Characteristics of water

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1 Characteristics of water Boiling point sea level, higher altitudes? Freezing point - 32F Specific heat 1.0 Ammonia has highest ice and steam SH =.5 Specific weight 1.0 Latent heat of fusion 144 BTU/lb. Latent heat of vaporization 970 BTU/lb. PH 7 neutral (less is acid more is base) Mpemba (IM PEM BAH)effect

2 Altitude affects boiling point Altitude (ft) Altitude (m) Pressure (mm-hg) Temp. F Temp. C

3 Specific weight of water = 1.0 Aluminum 2.7 Copper 8.96 Iron 7.87 Lead 11.3 Brass 8.4 Magnesium 1.74 Zinc 7.14 Lead 11.3 Water 1.00 Ice Specific weight of oils =

4 Temperature Density Specific Weight - t - - ρ - ( o - γ - F) (slugs/ft 3 ) (lb/ft 3 ) (lb/gallon)

5 Specific heat Specific heat of water = 1 Material (cal/g C) (J/kg K) (cal/g) (J/kg) Aluminum x10 5 Copper x10 5 Iron x10 5 Lead x10 5 Brass Unknown Unknown Magnesium x10 5 Zinc x10 5 Styrofoam Unknown Unknown Air N/A N/A Water N/A N/A Ice

6 BTU s required to heat water It takes 1 BTU to heat 1 pound of water 1 degree F BTU s = pounds X temp. diff.

7 Latent heat of fusion Pounds x 144 BTU s

8 Latent heat of vaporization Pounds x 970 BTU s

9 Heat 200 pounds of 20F to 220F.

10 PH factor Pure water = 7 (neutral) Above 7 alkaline, tends to scale Below 6 acidic, tends to corrode Maintaining temperature below 160F tends to inhibit scaling in an open system. A close system generally will not scale at higher temperatures.

11 Mpemba effect Discovered in 1969 by student in Tanzania, Africa Hot water freezes before cold water WHY? 1. Good conduction no frost 2. Convection currents more active and reduced insulating ice. 3. Evaporative effect 4. Warm water has less gaseous impurities

12 GAMA Gas Appliance Manufacturers Association

13 Operating cost Step 1. BTU s = Lbs X TD Step 2 Fuel = BTU s BTU per unit X EF BTU s per unit Oil- 144,000 per gallon Natural gas 100,000 per therm or 100 cubic feet LP gas 94,000 per gallon Electric 3413 per KW

14 Water mixing formulas What will temperature be if degrees are mixed with degree Temp = (Q1 X Temp1) + (Q2 x Temp2)/ (Temp2 + Temp1) = (60 X 120F) + (30 X 60F) / (120F + 60F) = ( ) / 180 = 9000/180 = 112.5F

15 Water mixing formula 2 If the cold water is 60F and there is 40 gals of 140F water available, how many gals can be 95F Q1 = Q2 x TD tank TD desired = 40 gals. X (140F-60F) 95F 60F = 40 gals. X 80F 35F = = 91.4 gallons What happens when we lower the temperature to 120F?

16 Recovery Rate Burner capacity X efficiency 8.33 x temp. rise

17 Recovery Rate A 40,000 BTUH WH, 80% efficient, is capable of supplying gallons per hour at an 80F temperature rise. 1. Determine net output 40,000 BTUH x.80 = 32,000 BTUH 2. Determine amount BTU s needed to raise one gallon 80F 8.33 X 80 = Recovery rate = 32, = 48 gals per hour

18 First hour rating First hour rating = recovery rate + tank capacity = 48 gals gal. tank = 88 gals.

19 Affect of GPM on temp rise Temp. Rise = BTUH (output) GPM X = 8.33lbs. X 60 min.

20 Converting metric to imperial Gallons = liters 3.79 Liters = gallons X 3.79

21 Converting Fahrenheit to Celsius and VS F = (9/5 X C) + 32 C = 5/9 X (F 32)

22 Calculating volume Volume of square or rectangular shaped building = area X height, or length X 9 Volume = length X width x height = 30 X 40 X 9 = 10,800 cubic feet Volume of a triangular building = area of triangle X length or height Step 1. Area of triangle = length X height 2 = 24 X 6 2 = 72 sq. ft. Step 2. Volume of triangle = area X length = 72 sq. ft. X 50 = 3600 cubic feet Volume of a cylinder = Area of circle X length of cylinder 10 Step 1. Area of circle = π X Radius 2 or πr 2 = 3.14 X (5 X 5 ) = 3.14 X 25 square feet = 78.5 square feet 30 Step 2. Volume of cylinder = area of circle X length of cylinder = 78.5 square feet X 30 = 2355 cubic feet

23 Gallons = cubic feet / 7.48 Weight = cubic feet X 62.3 lbs. or = gallons X 8.33 lbs.

24 Selecting a water heater Conventional Storage Water Heaters Demand (Tankless or Instantaneous) Water Heaters Heat Pump Water Heaters Solar Water Heaters Tankless Coil and Indirect Water Heaters

25 Conventional Storage Water Heaters

26 Demand (Tankless or Instantaneous) Water Heaters

27 Heat Pump Water Heaters

28 Solar Water Heaters

29 Tankless Coil and Indirect Water Heaters

30 Metlund or Chilipepper system

31 Heat traps

32 FVIR Flammable vapor ignition resistance A device to prevent ignited vapors from passing out of the combustion chamber A one way intake system to control the movement of makeup air into the combustion chamber An inner door and burner assembly to create a sealed junction with the combustion chamber, preventing combustion air and flammable vapors from entering the chamber through the front of the water heater

33 FVIR- Troubleshooting Flammable vapor ignition resistance 1. The installation environment may be dirty. 2. Temperature conditions exceed the TCO switch cutoff limit. Temperatures exceed 115 F 3. The water heater may be starved for combustion air. Don t forget an electric dryer, it also consumes air. 4. There may not be a draft at the water heater draft hood. 5. A flammable vapor incident has occurred.

34 N.C. Plumbing Code Chapter 5 Section 501- water heater must be set at 120F. If the water heater is used for space heating it may be set above 120F. If the temperature is above 140F a master tempering valve must be installed. (ASSE 1017). Customer may set temperature above 120F but no one else may

35 Section Water heater source of ignition must be 18 above garage floor. Both fossil fuel and electric. Exception: FVIR appliances

36 Mechanical Code Section Water heaters used for space heating must be approved for such use. Note: When replacing a water heater used for heating be sure to replace with same BTUH rating.

37 Gas pipe sizing Natural gas LP gas

38 Venting single appliance

39 How house pressurization affects gas flame

40 Tax credits for solar WH Federal - 30% until 2016 no limit North Carolina 35% - $1400 limit

41 Solar water heating Solar constant =429.2 BTU s per sq. ft Btuh per sq. ft. reach the earth Three types of solar energy to be collected Direct 300 Btu/sq. ft. Diffuse 50 Btu/sq. ft. Reflected 60 Btu/sq. ft.

42 Insolation Average KWH/sq. meter/ year

43 Collector orientation Face TRUE south (15 degree variation) Tilt angle = degree latitude - water heating only Degree latitude plus 15 degrees - space heating (10 degree variation acceptable)

44 Flat plate collector Glazing selection High shortwave transmittnace ( micrometers) Low longwave transmitance (greater than 3.0 micrometers) Low absorbance at all wavelenghts Excellent weatherabilty

45 Single vs Double Glazing For water heating only single glazing is all that s needed in our area. Areas of low insolation would benefit with double glazing

46 Absorber Plate Black Paint vs Selective Surface 97% absorbtion 97% emisstivity 95% absorbtion 9-12% emisstivity

47 Collector sizing 20 square feet per person for first two 8 square feet each person thereafter (sun belt) square foot per person(north)

48 Corrosion Control Prevent direct connection of anodic and cathodic metals or supply sacrificial anodes. Corroded end (anodic) Magnesium Zinc Aluminum Carbon steel Brass Tin Copper Bronze Stainless steel Protected end (cathodic)

49 Storage tank sizing 1.5 gallons per square foot collector area. 2 gallons per square foot in very sunny areas These rules of thumb will prevent overheating

50 Transfer Fluids Water + cheap, high heat content, safe freezes, suports galvanic corrosion, boils at low temperature, promotes scale formation Water/Glycol + will not freeze above 35F, can handle corrosion inhibitors - Must be replaced regularly, not stable at high temperatures, boils slightly above water Hydrocarbons + Low cost, no freezing problems, nontoxic - breakdown at high temperatures (become acidic), thicken when cold causing pump overload. Silicon Fluids + do not freeze, do not boil, do not corrode, will last LOS - Initial cost

51 Controls

52

53 Pump sizing Collector loop Determine the head +adjusted friction losses Determine the GPM water- GPM = sq.ft. collector X.015 Silicon - GPM = sq. ft. collector X.039 Storage loop Use manufactures specs

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