# Force & Motion. Force & Mass. Friction

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1 Next Force & Motion The motion of an object can be changed by an unbalanced force. The way that the movement changes depends on the strength of the force pushing or pulling and the mass of the object. Forces have both a direction and a magnitude (size). Force & Mass A force is a push or a pull that acts on an object and may change its motion. Forces are needed to start, stop, or change the direction of an object's motion. The more force that is applied to an object, the greater the change in the object's motion. In other words, the harder an object is pushed, the faster it will move. But, if the same amount of force is used to move two objects with different masses, the object with less mass will move faster. For instance, if the woman in the picture below pushed two different lawn mowers using the same amount of force, the lawn mower with less mass would move faster. Friction Friction is a force that opposes motion. If an object is already moving, friction can slow it down or make it stop. For example, when a box is slid across the ground, it will only travel a certain distance before it stops. Friction is the force that brings it to a stop.

2 Objects on rough surfaces require more force to move. Objects on smooth surfaces require less force. Gravity Gravity is the force of attraction that exists between any two objects that have mass. Gravity keeps the planets orbiting around the Sun, and it pulls objects on Earth toward the Earth's center. For example, gravity causes fruit on a tree to fall to the ground. Gravity depends on the mass of the objects and the distance between them. The gravity we feel from Earth is very strong because we are close to the Earth and the mass of the Earth is very large. Net Force

3 A net force is the total unbalanced force acting on an object. A net force has a certain strength, or magnitude, and a direction. If the net force is not zero, then it will cause the object to speed up, slow down or change direction. Balanced forces have equal magnitudes (sizes) but opposite directions. When the forces on an object are balanced, the object does not accelerate because the net force is zero. When this happens, the object can either be moving at a constant velocity or at rest. The apple on the desk below is pulled downward by the force of gravity. This force equals the weight of the apple. The table simultaneously exerts a normal force that is equal in magnitude but opposite in direction pushing up on the apple. Since these forces are balanced, the apple does not accelerate in either direction. And since the apple was not in motion to begin with, it remains at rest.

4 Unbalanced forces have unequal magnitudes and/or directions. Unbalanced forces result in net forces that are not zero. An unbalanced force will change an object's speed and/or direction. When forces are unbalanced, the change in movement will take place in the direction of the net force. Average Speed Average speed is the total distance traveled divided by the total time elapsed. The speed of an object along the path traveled can vary. If you have 10 hours to drive 500 miles, your average speed must be no less than 50 miles per hour. If you slow down under 50 miles per hour, you must compensate by traveling faster than 50 miles per hour later, in order to travel the 500 miles in 10 hours or less. An object's average speed can be calculated with the following equation: The average speed of an object can be calculated from a position vs time graph. Consider the graph below.

5 Using the formula for an object's average speed, the object's average speed between 0 and 5 seconds is: Force & Motion Applications Vehicles and their propulsion systems are designed by analyzing the forces that act on them. Airplanes Airplanes are acted on by four main forces while in flight: lift weight

6 thrust drag This diagram shows direction of each of the main forces acting on airplanes. The forward force is the thrust. The airplane in the picture has jet engines that provide the thrust. Other types of airplanes have propellers that provide thrust. As an airplane moves forward, the force of air resistance pushes backward on it. This force is known as the drag. The drag always points in the direction opposite the object's motion. Different planes are designed to withstand different amounts of drag. The faster a plane moves, the more drag it is subjected to. The lift is the buoyant, upward force. The lift is caused by the shape of the plane's wings and always acts against the force of gravity (or weight). The weight is the downward force. The weight is caused by the plane's mass, which is acted on by the force of gravity. Automobiles Automobiles are subjected to many different types of forces. Automobile tires, for example, are acted on by the weight of the car, the force of air pressure, the push of the tire on the pavement as it rotates, and the force of friction pushing back against the rotation.

7 This diagram shows direction of each of the main forces acting on airplanes. When engineers are designing car tires, they need to consider all of these forces. Tires must be strong enough and contain enough air pressure to balance the force of gravity pulling the weight of the car down onto the them. Tires must also generate enough frictional force with the pavement to move a car forward. Engineers must also make certain that this frictional force is at least as strong as the force needed to stop a moving car. Roller Coasters Roller coasters move in many different directions and at many different speeds. As a result, roller coasters are acted on by many different forces at once.

8 This diagram shows direction of each of the main forces acting on airplanes. The forces generated by a roller coaster are due to its mass and acceleration. The total mass of the roller coaster is the sum of the total mass of the people on the roller coaster and the mass of the roller coaster itself. The roller coaster and people aboard will experience acceleration due to gravity and due to changes in direction. These factors result in multiple forces acting on a roller coaster at the same time. The directions of some of these forces change as the roller coaster moves.

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