Passive electrotonic conduction decays with distance 1. Cytoplasm resistance 2. Plasma membrane resistance 3. Charges leaks out

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1 Graded Potentials

2

3 Passive electrotonic conduction decays with distance 1. Cytoplasm resistance 2. Plasma membrane resistance 3. Charges leaks out

4 Length constant ( ) is defined as the distance over which a steady-state potential shows a 63% drop in amplitude.

5 Stimulating electrode: Introduces current that can depolarize or hyper-polarize Recording electrode: Records change in Potential of the membrane At a distance away

6 At Threshold Na influx equals K efflux Voltage (mvolts) along Y axis Time (msec)

7 Action Potential Changes in Ion Permeability allows inward Na flux and triggers an increased outward K flux through voltage gated ion channels Causes transient change in Membrane Potential The change in ion permeability is triggered by transient depolarization of the membrane

8 Action Potential shapes

9 Characteristics of an Action Potential Triggered by depolarization a less negative membrane potential that occurs transiently Understand depolarization, repolarization and hyperpolarization

10 Threshold Threshold depolarization needed to trigger the action potential mv depolarization must occur to trigger action potential

11 All or None Are all-or- none event Amplitude of AP is the same regardless of whether the depolarizing event was weak (+20mV) or strong (+40mV).

12 No Change in Size Propagates without decrement along axon The shape (amplitude & time) of the action potential does not change as it travels along the axon

13 Reverses Polarity At peak of action potential the membrane potential reverses polarity Becomes positive inside as predicted by the E na Called OVERSHOOT Return to membrane potential to a more negative potential than at rest Called UNDERSHOOT

14 Refractory Period Absolute refractory period follows an action potential. Lasts 1 msec During this time another action potential CANNOT be fired even if there is a transient depolarization. Limits firing rate to 1000AP/sec

15 Ion Permeability Changes during action potential The plasma membrane becomes permeable to sodium ions Permeability increases from 0.02 to 20=1000 fold increase Causes E m to approach E na at positive voltages = +20mV

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19 Regenerative Process: Once one Na channel Opens, Na enters, Depolarizes membrane, More and more Na Channels open leading to More sodium influx & causes upward & depolarizing (more +) phase of the AP

20 What does a sodium Channel look like? It is one large protein With 4 domains that Each loop through the Plasma membrane 7 Times.

21 Property of Voltage Dependent Sodium Channel Sodium channel opens for 1-2 millisecond following threshold depolarization then inactivates and does not open even if Vm is depolarized. This is called sodium channel inactivation and contributes to the repolarization of Vm

22 Na Channel Gates M gate= activation gate on Na channel; opens quickly when membrane is depolarized H gate- inactivation gate on Na channel; Closes slowly after membrane is depolarized causes the absolute refractory period for AP propagation

23 K + efflux starts to exceed Na + influx and V m reverses. Inactivation gates are slowly closing. No! x (~0.03% OP) * (~96% OP) (~70% OP) (~75% OP) (~40% OP) (~20% OP) (~7% OP) * maximum Na + influx Most fast gate closure is during 2 nd half of repolarization. Slow gates have reached minimum open probability. (~1% OP) V m - E Na (~45% OP) (~70% OP) (~7% OP) maximum net influx of positive charge (f) During the hyperpolarization phase, inactivation gates slowly reopen. minimum gna & INa (~15% OP) (~55% OP) (~15% OP)

24 Potassium Channel Property K channels open with a delay and stay open for length of depolarization Repolarize the Vm to Ek= -75mV which is why you have hyperpolarization. Also called a delayed rectifier channel

25 Gate on the Delayed Rectifier Potassium Channel K channels have a single gate (n) that stays open as long as Vm is depolarized. n gate on K channels opens very slowly this allows the Vm to depolarize due to Na influx; Na and K currents do not offset each other right away

26 Refractory Period Refractory period due to Na channel inactivation and the high gk Subsequent Action potential cannot be generated

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28 Conductance = g How many charges (ions) enters or leaves cell (inverse of resistance) due to: number of channels/membrane area Highest density at axon hillock number of open channels ion concentration on either side of membrane Measured in Siemens (S), in cells ps (pico; -12)

29 Action Potential: a transient and rapid sequence of changes in the membrane potential Action Potentials Can travel up to 100 meters/second Usually m/s 0.1sec delay between muscle and sensory neuron action potential

30 Two types of signal conduction within a single neuron 1. Passive (graded) electrotonic conduction: depend on the movement of ions along the two faces of the plasma membrane; decays with distance. 2. Active (regenerative) conduction (AP): depend on the presence and activity of biological molecules such as voltage-gated ion channels; transmit without loss of signal strength.

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33 Increasing conduction velocity of AP 1. Increase axonal diameter 2. Myelination

34 Conduction in Myelinated Axon Myelin prevents movement of Na + and K + through the membrane. Nodes of Ranvier contain VG Na + and K + channels. Saltatory conduction (leaps). Fast rate of conduction.

35 Nodes of Ranvier One of the regularly spaced interruptions of myelin sheath along an axon. Saltatory conduction Discontinuous conduction of action potentials that takes place at the nodes of Ranvier in myelinated axons.

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