EMI Filter Design for an Isolated DC-DC Boost Converter Ishtiyaq Ahmed Makda (PhD Research Fellow) Morten Nymand (Supervisor)

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1 EMI Filter Design for an Isolated DC-DC Boost Converter Ishtiyaq Ahmed Makda (PhD Research Fellow) Morten Nymand (Supervisor) Maersk Mc-Kinney Moller Institute, University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark

2 Outline: Introduction DC-DC Converter in Electric Vehicles System Definition Common Mode EMI Filter Design and important outcomes Differential Mode EMI Filter Design Conclusion 2

3 Introduction: One of the most critical issues for the environment today is pollution generated by hydrocarbon combustion However, today it is one of the main sources for transportation But, hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) and full electric vehicles (EV) are rapidly advancing as an alternative One of the key blocks inside HEV and EV is the DC DC converter This converter has to be capable of handling the energy transfer from the low voltage DC bus and the high voltage DC bus (used for the electric traction) 3

4 EV Drive System: Some design considerations are essential for automotive applications: Reliable Light weight Small volume High efficiency Low electromagnetic interference (EMI) 4

5 Ultra High Efficiency Converter: Primary Parallel Isolated Full Bridge Boost Converter (Invented by Morten Nymand) 5

6 Vital Features: Input voltage range= 30 to 60V dc High Output Voltage > 360V o Maximum efficiency is 98% Power ranges from 1.5 to 10kW Power loss reduced by factor 4 as compared to the state-of-the-art Reduced converter size and weight 6

7 Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) Conducted Emission Radiated Emission Differential Mode (DM) Noise Common Mode (CM) Noise 7

8 Common Mode (CM) & Differential Mode (DM) Noise: Differential-Mode Noise Flows on Line and take return path from Neutral Currents flowing around loops Easy to understand Ref: pdf Common-Mode Noise Flows on Line and Neutral simultaneously and take return path from chassis Involves parasitic Currents flow around loops usually involving parasitic capacitances More difficult to understand The noise source and current path must first be visualized and understood before a solutions can be determined 8

9 9 Common Mode (CM) noise Generation mechanism, modelling and filter design

10 Motivation: In high current applications, transformer needs extensive interleaving of primary and secondary windings to reduce the proximity effect Such a transformer exhibits large capacitive coupling between primary and secondary windings This large capacitive coupling is known to create large CM noise in the converter Therefore we are analyzing the impact of large coupling capacitance on CM noise However, surprisingly enough, this study shows that this inherently large capacitive coupling has very little influence on the CM noise current propagation in the converter 10

11 Major CM Noise Source (Transformer Coupling Capacitance): Transformer Coupling Capacitance (C SPS ) as a major CM noise source Transformer Winding Arrangement How Big is the Transformer Coupling Capacitance? C SPS of one transformer is 3.7nF Two transformers in parallel, so CSPS is 7.4nF 11

12 CM Noise Voltage Generation Mechanism: State 1: When all primary switches are ON and the energy is being stored in the inductor L1 Equivalent Circuit of Converter during State 1 Both transformer primary windings are clamped to primary return Average primary winding voltages during this state is therefore zero All secondary rectifier diodes are reverse biased and OFF energy is supplied to the load by C1 capacitor Potential of Secondary winding float coupled to secondary return potential only through parasitic junction capacitances of diodes and heat sink Both transformer secondary windings have the same potential 12

13 CM Noise Voltage Generation Mechanism (Cont.): State 2: When only two diagonal primary switches in each bridge are ON Equivalent Circuit of Converter during State 2 Two series connected transformer secondary windings are connected to output voltage V o Average voltage of the two series connected secondary windings (at node A w.r.t secondary return) is half of the output voltage, i.e. V o /2 Due to turns ratio of two transformers, the average potential on each of the two primary windings will be at half of the reflected output voltage w.r.t. primary return, i.e. V o /4n 13

14 CM Noise Model (Cont.): C par,ps is the transformer coupling capacitance (in nf) which is in series with the parasitic diode capacitances (in off-state) NEWS: Total effective capacitance is a few hundred of pf and hence C SPS has a very little influence on the CM noise propagation in the converter 14

15 CM Noise Suppression: Two noise suppression measures has been taken: CM noise model with 1 st noise suppression measure CM noise model with two noise suppression measure C eff = C SPS 1 + C SD 1 1 = 358 pf (4) 15

16 16 Validity of the CM Noise Model:

17 Experimental Setup: EMI Test Receiver Digital Function Generator Digital Oscilloscope Input power source LISN Power Converter (DUT) Current Probe 17

18 Experimental Results (Cont.): (a) (b) (a) CM noise without capacitors Y1, Y2 and L CM (b) CM noise with capacitors Y1 and Y2 only (c) CM noise with Y1, Y2 and L CM (c) 18

19 Conclusion for CM Noise Filter: A CM noise model for an isolated full-bridge boost converter has been presented Since the inherently large transformer coupling capacitance (in nf) is in series with output rectifier diode parasitic capacitances (in pf), the effect of the large transformer coupling capacitance is effectively eliminated Large transformer turns ratio further reduces the magnitude of the injected CM noise voltage in low input voltage high power isolated boost converters Therefore, despite of a much larger transformer coupling capacitance, lowvoltage high-current converters have lower CM noise and thus requires less common mode attenuation 19

20 20 Differential Mode (DM) noise filter design

21 Filter Design Process 1. Measurement of inductor ripple current and calculation of amplitude odd harmonics 2. Calculation of attenuation requirement at worst case frequency 3. Cutoff frequency calculation and determination of filter order 4. Sizing of filter capacitor 5. Inductor calculation 6. Filter damping branch 7. Selection of components 8. Simulation and experimental results 21

22 Filter Order and Cut-off frequency Since 75dB of attenuation is required, 4 th order LC filter is employed 22

23 23 DM EMI Filter Hardware

24 24 Experimental Results

25 25 Thank you for your attention

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