Engine Lubricants in Diesel Engines Powered by Bio-Fuel Public Workshop Warsaw, 26 th January 2010

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1 Engine Lubricants in Diesel Engines Powered by Bio-Fuel Public Workshop Warsaw, 26 th January 2010

2 Engine Lubricants Formulating an Engine Lubricant Experience with Bio-Diesel Experience with Pure Rapeseed Oil (2nd VegOil) 2

3 Formulating an engine lubricant

4 What does an engine oil need to do? Prevent wear Enhance durability Remove contaminants Reduce friction Lubricate Clean 4 Transfer heat Cool Prevent corrosion

5 Where these phenomena occur Valve-train Wear Piston Deposits Cylinder Wear Oxidation Sludge & Soot handling 5 Image Source : How Stuff Works Inc.

6 Composition of Modern Engine Lubricant Additives, VM (20% Vol.) Viscosity Modifier (Minimises viscosity change with respect to temperature) 15W-40 High Performance Engine Oil Base Oils (80% vol.) Other Additives Anti-Wear Anti-Oxidant Detergent Dispersant ( PPD, FM, Antifoam, etc.) (Prevents wear) (Prevents oxidation) (Keeps components clean/neutralises acids) (Keeps solid contaminants in suspension to prevent sludge and deposits) 6

7 Market Tiers For diesel engines meeting Euro I Euro V emission requirements Hi SAPS Low/Mid SAPS UHPD Some EGR engines some SCR units without DPF EGR engines SCR units with/without DPF with low S diesel Extended drain performance (ACEA: significantly extended oil drain interval) SHPD most EGR engines most SCR units without DPF most EGR engines most SCR units with/without DPF with low S diesel Standard drain performance (ACEA: extended oil drain interval) 7 SCR/EGR (Euro V) DPF (Euro V/VI)

8 Measuring Performance A typical top-tier oil will be supported by over 20 engine test results Good Oil Co. s Slippery Extra would need at least 22 engine test results to support its performance claims: ACEA A3/B4 API SL & CF VW50200 & MB tests 5 tests ACEA + 4 tests ACEA + 6 tests Many specifications use the same engine tests, but may set different pass / fail requirements Seq. VG VW TDI in ACEA A3/B4 and API SL in ACEA A3/B4, VW50500 and MB

9 1. Changing Emissions legislation Impact of engine lubricants on aftertreatment devices A mix of data has been published regarding the impact of engine oils on aftertreatment devices Aftertreatment device Fluid-related constraint Ash Phosphorus Sulphur Diesel Particulate Filter DPF - - Three-way Catalyst TWC - - Diesel Oxidation Catalyst DOC - Lean NOx Catalyst LNC - - NOx Adsorber NOx - - Selective Catalytic Reduction SCR -?? 9

10 Experience with Bio-Diesel

11 Biodiesel and Fuel Dilution Use of biodiesel can lead to increased levels of fuel dilution in the sump Vehicles using in-cylinder post injection are prone to high levels of fuel dilution Biodiesel tends to concentrate in the sump due to lower volatility Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) demonstrates difference in volatility between mineral diesel and biodiesel B05 in fuel tank 6 x concentration of biodiesel in sump 11

12 Biodiesel and Fuel Dilution: Example B10 Biodiesel and Mineral Diesel Field Trial - Modern DI diesel passenger cars - Forced DPF regeneration every 250 miles B10 Biodiesel 13% Fuel dilution Fuel Dilution (%) % Reduction in viscosity Mineral Diesel 6% Fuel dilution 2 0 Conclusions - B10 Fuel produces an increased level of fuel dilution - B10 fuel concentrates to B50 in the sump Lubricant Mileage (miles) 7% Reduction in viscosity Vehicle One - B10 Vehicle Two - ULSD Vehicle Three - B10 Vehicle 4 - ULSD 12

13 Biodiesel and Fuel Dilution: Example Biodiesel/lubricant interaction can be affected by biodiesel source Oil D ACEA A3/B4/C3 Top Tier 5W-30 For DI diesel with DPF & PI Kinematic Viscosity at 100 o C (cst) % B100 SME 5% B100 RME 25 5% B100 Karanjia Test Length (Hours) Oil D Fresh Oil Oil D + 5% ULSD Oil D + 5% B10 (RME) Oil D + 5% B100 (Karanjia) Oil D + 5% B100 (RME) Oil D + 5% B100 (SME) 13 Change in viscosity due to oxidative degradation Procedure: Lubrizol in-house oxidation test

14 Engine Lubricant Durability: Example Change in viscosity due to oxidative degradation Kinematic viscosity at 100 o C (cst) Oil A Mainline 15W-40 Oil B Top Tier 0W-30 Oil C Top Tier 5W-40 Oil D Euro 4 Lower SAPS Top Tier 5W-30 Procedure: Lubrizol in-house oxidation test with addition of 5% B100 (RME) Time (hours) 14

15 Benefit of Additives Kinematic Viscosity at 100 o C (cst) Oil D ACEA A3/B4/C3 Top Tier 5W-30 For DI diesel with DPF & PI Time (hrs) Oil D + 0.1% Additive A + 0.2% Additive A + 0.3% Additive A + 0.4% Additive A Procedure: Lubrizol in-house oxidation test with addition of 5% B100 (RME) 15

16 Experience with Pure Rapeseed Oil (2nd VegOil)

17 Lubricants being Assessed in Field Trials ACEA E7 Engine Lubricant ACEA E9 Engine Lubricant Lubrizol Oil Code OS OS Viscosity Grade 15W-40 15W-40 ExxonMobil AP/E 150N Group I Base Oil ExxonMobil AP/E 600N Group I Base Oil 20 - Chevron 220R (220N) Group II Base Oil Chevron 600R (600N) Group II Base Oil Lubrizol 4986E Engine Lubricant Additive Lubrizol Engine Lubricant Additive Lubrizol 7077 Viscosity Modifier Lubrizol 7075F Viscosity Modifier Lubrizol 6662 Pour Point Depressant Typical Chemical & Physical Properties Kinematic Viscosity at 100 o C mm2/s Cold Crank Simulation at -25 o C mpa.s High Temperature High Shear mpa.s Total Base Number mg KOH/g Sulphated Ash % wt

18 Extended Drain Interval Kinematic Viscosity at 100 o C All used lubricant samples have stayed within SAE viscosity grade 18

19 Extended Drain Interval Total Acid Number Lubrizol considers the TAN control of the lubricants to be acceptable 19

20 Extended Drain Interval Total Base Number (D4739) 20 Lubrizol considers the lubricants are successfully controlling acids (as demonstrated by acceptable TBN retention)

21 Extended Drain Interval Total Base Number (D2896) 21 Lubrizol considers the lubricants are successfully controlling acids (as demonstrated by acceptable TBN retention)

22 Extended Drain Interval Copper measured by ICP John Deere needs to assess if >20ppm Cu is a cause for concern 22 John Deere warning limits for Copper in used lubricants are 150ppm initially and then 20ppm max. Lubricant copper is below 20ppm until unit age reaches 900 hours

23 Extended Drain Interval Iron measured by ICP 23 John Deere warning limits for Iron is 0.5ppm per hour (i.e. 125ppm for a 250 hour lubricant drain interval). Lubricant iron content is below 125ppm.

24 Extended Drain Interval Soot measured by TGA 24 Lubrizol considers the soot level to be low in the lubricants

25 All Tractors Kinematic Viscosity at 100 o C 25 One sample (Poland , unit hours 850) has fallen out of SAE viscosity grade Viscosity from all other used lubricant samples have stayed within SAE viscosity grade

26 All Tractors Total Acid Number Lubrizol considers the TAN control of the lubricants to be acceptable 26

27 All Tractors Total Base Number (D4739) 27 Lubrizol considers the lubricants are successfully controlling acids (as demonstrated by acceptable TBN retention)

28 All Tractors Total Base Number (D2896) 28 Lubrizol considers the lubricants are successfully controlling acids (as demonstrated by acceptable TBN retention)

29 All Tractors Copper measured by ICP John Deere needs to assess if >20ppm Cu is a cause for concern 29 John Deere warning limits for Copper in used lubricants are 150ppm initially and then 20ppm max. Lubricant copper is below 20ppm until unit ages reaches 900 hours

30 All Tractors Iron measured by ICP 30 John Deere warning limits for Iron is 0.5ppm per hour (i.e. 125ppm for a 250 hour lubricant drain interval). Lubricant iron content is below 125ppm.

31 All Tractors Soot measured by TGA 31 Lubrizol considers the soot level to be low in the lubricants

32 All Tractors Overall Conclusion Lubrizol consider that the ACEA E7 and E9 lubricants have performed acceptably in the field trials so far 32

33 33

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