SAFER, SMARTER, GREENER

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1 Introduction to Subsea Production Systems 03 Drilling and Wellhead September Drilling and Wellhead Systems DNV GL 2013 September 2014 SAFER, SMARTER, GREENER Subsea Drilling and Wellhead Systems This module will cover: Applicable codes and standards Reservoir Engineering Subsea Wells Subsea Well Program Wellhead Equipment Deepwater drilling Slide 2 1

2 Goals Understand the premises and interfaces to the drilling activity To understand the main building blocks in a well To be able to participate in debates regarding drilling activity and well architecture Slide 3 Standards Overview General ISO NORSOK D-001 NORSOK D-010 NORSOK U-001 OLF Guideline 070 PSA Norway DNV-OS-C101 Riser/Umbilicals ISO ISO ISO ISO API RP 16Q API Spec 16R DNV-OSS-302 DNV-OS-F201 DNV-RP-F206 Wellhead/XT: API 6a API 17d ISO ISO BOP ISO NORSOK D-001 NORSOK D-010 API Spec 6A API Spec 16A API RP 16E API RP 53 API 16d API Spec 16C Drilling Equip. API 7K API RP 64 API 4F API 8C DNV-OS-E101 Control Systems ISO API Spec 16D Well Foundation API RP 2A Casing Tubing, Downhole ISO API 5ct(2)(3) API 14a(b)(h)(j) ISO (cement) Slide 5 2

3 Applicable codes and standards Main codes for wellhead and drilling: API 6A/ISO Specification for Wellhead and Christmas Tree Equipment API 17D/ISO Subsea wellhead and tree equipment API 16A / ISO Specification for Drill-through Equipment + ASME, ISO, BS +++ NORSOK D-010 Well integrity in drilling and well operations NORSOK U-001 Subsea production systems Slide 6 Reservoir Engineering Ormen Lange Reservoir, 350 km meter below seabed: Slide 7 3

4 Subsea Wells The main development well types: Exploration wells Production wells (oil, gas) Injection wells (water, gas) Well design through the reservoir: Vertical Deviated Horizontal Multi branch (side-track) Enhanced Recovery: Water injection Gas injection WAG; water alternating gas injection Artificial lift Slide 9 Different Well Types at Tyrihans The Evolution of Wells at Tyrihans Slide 10 4

5 Subsea Well Program Typical Subsea Well Program: Drill 36 hole to ~80m Run and cement 30 Conductor Drill 26 hole to ~800m Run and cement 20 casing with 18 3/4 (link) WH Run Blow-out-preventer (BOP) Drill 17 ½ hole to ~1300m Run and cement 13 3/8 Casing Drill 12 1/4 hole to ~1700m Run and cement 9 5/8 Casing Drill 8 ½ hole to ~2000m Clean up well Abandon well (run plug or close valve) Proceed to completion operations This program can be a 100 days plan BOP Slide 11 Video, Running Wellhead Wellhead.avi Slide 12 5

6 Conventional mud circulation system Relation to Pore/Fracture Pressure Plot 6

7 Xmas Tree Systems Typical Tree Installation Sequence: Install Xmas Tree on Wellhead using drill string and Tree Running Tool (TRT) Recover TRT Run BOP and marine riser Remove down hole plugs Run completion / production tubing Perforate tubing at reservoir depth Inhibit well and prepare to abandon Install internal tree cap Retrieve marine riser and BOP Drill rig moves to next well Flowlines and flying leads installed by Rig or installation vessel BOP XT Slide 16 Well Completion - sample 18 3/4" X 7" X 2" tubing hanger 18-3/4" wellhead 18 3/4" X 13 3/8" casing hanger 36" conductor housing 36"/30" conductor at 940 mtvd 2 x 7" TRSSSV s 20" surface casing at 1600mTVD UNSTABLE ROGALAND SHALES RESERVOIR 9-5/8" production tubing, with production packer set below 9 5/8" liner lap. 7" tail pipe available for deep set plugs and downhole gauge positioning. 9-5/8 x 13-3/8" liner hanger. 9-5/8 x 7" production packer. 9-5/8 x 7" full bore isolation valve 13-3/8 x 13-5/8" intermediate casing set in 17 1/2" hole at m TVD. 9-5/8" x 7" lower completion packer 9 5/8" liner in 12 1/4" hole to top reservoir at 2705m TVD over sail section, to prevent shale 7" formation isolation valve 7 " lower completion. Slide 17 7

8 Well barriers Source: NORSOK D-010 Slide 18 TVD vs. MD TVD True Vertical Depth MD Measured Depth Slide 20 8

9 Wellhead equipment The wellhead system suspends the casing and serve as a barrier for well fluids against the environment. There are 5 main suppliers of subsea Wellhead systems: - GE Oil & Gas (ex. Vetco Gray) - FMC - Aker Solutions - Drill-Quip - Cameron The wellheads are usually designed according to API 17D (ISO ) and API 6A (ISO10423). The 18 3/4 Wellhead Housing often has a H4 Vetco external profile for subsea wells. The internal seal and locking profiles are supplier specific. Main components: 18 ¾ Wellhead Housing 30 Conductor Housing 9 5/8 Casing Hanger 18 ¾ Packoff (Annulus seal assembly) 13 3/8 Casing Hanger Drilling Guide Base Casing Diagram Slide 23 Wellhead equipment Slide 24 9

10 Deepwater drilling An increasing number of the subsea wells worldwide are located in deepwater. Deepwater is usually defined as water depths from m, with greater than 1500 m water depth classified as ultra deepwater. These depths impose significant challenges with respect to subsea drilling. Existing drilling rigs allow for drilling in water depths in the order of 2400 m. New generation drill rigs and drill ships are being designed for water depths beyond 3000 m. In deep water, drilling requires very heavy equipment, drilling operations and well control procedures are more difficult and well costs can rise dramatically. The following new techniques are considered to have a significant impact on the subsea well construction costs: Under balanced drilling (The first contract in north sea awarded by Statoil) Riser less drilling or dual gradient drilling system Expandable casing strings Casing while drilling Slide 25 Mono bore drilling Slide 26 10

11 Buzz group What are the main principles in order to get the oil and gas? Please give details How do you get to the reservoir? How do you get the oil/gas out? Where does the oil/gas go from there? Think of some safety features in Drilling operations Slide 28 Safeguarding life, property and the environment SAFER, SMARTER, GREENER 29 11

12 30 Conductor Housing Wellhead Locking Profile Running Profile Flow by Port Guidebase Landing Shoulder Conductor Extension Slide /4 Wellhead Housing Vetco H4 Profile Lockdown ring Slide 31 12

13 13 3/8 Casing Hanger 13 3/8 Casing Pup Joint Slide /8 Casing Hanger Landing Shoulder 9 5/8 Casing Pup Joint Fluted Centraliser Slide 33 13

14 18 3/4 Pack-off Locking Mandrel Wellhead Lock Ring Metal Seal Slide 34 Drilling Guide Base Slide 35 14

15 Casing Diagram Slide 36 Subsea BOP Blowout.wmv Slide 37 15

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