# Number: Fractions (including Decimals and Percentages) Reasoning

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1 Year 1 Year 2 Year 3 Year 4 Year 5 Year 6 COUNTING IN FRACTIONAL STEPS Pupils should count in fractions up to 10, starting from any number and using the1/2 and 2/4 equivalence on the number line (Non Statutory Guidance) count up and down in tenths count up and down in hundredths Spot the mistake 7, 7 ½, 8, 9, 10 8 ½, 8, 7, 6 ½, and correct it What comes next? 5 ½, 6 ½, 7 ½,.,. 9 ½, 9, 8 ½,,.. Spot the mistake six tenths, seven tenths, eight tenths, nine tenths, eleven tenths and correct it. What comes next? 6/10, 7/10, 8/10,..,. 12/10, 11/10,..,..,.. Spot the mistake sixty tenths, seventy tenths, eighty tenths, ninety tenths, twenty tenths and correct it. What comes next? 83/, 82/, 81/,..,..,.. 31/, 41/, 51/,..,.., Spot the mistake 0.088, 0.089, 1.0 What comes next? 1.173, 1.183, Spot the mistake Identify and explain mistakes when counting in more complex fractional steps

2 recognise, find and name a half as one of two equal parts of an object, shape or quantity Choose a number of counters. Place them onto 2 plates so that there is the same number on each half. When can you do this and when can t you? recognise, find, name and write fractions 1 / 3, 1 /4, 2 / 4 and 3 / 4 of a length, shape, set of objects or quantity ¼ of 4 = 1 ¼ of 8 = 2 ¼ of 12 = 3 Continue the pattern recognise, find and write fractions of a discrete set of objects: unit fractions and non-unit fractions with small denominators recognise that tenths arise from dividing an object into 10 equal parts and in dividing one digit numbers or quantities by 10. 1/10 of 10 = 1 2/10 of 10 = 2 3/10 of 10 = 3 Continue the pattern. What about 1/10 of 20? Use this to work out 2/10 of 20, etc. RECOGNISING FRACTIONS recognise that hundredths arise when dividing an object by one hundred and dividing tenths by ten 1/10 of = 10 1/ of = 1 2/10 of = 20 2/ of = 2 How can you use this to work out 6/10 of 200? 6/ of 200? recognise and use thousandths and relate them to tenths, hundredths and decimal equivalents (appears also in Equivalence) One tenth of 41 One hundredth of 41 One thousandth of 41 Continue the pattern = = = 0.1 Continue the pattern for the next five number sentences. One thousandth of my money is 31p. How much do I have?

3 recognise, find and name a quarter as one of four equal parts of an object, shape or quantity Sharing 8 apples between 4 children means each child has 1 apple. Half of 20cm = 5cm ¾ of 12cm = 9cm recognise and use fractions as numbers: unit fractions and non-unit fractions with small denominators 2/10 of 20cm = 2cm 4/10 of 40cm = 4cm 3/5 of 20cm = 12cm 1/20 of a metre= 20cm 4/ of 2 metres = 40cm 0.1 of a kilometre is 1m. 0.2 of 2 kilometres is 2m. 0.3 of 3 Kilometres is 3m 0.25 of 3m is 500cm. 25% of 23km is longer than 0.2 of 20km. Convince me. 2/5 of 2 is 20p

4 COMPARING FRACTIONS compare and order unit fractions, and fractions with the same denominators Give an example of a fraction that is less than a half. Now another example that no one else will think of. Explain how you know the fraction is less than a half. (draw an image) Ben put these fractions in order starting with the smallest. Are they in the correct order? One fifth, one seventh, one sixth Give an example of a fraction that is more than a half but less than a whole. Now another example that no one else will think of. Explain how you know the fraction is more than a half but less than a whole. (draw an image) compare and order fractions whose denominators are all multiples of the same number Give an example of a fraction that is more than three quarters. Now another example that no one else will think of. Explain how you know the fraction is more than three quarters. Imran put these fractions in order starting with the smallest. Are they in the correct order? Two fifths, three tenths, four twentieths How do you know? compare and order fractions, including fractions >1 Give an example of a fraction that is greater than 1.1 and less than 1.5. Now another example that no one will think of. Explain how you know. Sam put these fractions in order starting with the smallest. Are they in the correct order? Thirty three fifths Twenty three thirds Forty five sevenths How do you know?

5 COMPARING DECIMALS compare numbers with the same number of decimal places up to two decimal places Missing symbol Put the correct symbol < or > in each box What needs to be added to 3.23 to give 3.53? What needs to be added to 3.16 to give 3.2? read, write, order and compare numbers with up to three decimal places Missing symbol Put the correct symbol < or > in each box What needs tobe added to 3.63 to give 3.13? What needs to be added to to give 4.1? identify the value of each digit in numbers given to three decimal places In all of the numbers below, the digit 6 is worth more than 6 hundredths Is this true or false? Change some numbers so that it is true. What needs tobe adde3d to to give 7? What needs to be added to to give 5? Circle the two decimals which are closest in value to each other

6 ROUNDING INCLUDING DECIMALS round decimals with one decimal place to the nearest whole number Do, then explain Circle each decimal which when rounded to the nearest whole number is Explain your reasoning Top tips Explain how to round numbers to one decimal place? Also see rounding in place value round decimals with two decimal places to the nearest whole number and to one decimal place Do, then explain Circle each decimal which when rounded to one decimal place is Explain your reasoning Top tips Explain how to round decimal numbers to one decimal place? Also see rounding in place value solve problems which require answers to be rounded to specified degrees of accuracy Do, then explain Write the answer of each calculation rounded to the nearest whole number ( ) What s the same, what s different? when you round numbers to one decimal place and two decimal places? Also see rounding in place value

7 EQUIVALENCE (INCLUDING FRACTIONS, DECIMALS AND PERCENTAGES) write simple fractions recognise and show, recognise and show, using identify, name and write e.g. 1 / 2 of 6 = 3 and using diagrams, diagrams, families of common equivalent fractions of a equivalent fractions with equivalent fractions given fraction, recognise the small denominators represented visually, equivalence of 2 / 4 and 1 / 2. including tenths and hundredths use common factors to simplify fractions; use common multiples to express fractions in the same denomination Odd one out. Which is the odd one out in this trio: ½ 2/4 ¼ Why? Find ½ of 8. Find 2/4 of 8 Odd one out. Which is the odd one out in each of these trios ½ 3/6 5/8 3/9 2/6 4/9 Why? Find 2/5 of 10 Find 4/10 of 10. Can you write any other similar statements? Odd one out. Which is the odd one out in each of these trio s¾ 9/12 4/6 9/12 10/15 2/3 Why? Find 4/6 of 24 Find 2/3 of 24 Can you write any other similar statements? Odd one out. Which is the odd one out in each of these collections of 4 fractions 6/10 3/5 18/20 9/15 30/ 3/10 6/20 3/9 Why? Find 30/ of 200 Find 3/10 of 200 Can you write any other similar statements? Odd one out. Which is the odd one out in each of these collections of 4 fraction s¾ 9/12 26/36 18/24 4/20 1/5 6/25 6/30 Why? 8/5 of 25 = 40 5/4 of 16 = 20 7/6 of Can you write similar statements? recognise and write decimal equivalents of any number of tenths or hundredths read and write decimal numbers as fractions (e.g = 71 / ) recognise and use thousandths and relate them to tenths, hundredths and decimal equivalents associate a fraction with division and calculate decimal fraction equivalents (e.g ) for a simple fraction (e.g. 3 /8 )

8 Complete the pattern by filling in the blank cells in this table: Complete the pattern 71?????? ?????? Complete the table. Complete the pattern ????????? Complete the table. Ordering Put these fractions in the correct order, starting with the smallest. ½ ¼ 1/3 Ordering Put these fractions in the correct order, starting with the smallest. 4/8 ¾ 1/4 Write a decimal numbers (to one decimal place) which lies between a half and three quarters? and another, and another, recognise and write decimal equivalents to 1 / 4 ; 1 / 2 ; 3 / 4 Ordering Put these numbers in the correct order, starting with the smallest. ¼ /10 Explain your thinking Write a fraction with a denominator of one hundred which has a value of more than 0.75? and another, and another, recognise the per cent symbol (%) and understand that per cent relates to number of parts per hundred, and write percentages as a fraction with denominator as a decimal fraction Ordering Put these numbers in the correct order, starting with the largest. 7/10, 0.73, 7/, % Write a unit fraction which has a value of less than 0.5? and another, and another, recall and use equivalences between simple fractions, decimals and percentages, including in different contexts. Ordering Which is larger, 1 / 3 or 2 / 5? Explain how you know. Put the following amounts in order,

9 Explain your thinking Which is more: 20% of 200 or 25% of 180? Explain your reasoning. starting with the largest. 23%, 5/8, 3/5, 0.8 ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION OF FRACTIONS add and subtract add and subtract fractions with fractions with the same the same denominator denominator within one whole (e.g. 5 / / 7 = 6 / 7 ) add and subtract fractions with the same denominator and multiples of the same number recognise mixed numbers and improper fractions and convert from one form to the other and write mathematical statements > 1 as a mixed number (e.g. 2 / /5 = 6 / 5 = 11 / 5 ) add and subtract fractions with different denominators and mixed numbers, using the concept of equivalent fractions 1/10 + 9/10 = 1 2/10 + 8/10 = 1 3/10 + 7/10 = 1 5/5 1/5 = 4/5 4/5 1/5 = 3/5 ¾ and ¼ = 4/4 = 1 4/4 and ¼ = 5/4 = 1 ¼ 5/4 and ¼ = 6/4 = 1 ½ Write down two fractions which have a difference of 1 2/ and another, and another,

10 Continue the pattern Can you make up a similar pattern for eighths? The answer is 5/10, what is the question? (involving fractions / operations) Continue the pattern Can you make up a similar pattern for addition? The answer is 3/5, what is the question? 11/ + 89/ = 1 12/ + 88/ = 1 13/ + 87/ = 1 Continue the pattern for the next five number sentences MULTIPLICATION AND DIVISION OF FRACTIONS Continue the pattern up to the total of 2. Can you make up a similar pattern for subtraction? The answer is 1 2/5, what is the question multiply proper fractions and mixed numbers by whole numbers, supported by materials and diagrams Write down 2 fractionswith a total of 3 4/5. and another, and another, multiply simple pairs of proper fractions, writing the answer in its simplest form (e.g. 1 / 4 1 / 2 = 1 / 8 ) multiply one-digit numbers with up to two decimal places by whole numbers divide proper fractions by whole numbers (e.g. 1 / 3 2 = 1 / 6 )

11 MULTIPLICATION AND DIVISION OF DECIMALS find the effect of dividing a one- or two-digit number by 10 and, identifying the value of the digits in the answer as ones, tenths and hundredths Continue the pattern ¼ x 3 = ¼ x 4 = ¼ x 5 = Continue the pattern for five more number sentences. How many steps will it take to get to 3? 5/3 of 24 = 40 Write a similar sentence where the answer is 56. The answer is 2 ¼, what is the question Give your top tips for multiplying fractions. Continue the pattern 1/3 2 = 1/6 1/6 2 = 1/12 1/12 2 = 1/24 ½ x ¼ = The answer is 1/8, what is the question (involving fractions / operations) Give your top tips for dividing fractions. multiply one-digit numbers with up to two decimal places by whole numbers multiply and divide numbers by 10, and 0 where the answers are up to three decimal places identify the value of each digit to three decimal

13 solve problems that involve all of the above PROBLEM SOLVING solve problems involving increasingly harder fractions to calculate quantities, and fractions to divide quantities, including non-unit fractions where the answer is a whole number solve simple measure and money problems involving fractions and decimals to two decimal places. solve problems involving numbers up to three decimal places solve problems which require knowing percentage and decimal equivalents of 1 / 2, 1 / 4, 1 / 5, 2 /5, 4 / 5 and those with a denominator of a multiple of 10 or 25. hundreds columns. What could my number have been?

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