# CHAPTER 6: ANSWERS TO ASSIGNED PROBLEMS Hauser- General Chemistry I revised 8/03/08

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1 CHAPTER 6: ANSWERS TO ASSIGNED PROBLEMS Hauser- General Chemistry I revised 8/03/ What are the basic SI units for? (a) the wavelength of light meters, although colors are usually reported in 3 digit nanometers (nm) (b) the frequency of light 1/s or s -1 or Hertz or Hz (c) the speed of light meters / second or m/s or m s Label each of the following statements as true or false. For those that are false, correct the statement. (a) Visible light is a form of electromagnetic radiation. TRUE (b) The frequency of radiation increases as the wavelength increases. FALSE. Frequency and wavelength trend in opposite directions. The frequency of radiation DECREASES as the wavelength increases. (c) Ultraviolet light has longer wavelengths than visible light. FALSE. Ultraviolet light has SHORTER wavelengths than visible light. (d) X- rays travel faster than microwaves. FALSE. All EM radiation travels at the speed of light. X- rays travel at same speed as microwaves. (e) Electromagnetic radiation and sound waves travel at the same speed. FALSE. Sound is not a form of EM radiation. Electromagnetic radiation and sound waves travel at different speeds An argon ion laser emits light at 532 nm. What is the frequency of this radiation? What's nu? ν = c / λ Units of "c" demand meters; convert from nm. ν = = X = 5.64 X s -1 or Hz 532 nm 1 meter Using Figure 6.4, predict the color associated with this wavelength. 532 nm radiation is green light. 1

2 6.21 (a) A red laser pointer emits light with a wavelength of 650 nm. What is the frequency of this light? Prof H. notes that 650 has only 2 SF. ν = = X s -1 = 4.6 X s nm 1 meter (b) What is the energy of 1 mole of these photons? Planck's relationship: E = n h ν = (6.02 X photons / mol) (6.626 X J s) ( X s -1 ) = J = 1.8 X 10 5 J. (2 SF) note that "n" is a counting # and will not ever impact the sig figs 6.25 One type of sunburn occurs on exposure to UV light of wavelength in the vicinity of 325 nm. (a) What is the energy of a photon of this wavelength? To use Planck's relationship for a photon: E = h ν, we need frequency. Convert wavelength to frequency first (do not pre-round). KNOW YOUR TERMS / SYMBOLS! ν = = X s nm 1 meter E = h ν = (6.626 X J s) ( X s -1 ) = X J = 6.12 X J/ photon. (3 SF) 6.31 Explain how the existence of line spectra is consistent with Bohr s theory of quantized energies for the electron in the hydrogen atom. Quantized energy means that only certain energies can be gained or lost during excitation of an electron within an atom. If not true, ALL colors would be generated, not line spectra of certain colors (energies). ADDITIONAL EXERCISE # 4 What information does the square of the wavefunction give? ψ 2 = probability of finding an electron at a certain location. 2

3 6.49 (a) For n=4, what are the possible values of l? Since l = 0 (n-1), then l can equal 0, 1, 2, or 3 (b) For l =2, what are the possible values of m l? Since m l = ( -l 0 +l), then m l can equal -2, -1, 0, 1,2 (c) If m l is 2, what are the possible values for l? Since m l = ( -l 0 +l), then l must equal at least Which of the quantum numbers governs (a) the shape of an orbital l, the angular momentum quantum # (b) the energy of an orbital n, the principal quantum # (with contributions from "l") (c) the spin properties of the electron m s, spin magnetic quantum # (d) the spatial orientation of the orbital m l, the magnetic quantum # 6.51 Give the numerical values of n and l corresponding to each of the following orbital designations: Recall: s p d f g (a) 3p n = 3 l = 1 (b) 2s n = 2 l = 0 (c) 4f n = 4 l = 3 (d) 5d n = 5 l = Which of the following represent impossible combinations of n and l: (a) 1p IMPOSSIBLE Only n = 2 or higher can give l =1 (p) (b) 4s POSSIBLE (c) 5f POSSIBLE (d) 2d IMPOSSIBLE Only n = 3 or higher can give l =2 (d) ADDITIONAL EXERCISE # 5 Determine whether the following sets of quantum numbers are allowed or not allowed. If a set is not allowed, explain what is wrong with the given values. If a set is allowed, list the #-letter code for that orbital. RECALL: FOR THE MIDDLE TWO Q #s, A VALUE IS CONTROLLED BY THE PREVIOUS VALUE. n l m l m s a) /2 NOT When l =3, m l cannot = 4 b) /2 ALLOWED 3d c) /2 NOT When l = 0, m l cannot = 1 d) NOT m s must equal ½ (+ or -) 3

4 6.55 Sketch the shape and orientation of the following types of orbitals: (any orientation) s p d or 6.57 (a) What are the similarities and differences between the 1s and 2s orbitals of the hydrogen atom? While shaped the same (spherical), the 2s orbital is larger with a node in between the 1s and 2s orbital What is the maximum number of electrons that can occupy each of the following subshells: (a) 3p 6 (b) 5d 10 (c) 2s 2 (d) 4f Write the condensed electron configurations for the following atoms, using the appropriate noble gas core abbreviations: (a) Cs [Xe] 6s 1 (b) Ni [Ar] 4s 2 3d 8 (c) Se [Ar] 4s 2 3d 10 4p 4 (d) Cd [Kr] 5s 2 4d 10 (f) Pb [Xe] 6s 2 4f 14 5d 10 6p Ions also have electron configurations (Section 7.4). Cations have fewer valence electrons, and anions have more valence electrons, respectively, than their parent atoms. For example, chloride, Cl -, has an electron configuration of 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6, for a total of 18 electrons, compared to 17 for neutral chlorine, the element. Na has an electron configuration of 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 1, but Na + has an electron configuration of 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6. Write out the electron configurations for (a) F - 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 (c) O 2-1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 (e) Mg 2+ 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 See a pattern? 4

5 6.71 Identify the specific element that corresponds to each of the following electron configurations: (a) 1s 2 2s 2 (b) 1s 2 2s 2 2p 4 (c) [Ar] 4s 1 3d 5 (d) [Kr] 5s 2 4d 10 5p 4 (e) 1s 1 Be, beryllium O, oxygen Cr, chromium (exception) Te, tellurium H, hydrogen 6.73 What is wrong with the following electron configurations for atoms in their ground states? (a) ls 2 2s 2 3s 1 The 2p level should fill first. (b) [Ne] 2s 2 2p 3 The [Ne] already represents the complete second shell. (c) [Ne] 3s 2 3d 5 The 3p subshell should fill first, then 4s, then 3d. ADDITIONAL EXERCISE # 6 How many unpaired electrons are in the ground state of each of the following? APROACH: Write the electron configuration, then orbital diagram using Hund's Rule. Count unpaired electrons. a) the cobalt atom [Ar] 4s 2 3d 7 3 UNpaired e- 3d 3d 3d 3d 3d b) the tin atom [Kr] 5s 2 4d 10 5p 2 _ 2 UNpaired e- 5p 5p 5p c) the bromide ion [Ar]4s 2 3d 10 4p 6 Note: added 1 electron ZERO UNpaired 4p 4p 4p 5

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