Basic Characteristics of Cells. Cell Structure and Function. Each Cell Has Three Primary Regions. Basic Characteristics of Cells. The Plasma Membrane

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1 Basic Characteristics of Cells Cell Structure and Function Chapter 3 Smallest living subdivision of the human body Diverse in structure and function Small Basic Characteristics of Cells Each Cell Has Three Primary Regions Divided into organelles Structures and compartments in the cell Isolation of chemical reactions Each organelle performs a specific function Plasma Membrane Cytoplasm Nucleus The Plasma Membrane Plasma membrane = outer casing of the cell separates intracellular environment from the extracellular environment. Regulates movement of materials into and out of cell a selective mechanical barrier The Plasma Membrane Composed of Lipids, Proteins and Carbohydrates Arranged in a lipid bilayer Fluid mosaic model 1

2 Cell Membrane Components: Phospholipids one end is hydrophilic other end is hydrophobic tend to aggregate in a lipid bilayer hydrophilic ends face outward, hydrophobic ends in the middle Cell Membrane Components: Proteins Suspended in lipid bilayer May span layer or attached only to one surface Different functions Types of Membrane Proteins Structural Proteins Maintain membrane shape and integrity, movement Channel Proteins Pore-like proteins Enable small ions to pass Carrier proteins Shuttle specific substances across membrane Types of Membrane Proteins Enzymes Catalyze specific reactions Receptor proteins Bind cellular signals Signaling proteins / Recognition proteins Enable cells to identify and interact with each other Cell Membrane Components: Carbohydrates Branched polymers attached to extracellular surface Forms sugar coating (glycocalyx) of cells Functions Lubricated surface Protect underlying proteins Cell recognition The Cytoplasm 2

3 semi-liquid, gel-like contains various dissolved materials, enzymes, etc. cytoskeleton = network of protein fibers throughout cytosol structure movement Cytosol Ribosomes Large protein-rna complexes Found free floating in cytosol or attached to endoplasmic reticulum synthesize proteins based on RNA codes Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum (RER) Coated with ribosomes Synthesis of proteins for: Cell membranes Interior (lumen) of membrane-bound organelles Export out of the cell Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum (SER) No ribosomes Functions Lipid synthesis Ca 2+ storage Vesicular release Golgi Apparatus Stacks of flattened sacs Functions: processes ER products into final form sort and direct finished products to final destinations (intracellular or extracellular) vesicles - small membrane coated chambers used to transport materials Lysosome Sac-like organelles which contain enzymes Break down large molecules cell s digestive system Destroy bacteria, old organelles, etc. 3

4 Mitochondria Surrounded by two membranes Possess own DNA Power generators of the cell Convert food energy (e.g., glucose) to usable form ATP high energy compound. major source of metabolic energy for the cell Cell's "control center" Largest organelle Surrounded by nuclear envelope Contains DNA genetic information in form of nucleic acid polymers instructs synthesis of proteins The Nucleus Deoxyribonucleic acid Polymer of nucleotides base + sugar + phosphate Four different bases adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), thymine (T) alternate in order Four-letter alphabet Double helix Two strands linked together by hydrogen bonds Complementary sequences DNA Structure Genes and Chromosomes Genes sequences of DNA containing information needed to make proteins with the proper amino acid sequence DNA is wrapped around proteins to form Chromosomes 46 per human cell 23 different types pairs of homologous one of each pair inherited from each parent DNA function Information in DNA used to make proteins 1. Transcription: sequence of DNA copied into an RNA (ribonucleic acid) molecule 2. Translation RNA sequence read by ribosomes to generate a protein with a specific amino acid sequence 4

5 Cell Reproduction Reproduction of cells (cell division) requires : copying of the DNA () distribution of to daughter cells Two types of cell division mitosis (most cells) meiosis (gametes) Cells duplicate all their One copy of each of the 46 is distributed to each of the daughter cells. Mitosis Meiosis Occurs only in gametes Cells duplicate all Cells undergo two separate divisions each daughter cell has 23 total Gametes combine to form a new cell (zygote) with 46 5

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