Current Status of Soil Researches in Turkey

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1 General Directorate of Agricultural Researches and Policies Current Status of Soil Researches in Turkey Presenter: Bülent Sönmez PhD Moscow-2013

2 Research activities on soil development Agricultural Research Institutes (48), MoFAL by soil and water resources research departments of the Institutes Located in different parts of the country regional, national, international And also related departments of Universities in Turkey.

3 The mission statement To contribute to the cost-effective and sustainable agricultural use of the land and water resources of Turkey

4 Major Problems Of Turkish Soils Land use and problems Mha Arable Land Irrigable Land Rainfed Agriculture Presently Irrigated 5.30 Salinity 1.50 Other Soil Related Constraints; Low AWC in rainfed soils Poor quality soils, soil depth Depleted of nutrients and SOC Waterlogging 2.70 Erosion risk 57.00

5 Soil salinity Soil characteristicsmost of the parent materials consist of salt rich minerals Both salinity and alkalinity are mainly caused by sodium salts hectares of irrigation areas in Turkey are affected by salinization

6 Much of the agricultural lands suffer from shortage of rainfall Increased Frequency of Mediterranean Drought Source: M.Sıkamuvar et all, WMO Climate Change in West Asia and North Africa, 2011 Climate is the main factor for agricultural production Drought is increasing most places It is necessary to develop well-considered strategies dealing with food security and climate change adaptation. In this context, the main purpose is to ensure the sustainable and productive use of soil and water resources

7 Sustainable agricultural production and food security Agricultural lands need irrigation (WATER EFFICIENCY) Struggling with water loss and leakage, developing standards Improving water management, irrigation and salinity control to anticipate water scarcity Protecting the natural resource base (ENVIRONMENT ) to get high quality standards, products, clean and sustainable resources (SOIL AND WATER)

8 Agricultural Research Master Plan ( ) Sustainable use of soil-water resources, Soil and water information systems Climate change and catchment management Agricultural drought and its impacts, Efficient water use

9 The science-policy nexus The strategy is to grow more produce from less land, more crop per drop of water, more yield per unit input of fertilizers and pesticides, more food per unit of energy, more biomass per unit C and environmental foot-print.

10 Key programs for improving food security Improving soil quality and fertility Increasing agricultural water productivity in water stressed regions Projected precipitation decline in the area around the Mediterranean between and the period (source: Christensen et al., 2007). Hatched: non-tropical drylands; cross-hatched: deserts; International Conference on Climate Change in WANA, 2011

11 Development of soil fertility in Turkey Development of soil fertility Determination of fertilizer requirements have been involved in national and collaborative research programmes and agricultural development projects The results of the many fertilizer application researches, from all over the country for different crops are evaluated to protect and improve the sustainable fertility of agricultural soils.

12 Precision farming is the management of agricultural crops using information technology at a spatial scale smaller than of the whole field (CA and Mediterranean region) Base Station phosphorus, herbicide, EC, and yield maps Radio antenna and GPS Satellite computer and RS % fertilizer and herbicide saving is possible Yield mapping device

13 Develop biological and physical measures to combat soil erosion Crop residues and roots improve soil permeability Mulching reduce evaporation losses and also decrease the opportunity for soil salinization. Green manures improve physical properties of the soil Growing legumes will improve soil structure and act as a source of nitrogen in the soil. (Source: R.Lal Ohio State University; M. Solh ICARDA, AARINENA Retreat 2010, B.A. Stewart)

14 Increase agricultural water productivity Store water Improve irrigation Change irrigation system

15 Yield reduction Avoiding salinization in the cotton growing area (Aegean Region) %120 %100 Effect of deficit irrigation on cotton yield in Aegean Region of Turkey %80 %60 TEŞEKKÜRLER EC irrigation water 600 mhos/cm %40 %20 %0 %0 %20 %40 %60 %80 deficit ratio The amount of salt which will be added to the soil is 0,384 ton per hectare by each irrigation Total cotton sowing area : : Ha The amount of area to be gained which will be irrigated with the saved irrigation water (58 500*0,67) : Ha

16 Reclamation criteria of salt affected soils REGIONS EC ESP Boron Texture Precipitation GR Leaching Water (ds/m) (%) (ppm) (Class) (mm) ( t/ha) ( Dlw: mm) CENTRAL ANATOLIA Konya-Ereğli C Plain MEDITERRANEAN Aşağı Seyhan C Plain EAST ANATOLIA Iğdır Plain C AGEAN Menemen Plain Low SiL SOUTHEAST Harran Plain C BLACKSEA Bafra Plain SiL

17 Land reclamation in GAP Harran plain o Southeastern Anatolian Project (GAP) o Irrigated area: hectares o Problem area: hectares Kaynak: GTHB-TRGM, 2013

18 Soil reclamation in GAP Harran plain o years reclaimed area: hectares o Previous reclaimed area: hectares Soyrce: GTHB-TRGM, 2013

19 Monitoring of soil salinity with wireless sensor networks Sensors and sensor networks; develop water and salinity budgets for seasonal real time soil salinity management (electrical conductivity/salinity and temperature) and monitoring information. allow producers to maximize their productivity while saving water.

20 Soil salinity management by Halophytic vegetation (Central Anatoila) Treatment Years EC ds/m ,12 Atriplex lentiformis , , ,47

21 National geo-database for agricultural soils The research data is vitally important for sustainable use of soil and water resources Making researches at solutions is possible only by developing the present database for the sustainable use of natural resources Not established national geo-database for some soil properties related to fertility, soil nutrients and SOC

22 Soil database and related topics The research database and maps to be obtained by GDAR-FAO project has an intention to meet the important needs of related topics and Institutions in Turkey. The studies on, Climate change, Biodiversity, Soil fertility, Soil degradation, Land use planning Rural developments Natural resources contaminations, Integrated Basin Management

23 Soil-based green revolution No matter how powerful the seed technology. The seedlings emerging from it can flourish only in a healthy soil. degrading and desertifying soils prone to drought stress and other extreme events, and ever depleting and dwindling the soil resource base, it is the right time to develop and implement sciencedriven programs based on basic principles of sustainable soil management. Source: International Conference on Adaptation to CC and Food Security in WANA. Kuwait 2011, IWMI 2006

24 TEŞEKKÜRLER Thanks

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