# Law of Reflection. The angle of incidence (i) is equal to the angle of reflection (r)

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1 Light GCSE Physics

2 Reflection

3 Law of Reflection The angle of incidence (i) is equal to the angle of reflection (r) Note: Both angles are measured with respect to the normal. This is a construction line that is perpendicular to the reflecting surface at the point of incidence. normal angle of incidence, i angle of reflection, r incident ray reflected ray mirror

4 The image formed by a plane mirror object image normals construction lines (virtual light rays) plane mirror The image produced by the plane mirror is: 1. The same size as the object 2. The same distance behind the mirror as the object is in front 3. Upright (the same way up as the object) 4. Back-to-front compared with the object (lateral inversion) 5. Virtual

5 Real and virtual images REAL images are formed where light rays cross after reflection by a mirror or refraction by a lens. Real images can be cast onto a screen. Example: A projector image VIRTUAL images are formed where light rays only appear to come from. A virtual image cannot be cast onto a screen. Example: The image formed by a plane mirror

6 Choose appropriate words to fill in the gaps below: The law of reflection states that the angle of reflection is always equal to the angle of incidence. Both angles are measured relative to the, normal a line that is at ninety degrees to the reflecting surface at the point of reflection. A plane mirror forms a virtual image which is unlike a real image in that it cannot be cast onto a screen. The image in a plane mirror is also the same size and the same way up as the object. WORD SELECTION: normal virtual size reflection real equal ninety

7 Simulations Optical illusions - by echalk BBC KS3 Bitesize Revision: KS3 Light Contents Page What is light? Seeing Test bite on KS3 Light Law of Reflection - NTNU - features a movable plane mirror Reflection in a plane mirror - echalk

8 Balloon blasting game - echalk Simulations Height of mirror and image seen - NTNU Virtual image formation - echalk Image formed by a plane mirror - NTNU Reflection and images from two mirrors at 90 degrees to each other - NTNU Law of Reflection - Crocodile Clip Presentation BBC KS3 Bitesize Revision: Reflection & Scattering

9 Concave mirror A concave mirror is like the inside of a spoon. centre of curvature C principal focus F principal axis focal length, f concave mirror O centre of the mirror radius of curvature, r

10 Convex mirror A convex mirror is like the outside of a spoon. convex mirror principal focus principal axis O F C centre of curvature focal length, f radius of curvature, r

11 Mirror definitions The principal axis is a construction line that is perpendicular to and passes through the centre of the mirror, O. The principal focus, F is the point through which all rays travelling parallel to the principal axis before reflection pass through or appear to come from after reflection. The focal length, f is the distance from the centre of the mirror, O to the principal focus, F. The centre of curvature, C is the centre of the circle of which the surface of the mirror is a part. The radius of curvature, r is the distance along the principal axis between the centre of the mirror, O and the centre of curvature and equal to TWICE the focal length, f of the mirror.

12 Standard rays concave mirror (a) Rays incident parallel to the principal axis pass through the principal focus after reflection. concave mirror principal axis F

13 (b) Rays passing through the centre of curvature before reflection are reflected back along their initial path. centre of curvature F principal axis C

14 (c) Rays striking the centre of the mirror are reflected as if the mirror was flat. O

15 Concave mirror images 1. Object more than the radius of curvature away from the mirror. object C image F O Use: Satellite receiver (with microwaves) The image formed is: Smaller than the object (diminished) Between F and C Inverted (upside down) Real

16 2. Object between F and C object C F O image Use: Satellite transmitter (with microwaves) The image formed is: Larger than the object (magnified) Beyond C Inverted Real

17 3. Object nearer than the principal focus C F object image observer Use: Makeup and shaving mirrors The image formed is: Larger than the object On the other side of the mirror from the object Upright Virtual

18 Standard rays convex mirror (a) Rays incident parallel to the principal axis appear to come from the principal focus after reflection. convex mirror principal axis F

19 (b) Rays heading for the centre of curvature before reflection are reflected back along their initial paths. convex mirror principal axis F C

20 (c) Rays striking the centre of the mirror are reflected as if the mirror was flat. O

21 Convex mirror images Objects at all distances from a convex mirror object image F C observer Use: Security mirrors The image formed is: Smaller than the object On the other side of the mirror from the object Upright Virtual Convex mirrors give a wide field of view

22 Magnification Question: magnification = image height object height Calculate the magnification if a mirror produces an image of 40cm from an 8cm sized object. magnification = image height / object height = 40cm / 8cm magnification = 5 x

23 Complete: Answers object height image height magnification 3 cm 24 cm 15 cm 8 x 45 cm 3 x 5 cm 20 cm 0.25 x 300 mm 0.10 m 3 x

24 Choose appropriate words to fill in the gaps below: There are two types of curved mirror, concave and convex. Concave mirrors look like the inside of a spoon. Concave mirrors converge light parallel to the principal axis so that all the rays pass through the principal focus. Makeup mirrors can be concave in order to provide a magnified view of the face. Light is diverged by convex mirrors. These always produce virtual images and are used to provide a wide field of view which is especially useful for car rear view mirrors. WORD SELECTION: converge magnified concave principal car convex inside virtual

25 Simulations Lens / mirror effect on a beam of light - NTNU Tiger image formation by a plane or curved mirror - NTNU Mirage of pig formed by a concave mirror - includes UTube clip - NTNU Curved mirror images / ray diagrams - NTNU

26 Refraction

27 Refraction occurs when a wave changes speed as it passes from one region to another. This speed change usually causes the wave to change direction. Water waves slow down as they pass over from a deeper to a shallower region. Light slows down as it passes from air into glass, perspex or water.

28 Refraction of light at a plane surface (a) Less to more optical dense transition (e.g. air to glass) AIR GLASS normal angle of incidence angle of refraction Light bends TOWARDS the normal. The angle of refraction is LESS than the angle of incidence.

29 (b) More to less optical dense transition (e.g. water to air) normal angle of refraction angle of incidence WATER AIR Light bends AWAY FROM the normal. The angle of refraction is GREATER than the angle of incidence.

30 Refraction experiment Typical results: angle of incidence / angle of refraction / deviation / No deviation occurs when the angle of incidence is zero. Increasing the angle of incidence increases the deviation.

31 Why a pool appears shallow normals observer AIR WATER image object at the bottom of a pool

32 Complete the paths of the RED light rays: A B D C E F

33 Dispersion A prism splits the colours of white light into the spectrum. This is called dispersion. Violet light deviates the most, red the least. white light prism spectrum

34 Choose appropriate words to fill in the gaps below: Refraction occurs when a wave changes speed as it crosses the boundary between two regions. The direction of the wave also usually changes. Light rays deviate towards the normal when they pass from less dense air to more dense. perspex The greater the angle of incidence the greater is the. deviation Different colours of light deviate by different amounts. Violet deviates the. most A prism can be used to split the colours of white light into a spectrum. This is called. dispersion WORD SELECTION: towards deviation most dispersion direction perspex speed colours

35 Simulations Refraction - Powerpoint presentation by KT Light Refraction - Fendt Reflection & Refraction at a boundary - NTNU Refraction animation - NTNU - Does not show TIR effect Law of Refraction - Crocodile Clip Presentation Prism - non dispersive reflections and refractions - NTNU Prism/Lens - non dispersive refraction and reflections - NTNU BBC KS3 Bitesize Revision: Refraction Light moving from water to air - NTNU Where is the fish? - refraction by water - NTNU

36 The appearance of an object under water / ray diagram - NTNU How a fish sees the world - NTNU Fibre optic reflection - NTNU BBC Bitesize Revision: Optical fibres Dispersion - Powerpoint presentation by KT Dispersion of light using a prism - NTNU - prism apex angle can be changed Prism showing light dispersion for different colours - Explore Science Dispersion - Crocodile Clip Presentation Sequential Puzzle on Colour Spectrum order- by KT - Microsoft WORD Prism - multishape prism and single light ray - no extra reflections - netfirms BBC KS3 Bitesize Revision: Dispersion

37 Lenses

38 Converging lens With glass and plastic lenses a converging lens has a convex shape. Converging lens with a parallel beam of light centre of the lens principal focus principal axis O F converging lens focal length, f

39 Diverging lens With glass and plastic lenses a diverging lens has a concave shape. Diverging lens with a parallel beam of light principal focus F O principal axis focal length, f diverging lens

40 Lens definitions The principal axis is a construction line that is perpendicular to and passes through the centre of the lens. The principal focus, F is the point through which all rays travelling parallel to the principal axis before refraction pass through or appear to come from after refraction. The focal length, f is the distance from the centre of the lens, O to the principal focus, F.

41 Standard rays converging lens (a) Rays incident parallel to the principal axis pass through the principal focus after refraction. principal focus principal axis F

42 (b) Rays passing through the centre of the lens are not deviated. O centre of the lens

43 (c) Rays passing through the principal focus before refraction are refracted parallel to the principal axis. principal axis F F

44 Converging lens images 1. Object more than twice the focal length distant from a converging lens object 2F O F 2F F image Uses: Camera and Eye The image formed is: Smaller than the object (diminished) Between the F and 2F Inverted (upside down) Real

45 2. Object between F and 2F object 2F F F 2F image Use: Projector The image formed is: Larger than the object (magnified) Beyond 2F Inverted Real

46 3. Object nearer than the principal focus image F object F observer Uses: Magnifying glass The image formed is: Larger than the object On the same side of the lens as the object Upright Virtual

47 Standard rays diverging lens (a) Rays incident parallel to the principal axis appear to come from the principal focus after refraction. diverging lens principal axis F

48 (b) Rays passing through the centre of the lens are not deviated. O

49 (c) Rays heading for the principal focus before refraction are deviated parallel to the principal axis. O F principal axis

50 Diverging lens images Objects at all distances from a diverging lens object F image observer Use: Correction of short sight The image formed is: Smaller than the object On the same side of the lens as the object Upright Virtual

51 The camera uses a converging lens to produce an image on a light detecting surface such as a CCD (Charge Coupled Device) chip or photographic film. The Camera

52 In most cases the subject (object) is well more than twice the focal length of the lens away from the camera. The image produced is therefore: diminished, inverted and real. subject (object) F F image produced on CCD or film 2F

53 Structure of a simple camera shutter CCD or film lens aperture Focussing is achieved by moving the lens away from or towards the light detector. The further the subject is away from the camera the closer the lens is moved towards the CCD / film. The amount of light reaching the light detector is controlled by adjusting the size of the stop aperture and the length of time that the shutter opens.

54 Choose appropriate words to fill in the gaps below: Lenses work by the process of. refraction A converging lens is made by using a convex shaped piece of glass or perspex. A magnifying glass requires the object to be placed nearer than its focal length. The image formed is. virtual A projection lens produces a magnified and inverted image whereas a camera lens normally produces a diminished image. In both cases the image is. real Diverging lenses are used to correct sight. short WORD SELECTION: convex magnified short refraction nearer real virtual diminished

55 Simulations Geometric Optics with Lenses - PhET - How does a lens form an image? See how light rays are refracted by a lens. Watch how the image changes when you adjust the focal length of the lens, move the object, move the lens, or move the screen. Prism/Lens - no dispersive refraction and reflections - NTNU Lens images / ray diagrams - NTNU How an image is formed by a convex lens / effect of stopping down lens - NTNU Lens / mirror effect on a beam of light - NTNU

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