) for x 2 and substitute into the second equation (2.16) to obtain m 1 m 2 x ð4þ 1 þðm 1 1 þ m 2 2 Þx EEE 1 þðm 2k 1 þ k 2 ðm 1 þ m 2 Þþ 1 2 Þ x 1 þðk 1 2 þ k 2 ð 1 þ 2 Þ _x 1 þ k 1 k 2 x 1 ¼ 0 ð2:17þ In a similar manner, we may solve the second equation (2.16) for x 1 and substitute into the first equation to obtain a fourth-order equation that involves only x 2.We obtain m 1 m 2 x ð4þ 2 þðm 1 1 þ m 2 2 Þx EEE 2 þðm 2k 1 þ k 2 ðm 1 þ m 2 Þþ 1 2 Þ x 2 þðk 1 2 þ k 2 ð 1 þ 2 Þ _x 2 þ k 1 k 2 x 2 ¼ 0 ð2:18þ So once again we have the same linear differential equation representing the motion of both weights. The roots of the characteristic equation are now more complicated to discuss in general, but not surprisingly, we obtain damped oscillatory motion for both weights under simple assumptions on the parameters. Example 2.4. Assume m 1 ¼ m 2 ¼ 1. Describe the motion for spring constants k 1 ¼ 0:4 and k 2 ¼ 1:808, damping coefficients 1 ¼ 0:1 and 2 ¼ 0:2, with initial conditions ðx 1 ð0þ; _x 1 ð0þ; x 2 ð0þ; _x 2 ð0þþ ¼ ð1; 1=2; 2; 1=2Þ. The phase portraits for x 1 and x 2 are shown in the toprow of figure 2.5; one sees a regular pattern of motion with diminishing amplitude. Damped oscillatory motion is evident in plots of the solutions shown in the middle row; and in the lefthand frame of the bottom row, we plot both x 1 and x 2 and observe nearly synchronized motion. Finally, in the right-hand frame of the bottom row, we plot x 1 versus x 2 which also shows damped oscillatory motion of both weights. Student problem. Investigate the model when 1 ¼ 0 and 2 > 0. What happens if 1 > 0 and 2 ¼ 0? Student problem. What are the conditions on the parameters of the model that give rise to critically damped motion and over-critically damped motion, or do these concepts not apply to this model? 3. Adding nonlinearity If we assume that the restoring forces are nonlinear, which they most certainly are for large vibrations, we can modify the model accordingly. Rather than assuming that the restoring force is of the form kx (Hooke s law), suppose we assume the restoring force has the form kx þ x 3. Then our model becomes
9 Coupled spring equations 73 Figure 2.5. Plots for Example 2.4. m 1 x 1 ¼ 1 _x 1 k 1 x 1 þ 1 x 3 1 k 2ðx 1 x 2 Þþ 2 ðx 1 x 2 Þ 3 m 2 x 2 ¼ 2 _x 2 k 2 ðx 2 x 1 Þþ 2 ðx 2 x 1 Þ 3 ð3:1þ The range of motions for the nonlinear model is much more complicated than that for the linear model. To get an idea of this range of motions for a single spring
10 74 T. H. Fay and S. D. Graham model see . Moreover, accuracy questions arise when solving these equations. No numerical solver can be expected to remain accurate over long time intervals. The accumulated local truncation error, algorithm error, roundoff error, propagation error, etc., eventually force the numerical solution to be inaccurate. This is discussed in some detail in the interesting paper by Knapp and Wagon , see also  and . Example 3.1. Assume m 1 ¼ m 2 ¼ 1. Describe the motion for spring constants k 1 ¼ 0:4 and k 2 ¼ 1:808, damping coefficients 1 ¼ 0 and 2 ¼ 0, nonlinear coefficients 1 ¼ 1=6 and 2 ¼ 1=10, with initial conditions ðx 1 ð0þþ; _x 1 ð0þ; x 2 ð0þ; _x 2 ð0þþ ¼ ð1; 0; 1=2; 0Þ. The motion in this example is quite nice. We have no damping, so the motions are oscillatory and appear to be periodic (for more on detecting and describing periodic solutions to nonlinear differential equations see ). Phase plane trajectories are shown in the toprow of figure 3.1 for 0 4 t 4 50; solutions are shown in the middle row. A plot of x 1 and x 2 shows the motions that appear to be 1808 out of phase, see the left-hand frame of the bottom row. A plot of x 1 against x 2 is given in the right-hand frame. Because of the nonlinearity, the model may exhibit sensitivity to initial conditions. Example 3.2. Assume m 1 ¼ m 2 ¼ 1. Describe the motion for spring constants k 1 ¼ 0:4 and k 2 ¼ 1:808, damping coefficients 1 ¼ 0 and 2 ¼ 0, nonlinear coefficients 1 ¼ 1=6 and 2 ¼ 1=10, with initial conditions ðx 1 ð0þ; _x 1 ð0þ; x 2 ð0þ; _x 2 ð0þþ ¼ ð 0:5; 1=2; 3:001; 5:9Þ. Phase plots and a plot of x 1 versus x 2 are shown in figures 3.2 and 3.3. Very pleasing motions can be observed here. Next we change only the x 1 ð0þ value by 1/ 10, and we obtain quite different motions. Example 3.3. Assume m 1 ¼ m 2 ¼ 1. Describe the motion for spring constants k 1 ¼ 0:4 and k 2 ¼ 1:808, damping coefficients 1 ¼ 0 and 2 ¼ 0, nonlinear coefficients 1 ¼ 1=6 and 2 ¼ 1=10, with initial conditions ðx 1 ð0þ; _x 1 ð0þ; x 2 ð0þ; _x 2 ð0þþ ¼ ð 0:6; 1=2; 3:001; 5:9Þ. The phase plots for this example are shown in figure 3.4 for 0 4 t A plot of x 1 versus x 2 is shown in figure Adding forcing It is a simple matter to add external forcing to the model. Indeed, we can drive each weight differently. Suppose we assume simple sinusoidal forcing of the form F cos!t. Then the model becomes m 1 x 1 ¼ 1 _x 1 k 1 x 1 þ 1 x 3 1 k 2ðx 1 x 2 Þþ 2 ðx 1 x 2 Þ 3 þ F 1 cos! 1 t m 2 x 2 ¼ 2 _x 2 k 2 ðx 2 x 1 Þþ 2 ðx 2 x 1 Þ 3 þ F 2 cos! 2 t ð4:1þ The range of motions for nonlinear forced models is quite vast. We can expect to find bounded and unbounded solutions (nonlinear resonance), periodic solutions that share the period with the forcing (called harmonic solutions) and solutions that are periodic of period a multiple of the driving period (called subharmonic
11 Coupled spring equations 75 Figure 3.1. Plots for Example 3.1. solutions), and steady state periodic solutions (limit cycles in the phase plane). The conditions under which these motions occur are by no means easy to state. We conclude with a simple forced example. Example 4.1. Assume m 1 ¼ m 2 ¼ 1. Describe the motion for spring constants k 1 ¼ 2=5 and k 2 ¼ 1, damping coefficients 1 ¼ 1=10 and 2 ¼ 1=5, nonlinear
12 76 T. H. Fay and S. D. Graham Figure 3.2. Phase plots for Example 3.2. Figure 3.3. x 1 versus x 2,04 t 4 200, for Example 3.2.
13 Coupled spring equations 77 Figure 3.4. Phase plots for Example 3.3. Figure 3.5. x 1 versus x 2,04 t 4 200, for Example 3.3.
14 78 T. H. Fay and S. D. Graham Figure 4.1. Plots for Example 4.1 coefficients 1 ¼ 1=6 and 2 ¼ 1=10, forcing amplitudes F 1 ¼ 1=3 and F 2 ¼ 1=5, and forcing frequencies! 1 ¼ 1 and! 2 ¼ 3=5, with initial conditions ðx 1 ð0þ; _x 1 ð0þ; x 2 ð0þ; _x 2 ð0þþ ¼ ð0:7; 0; 0:1; 0Þ. Because of the damping, we expect to see different behaviour for small values of t and steady-state behaviour for large values of t. Thus we can expect to see a limit
15 Coupled spring equations 79 Figure 4.2. Plot of x 1 and x 2 for Example 4.1. cycle in the phase plane for both x 1 and for x 2. The trajectories and limit cycles are shown in the topand middle rows of figures 4.1. In the bottom row we show plots of x 1 and x 2 for 0 4 t In the left-hand frame of figure 4.2, we plot both x 1 and x 2 for t to show the steady-state solutions more clearly. We plot x 1 against x 2 in the steady state in the right-hand frame. 5. Conclusions We have developed a simple model for two coupled springs, examined both the linear case and one possible form for the nonlinear case, and have included free motion, damped motion, and forced motion examples. These examples produced interesting solutions and are no more difficult for a student to produce than the elementary examples commonly encountered in beginning courses. This model reinforces much of the theory for linear equations and provides a nice elementary modelling example that can be used in a computer laboratory component of a beginning course or for an individual or a small-groupundergraduate research project. The model has many features that permit the meaningful introduction of many concepts including: accuracy of numerical algorithms, dependence on parameters and initial conditions, phase and synchronization, periodicity, beats, limit cycles, harmonic and subharmonic solutions. The use of a computer algebra system permits almost effortless numerical explorations, graphical interpretations, and motivation for analytical verifications. References  Boyce, W. E., and DiPrima, R. C., 2001, Elementary Differential Equations, 7th edition (New York: John Wiley & Sons).  Fay, T. H., 2000, Int. J. Math. Educ. Sci. Technol., 31,  Fay, T. H., and Joubert, S. V., 1999, Math. Comput. Educ., 33,  Fay, T. H., and Joubert, S. V., 1999, Int. J. Math. Educ. Sci. Technol., 30,  Fay, T. H., and Joubert, S. V., 2000, Math. Mag., 73,  Fay, T. H., and Joubert, S. V., 2000, Int. J. Math. Educ. Sci. Technol., 31,  Knapp, R., and Wagon, S., CODEE (winter 1996), pp
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Section 8.1 Numerical Solutions of Differential Equations If x is a function of a real variable t and f is a function of both x and t, then the equation ẋ(t) = f(x(t), t) (8.1.1) is called a first order
Jan Tippner, Dep. of Wood Science, FFWT MU Brno jan. tippner@mendelu. cz Content of lecture 3: 1. Damping 2. Internal friction in the wood Content of lecture 3: 1. Damping 2. Internal friction in the wood
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Name Date Partners WEEK 6: FORCE, MASS, AND ACCELERATION OBJECTIVES To develop a definition of mass in terms of an object s acceleration under the influence of a force. To find a mathematical relationship
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International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET) Volume 7, Issue 2, March-April 2016, pp. 179 184, Article ID: IJCIET_07_02_015 Available online at http://www.iaeme.com/ijciet/issues.asp?jtype=ijciet&vtype=7&itype=2
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1.1 Using Figure 1.6, verify that equation (1.1) satisfies the initial velocity condition. Solution: Following the lead given in Example 1.1., write down the general expression of the velocity by differentiating
Harmonic Oscillator Objective: Describe the position as a function of time of a harmonic oscillator. Apply the momentum principle to a harmonic oscillator. Sketch (and interpret) a graph of position as
Student Performance Q&A: AP Calculus AB and Calculus BC Free-Response Questions The following comments on the free-response questions for AP Calculus AB and Calculus BC were written by the Chief Reader,
PC1221 Fundamentals of Physics I Lectures 9 and 10 he Laws of Motion Dr ay Seng Chuan 1 Ground Rules Switch off your handphone and pager Switch off your laptop computer and keep it No talking while lecture
Provided by the author(s) and University College Dublin Library in accordance with publisher policies. Please cite the published version when available. Title Bifurcation Scenarios in Electrostatic Vibration
Team: Force and Motion 2 In the first Force and Motion lab, you studied constant forces and friction-free motion. In this sequel, you will study forces that depend on time and position. You will also explore
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Response to Harmonic Excitation Part 2: Damped Systems Part 1 covered the response of a single degree of freedom system to harmonic excitation without considering the effects of damping. However, almost
Chapter 27 Solutions PSS 27.2 The Electric Field of a Continuous Distribution of Charge Description: Knight Problem-Solving Strategy 27.2 The Electric Field of a Continuous Distribution of Charge is illustrated.
A Determination of g, the Acceleration Due to Gravity, from Newton's Laws of Motion Objective In the experiment you will determine the cart acceleration, a, and the friction force, f, experimentally for
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