1 Gamma Ray Attenuation Properties of Common Shielding Materials Daniel R. McAlister, Ph.D. PG Research Foundation, Inc. 955 University Lane Lisle, IL 60532, USA
2 Introduction In areas where people are likely to encounter ionizing radiation, it is often necessary to provide shielding to reduce exposure to gamma radiation. Common forms of shielding include rigid materials with limited portability, such as high density concrete, lead bricks, steel plates and cooling pools filled with water. The gamma attenuation of these materials has been widely studied, and the attenuation data is available in resources such as the Nation Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) XCOM database. In addition to these classic, well characterized shielding materials, composite materials are becoming increasingly available from shielding manufacturers. These composite materials range from simple advances, such as lead wool blankets with protective plastic covers, to more advanced materials, such as custom molded components constructed from high density metals dispersed in organic polymers. When evaluating the merits of these composite materials relative to the more classic forms of shielding, it is important to understand the basic principles that lead to gamma ray attenuation. Put simply, shielding, or the attenuation of gamma radiation, occurs through the interaction of the gamma radiation with matter. The degree to which gamma radiation is attenuated is dependent upon the energy of the incident gamma radiation, the atomic number and density of the elements in the shielding material, and the thickness of the shielding. Composite materials may offer additional benefits in chemical resistance, physical durability, and portability. However, the composite material will not exceed the gamma attenuation characteristics of an equal mass of the components used in its construction. This principle is often referred to as mass in the path. For example, a square foot of solid lead sheet will have essentially the same attenuation as a square foot lead wool blanket, as long as the two shields contain the same mass of lead. However, the lead wool blanket will be physically thicker than the solid lead sheet. A more detailed explanation of the principles of the attenuation of gamma radiation and additional examples of shielding types will be given in the following pages.
3 Attenuation of gamma radiation The attenuation of gamma radiation (shielding) can be described by the following equation 2,3 : I = I o e - t or I = I o e - d (equation ) I = intensity after shielding I o = incident intensity = mass absorption coefficient (cm 2 /g) d = thickness of absorber (g/cm 2 ) = density of absorber (g/cm 3 ) t = physical thickness of absorber (cm) In practical terms, I is the intensity of gamma radiation after interaction with the shielding material. I is dependent on I o, the initial intensity of the gamma radiation (before shielding),, the mass absorption coefficient for the shielding material, and d, the thickness (g/cm 2 ) of the shielding material (alternatively written as a product of the density (g/cm 3 ) and the physical thickness (cm) of the shielding material). The mass absorption coefficient is dependent on the energy of the incident gamma radiation and the elemental composition of the shielding material. Mass absorption coefficients can be determined by measuring I and I o for a shielding material of known thickness (d) and are available for a wide range of elements and composite materials from the National Institute for Standards and Technology (NIST) XCOM database. Once the mass absorption coefficient is known, the physical thickness (cm) of a given type of shielding material required to reduce the gamma radiation intensity to a desired level (ratio of I/I o ) can then be calculated by solving the shielding equation for t: t = ln(i/i o ) / (- ) (equation 2) Comparing the thicknesses of different materials needed to achieve the shielding requirements for a particular application, along with other factors, such as the cost, weight, and chemical and physical durability of the materials, will then allow one to choose the most appropriate type of shielding. Physical interactions leading to attenuation Shielding of gamma radiation primarily involves the interaction of gamma radiation with matter via three main processes 2,3 : ) photoelectric effect, 2) Compton scattering, and 3) pair production. In the photoelectric effect, a gamma ray interacts with an atom resulting in the ejection of an electron from the atom. The electron receives all of the energy of the gamma ray,
4 minus its atomic binding energy, and may induce secondary ionization events. The probability of the photoelectric effect is proportional to the atomic number (Z) of the absorbing element and inversely related to the energy of the gamma ray. Therefore, the photoelectric effect is most important for low energy gamma rays interacting with heavy elements such as lead and tungsten. Compton scattering is similar to the photoelectric effect, in that it involves the interaction of a gamma ray with an atomic electron, resulting in the ejection of the electron from the atom. However, in Compton scattering, only a portion of the energy of gamma ray is transferred to the electron. As with the photoelectric effect, the probability of Compton scattering is proportional to the atomic number of the absorbing element (Z) and inversely proportional to the energy of the gamma ray. Compton scattering is most likely to occur for gamma rays in the kev range and results in a continuum of scattered gamma ray energies from 250 kev below the highest energy of the incident gamma radiation (Compton gap) down to a minimum value dependent on the energy of the incident radiation. The minimum energy resulting from Compton scattering can be determined using the following equation: Energy minimum (in kev) = 5*Energy incident / (5+2*Energy incident ) (equation 3) Pair production is less common than the photoelectric effect or Compton scattering and occurs only for very high energy gamma rays (>022 kev). In pair production, a gamma ray is transformed into matter near the nucleus of an absorber atom in the form of an electron-positron pair. Incident gamma energy in excess of 022 kev is transferred to the electron-positron pair as kinetic energy. The positron will eventually undergo annihilation, producing two 5 kev gamma rays, and the electron may also induce addition ionization reactions. The likelihood of pair production, for gamma rays greater than 022 kev, is proportional to the square of the atomic number of the absorbing atom and the logarithm of the incident gamma energy. The contributions of Compton scattering, photoelectric absorption and pair production to the total mass absorption coefficient ( ) for each type of shielding, calculated using the NIST XCOM database, are plotted in Figure. The sum of these interactions is plotted as the total mass absorption coefficient. Lines in Figure Represent the XCOM calculations, while data points correspond to experimental measurements obtained as described later in the manuscript. Shielding of kev gamma radiation with materials containing high Z components, such as lead and tungsten, is achieved with a significant contribution from both Compton scattering and photoelectric absorption. However, shielding with materials containing low Z components, such as iron and water, is achieved primarily with Compton scattering.
5 mass absorption coefficient (, cm 2 /g) mass absorption coefficient (, cm 2 /g) Pb Sheet total 0.0 Photoelectric Compton E-3 E-4 Pair Production E Figure a. Attenuation of gamma radiation by solid lead sheet. Measured values (squares). XCOM calculated values (lines) total T-Flex (R) W 0.0 E-3 Photoelectric Compton Pair Production E-4 E Figure b. Attenuation of gamma radiation T-Flex W. Measured values (squares). XCOM calculated values (lines)
6 mass absorption coefficient (, cm 2 /g) mass absorption coefficient (, cm 2 /g) 0.0 E-3 total Photoelectric T-Flex (R) 50 Compton E-4 Pair Production E Figure c. Attenuation of gamma radiation T-Flex 50. Measured values (squares). XCOM calculated values (lines) 0.0 total T-Flex (R) Fe Compton E-3 Photoelectric Pair Production E-4 E Figure d. Attenuation of gamma radiation T-Flex Fe. Measured values (squares). XCOM calculated values (lines)
7 mass absorption coefficient (, cm 2 /g) mass absorption coefficient (, cm 2 /g) Fe Sheet 0.0 total Compton E-3 Photoelectric Pair Production E-4 E Figure e. Attenuation of gamma radiation solid iron sheet. Measured values (squares). XCOM calculated values (lines) 0.0 total H 2 O Compton E-3 Pair Production E-4 Photoelectric E Figure f. Attenuation of gamma radiation by water. Measured values (squares). XCOM calculated values (lines)
8 Experimental measurement of attenuation Gamma ray attenuation for shielding materials constructed from solid lead and steel sheets, quilted lead wool, tungsten and iron suspended in a silicone polymer, and water were measured. Lead wool blankets, tungsten suspended in polymer (T-Flex W, 88% by mass W), iron suspended in polymer (T-Flex Fe, 69% by mass Fe), and a blend of tungsten and iron suspended in polymer (T-Flex 50, 39% W and 39% Fe by mass) were obtained from Nuclear Power Outfitters (Lisle, IL). The energy of incident gamma radiation was varied using several gamma emitting sources: Ba-33 ( kev) 4, Sr-85 (53.99 kev), Cs-37 (66.66 kev), Co- 60 (73.23 and kev) and Eu-52 (48, 2.77, , , 964., , 2.08, and kev). Gamma radiation was measured using a high purity germanium (HpGe) detector (Ortec, Dspec Jr, 6 cm, 3% relative efficiency, liquid nitrogen cooled detector), and the apparatus depicted in Figure 2. Using the measured I, I o and d (g/cm2), the values for each type of shielding at the discreet gamma energies were calculated. Experimental values were compared to theoretical values calculated using the NIST XCOM database. The experimental values and theoretical values calculated using the XCOM database are plotted in Figures and 3. In general, there is very good agreement between the experimental and theoretical values. Source 2 cm Shielding Sample Sample Support Detector Shield 5 cm Detector 6 cm Figure 2. Attenuation measurement apparatus. Source: liquid source of radionuclide in 2mL borosilicate glass vial, enclosed in ½ inch lead pig with ¼ aperture at bottom. Sample support: ¼ inch polypropylene sheet. Detector shield:.5 inch lead with /8 inch copper lining. Detector: Ortec HpGe gamma detector (3% relative efficiency).
9 mass absorption coefficient (, cm 2 /g) Pb Sheet T-Flex (R) W T-Flex (R) 50 H 2 O T-Flex (R) Fe Fe Sheet Figure 3. Mass absorption coefficient versus gamma radiation energy for selected shielding types. Using the mass absorption coefficient and the known density of the shielding material, many other parameters, such as the attenuation for ½ inch thickness of shielding (Figure 4), the thickness of shielding required for 50% attenuation (Figure 5), and the mass of shielding required for 50% attenuation (Figure 6), can be calculated. As is illustrated in Figures 4-6, for a given thickness of shielding, materials prepared from high Z, high density components, such as lead or tungsten, offer superior attenuation to less dense, low Z materials, such as iron and water. However, when comparing the actual mass of shielding (g/cm 2 ) required to achieve a desired level of attenuation, the difference between the shielding materials is less dramatic. So, in applications where large volumes of shielding can be tolerated, such as cooling pools for spent nuclear fuel, water may be preferred over lead shielding. However, in other applications, where more physically rigid, compact shielding is required, lead and tungsten may be preferred.
10 Shielding Thickness (cm) % Attenuation 00 Percent Attenuation for /2 inch (.27 cm) Shield Pb Sheet T-Flex (R) W 40 T-Flex (R) 50 T-Flex (R) Fe Fe Sheet 20 H 2 O Figure 4. Percent attenuation of gamma radiation versus gamma energy for half inch (.27 cm) thicknesses of selected shielding types. Shielding Thickness (cm) Required to Achieve 50% Attenuation 4 2 H 2 O 0 8 T-Flex (R) Fe 6 T-Flex (R) 50 4 T-Flex (R) W 2 Fe Sheet 0 Pb Sheet Figure 5. Thickness (cm) of shielding required to achieve 50% attenuation versus gamma radiation energy for selected shielding types.
11 Shielding mass (g/cm2) Mass of Shielding (g/cm 2 ) Required to Achieve 50% Attenuation Fe Sheet T-Flex (R) Fe H 2 O T-Flex (R) 50 T-Flex (R) W Pb Sheet Figure 6. Mass of shielding per surface area (g/cm 2 ) required to achieve 50% attenuation versus gamma radiation energy for selected shielding types. Data for the mass absorption coefficient ( ) of solid metal shielding versus composite shielding constructed from, lead, tungsten and iron is plotted in Figures 7-9, respectively. In all cases, the µ values for the solid metal and the composite materials are essentially identical. Conclusion The attenuation of gamma radiation can be achieved using a wide range of materials. Understanding the basic principles involved in the physical interactions of gamma radiation with matter that lead to gamma attenuation can help in the choice of shielding for a given application. Utilizing this understanding and considering the physical, chemical and fiscal constraints of a project will lead to better application of resources to develop the most appropriate type of shielding.
12 mass absorption coefficient (, cm 2 /g) mass absorption coefficient (, cm 2 /g) Pb Sheet Pb Wool 5lbs/ft 2 Pb Wool 3.5lbs/ft Figure 7. Mass absorption coefficient versus gamma radiation energy for lead materials. W Sheet T-Flex (R) W Figure 8. Mass absorption coefficient versus gamma radiation energy for tungsten materials.
13 mass absorption coefficient (, cm 2 /g) Fe Sheet T-Flex (R) Fe Figure 9. Mass absorption coefficient versus gamma radiation energy for iron materials. References ) National Institute of Standard and Technology, Physical Measurements Laboratory, XCOM Photon Cross-Sections Database, html/xcom.html. 2) William D Ehmann and Diane E. Vance, Radiochemistry and Nuclear Methods of Analysis, John Wiley and Sons, New York, 99, pp ) G. Nelson, D. Reilly Gamma-Ray Interactions with Matter, in Passive Nondestructive Analysis of Nuclear Materials, Los Alamos National Laboratory, NUREG/CR-5550, LA- UR ,99, pp ) Edgardo Browne, Richard B. Firestone, Table of Radioactive Isotopes, Editor Virginia S. Shirley, John Wiley and Sons, New York, 986.
Modern Physics Lab Introduction to Nuclear Radiation 9/04 Purpose of the Experiment - become familiar with detectors for radioactive decay products - apply statistical analysis techniques to data - understand
Vilnius University Faculty of Physics Department of Solid State Electronics Laboratory of Atomic and Nuclear Physics Experiment No. 10 ATTENUATION OF GAMMA RAYS by Andrius Poškus (e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org)
PHY 192 Absorption of Radiation Spring 2010 1 Radioactivity II: Absorption of Radiation Introduction In this experiment you will use the equipment of the previous experiment to learn how radiation intensity
by Dr. James E. Parks Department of Physics and Astronomy 41 Nielsen Physics Building The University of Tennessee Knoxville, Tennessee 37996-12 Copyright March, 21 by James Edgar Parks* *All rights are
EXPERIMENT 1 Gamma-Ray Absorption and Counting Statistics Note: Please read the Radiation Safety Regulations at the back of this book Introduction The detecting medium in a scintillation counter is a solid
18th World Conference on Nondestructive Testing, 16-20 April 2012, Durban, South Africa Method for Dual High Energy X-ray Imaging with Flat Panel Detectors Markus FIRSCHING 1, Frank NACHTRAB 1, Theobald
Prof. Dr. Lucas Ferrari de Oliveira UFPR Informatics Department Discovery: German physicist Wilhelm Röntgen in 1895; "X-rays" signify an unknown quantity; X-rays were found emanating from Crookes tubes
NIU Radiation Safety Research X-ray Safety Fundamentals Goals of this training presentation: 1. Explain what are X-rays. 2. Explain the hazards of X-ray devices used in NIU research. 3. Explain NIU requirements
Experiment N3 X-RAY AND GAMMA RAY SPECTRA References: Handbook of Chemistry and Physics Nuclear Level Schemes, A=45 Through A=257, QC795.8.E5.N8 Background: As in case of atomic physics, much of what we
GAMMA-RAY SPECTRA REFERENCES 1. K. Siegbahn, Alpha, Beta and Gamma-Ray Spectroscopy, Vol. I, particularly Chapts. 5, 8A. 2. Nucleonics Data Sheets, Nos. 1-45 (available from the Resource Centre) 3. H.E.
Outline Exponential Attenuation Chapter 3 F.A. Attix, Introduction to Radiological Physics and Radiation Dosimetry Simple exponential attenuation and plural modes of absorption arrow-beam vs. broad-beam
CHAPTER 20: Atomic Structure Nuclear Chemistry radioactivity: a spontaneous (naturally-occurring) emission of particles or radiation from the nuclei of atoms Historical Background Roentgen (1895) discovery
1 Strontium-90 decays with the emission of a β-particle to form Yttrium-90. The reaction is represented by the equation 90 38 The decay constant is 0.025 year 1. 90 39 0 1 Sr Y + e + 0.55 MeV. (a) Suggest,
Tutorial 4.6 Gamma Spectrum Analysis Slide 1. Gamma Spectrum Analysis In this module, we will apply the concepts that were discussed in Tutorial 4.1, Interactions of Radiation with Matter. Slide 2. Learning
- X-ray vision http://www.uab.edu/surgonc/cases/gi/case2/ctscanof.htm http://www.museumboerhaave.nl/aacollection/aajpegs/m22/9955.jpg - motivation and outline X-rays have been known for over 110 years.
Design of a Nuclear Level Switch using MCNP code, and comparison with experimental results Mitra Ansari, Majid Shahriari Department of Radiation Application, Shahid Beheshti University Tehran, Iran, P.O.Box:1983963113
Lecture 2 Macroscopic Interactions 22.106 Neutron Interactions and Applications Spring 2010 Objectives Macroscopic Interactions Atom Density Mean Free Path Moderation in Bulk Matter Neutron Shielding Effective
Main properties of atoms and nucleus. Atom Structure.... Structure of Nuclei... 3. Definition of Isotopes... 4. Energy Characteristics of Nuclei... 5. Laws of Radioactive Nuclei Transformation... 3. Atom
ABSORPTION OF BETA AND GAMMA RADIATION The purpose of this experiment is to understand the interaction of radiation and matter, and the application to radiation detection and shielding Apparatus: 137 Cs
Geant4 simulation of the attenuation properties of plastic shield for β - radionuclides employed in internal radiotherapy Domenico Lizio 1, Ernesto Amato 2 and Sergio Baldari 2 1 : Department of Physics,
Introduction to Geiger Counters A Geiger counter (Geiger-Muller tube) is a device used for the detection and measurement of all types of radiation: alpha, beta and gamma radiation. Basically it consists
Some history Simple applications Radiation transport modelling Flux and Dose calculations Variance reduction Easy Monte Carlo Pioneers of the Monte Carlo Simulation Method: Stanisław Ulam (1909 1984) Stanislaw
The Energy Loss of Particles in Matter I. Cross Section As a particle traverses a matter it has a probability to react by scattering, absorption, or to interaction in the material. The reaction probability
Physics 77 Experiment 2 September 1999 THE GEIGER COUNTER and COUNTING STATISTICS This experiment has three parts: the first deals with some of the physics of a Geiger-Mueller (GM) Tube and will acquaint
Turkish Journal of Physics http:// journals. tubitak. gov. tr/ physics/ Research Article Turk J Phys () : 1 23 c TÜBİTAK doi:10.3906/fiz-1407-14 A theoretical way to determine gamma-ray mass attenuation
Exam Name MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) Which one of the following statements about the atomic nucleus is accurate? A) The nucleus
Safety Information for Sealed Source Users University of Arkansas Environmental Health & Safety Sealed source Sealed source Radioactive materials sealed inside metal/plastic. Most sealed sources can be
Centre Number Surname Candidate Number For Examinerʼs Use Other Names Candidate Signature Examinerʼs Initials General Certificate of Education Advanced Level Examination June 2012 Question 1 2 Mark Physics
To determine the frequency of neutron interactions, it is necessary to describe the availability of neutrons to cause interaction and the probability of a neutron interacting with material. The availability
What are x-rays and how are they generated? What are x-rays? X-rays are part of the electromagnetic radiation spectrum. This spectrum includes radio waves, microwaves, infrared, the visible spectrum, ultra
Nuclear Chemistry Up to now, we have been concerned mainly with the electrons in the elements the nucleus has just been a positively charged thing that attracts electrons The nucleus may also undergo changes
Abstract EFFICIENCY FOR CLOSE GEOMETRIES AND EXTENDED SOURCES OF A P-TYPE GERMANIUM DETECTOR WITH LOW-ENERGY SENSITIVITY R.M. Keyser (1) and T.R. Twomey (1) (1) ORTEC, 801 South Illinois Avenue, Oak Ridge,
Gamma Rays OBJECT: To understand the various interactions of gamma rays with matter. To calibrate a gamma ray scintillation spectrometer, using gamma rays of known energy, and use it to measure the energy
Lab 12 Radioactivity, Beta, and Gamma rays L12-1 Name Date Partners Lab 12 - Radioactivity, Beta, and Gamma rays Classic atomic and radioactive symbol OBJECTIVES Learn about radioactivity. Understand the
Physical Science International Journal 11(1): 1-6, 2016, Article no.psij.27243 ISSN: 2348-0130 SCIENCEDOMAIN international www.sciencedomain.org Effective Atomic Numbers for Some Alloys at 662 kev Using
Illicit Trafficking, Sub/cross-national threats, Poster presentation A Comparison of an HPGe-based and NaI-based Radionuclide Identifier (RID) for Radioactive Materials Ronald M. Keyser, Timothy R. Twomey,
Evaluation of Water Amount in Hydrated Ethanol Fuel by Gamma-ray Attenuation Technique José M. de Oliveira Jr. a, Ítalo C. O. Silva a, Bruno R. Malaquias a and Antonio C. G. Martins b a Universidade de
Nuclear Physics Nuclear Physics comprises the study of: The general properties of nuclei The particles contained in the nucleus The interaction between these particles Radioactivity and nuclear reactions
Lab 4 Radioactivity: Curve Fitting In this lab you will study radioactive decay as a context for exploring the concepts, tools, and techniques of data analysis and curve fitting. IMPORTANT: You must take
Today s lecture: Radioactivity radioactive decay mean life half life decay modes branching ratio sequential decay measurement of the transition rate radioactive dating techniques Radioactive decay spontaneous
University of Nebraska - Lincoln DigitalCommons@University of Nebraska - Lincoln Electrical Engineering Theses and Dissertations Electrical Engineering, Department of 10-1-2011 ISOTOPE IDENTIFICATION AND
Matter & Energy Semester B Examination Test Description Length: 2 hours Items: 59 SR (~85%), 2 BCRs (~15%) Unit Approximate Number of Selected Response Items Science Process Skills 13 Molecules to Atoms
ORTEC Low-Background Germanium ORTEC can provide all GEM, GMX, LO-AX, and GWL detectors in low-background configurations, including SGD and PROFILE series GEMS. The principles of the approach to reducing
Shielding of Gamma adiation George E. Chabot, Jr., Ph, CHP Introduction In the discussion that follows, we assume that gamma rays are the radiation of interest. The principles discussed also apply to monoenergetic
Production of X-rays and Interactions of X-rays with Matter Goaz and Pharoah. Pages 11-20. Neill Serman Electrons traveling from the filament ( cathode) to the target (anode) convert a small percentage
Proceedings of the Tenth EGS4 Users' Meeting in Japan, KEK Proceedings 2002-18, p.19-24 EGS4 APPLICATION TO DESIGN OF PARALLELL-PLATE FREE-AIR IONIZATION CHAMBER FOR HIGH-ENERGY SYNCHROTRON RADIATION N.
Chapter 4 Radioactivity and Medicine A CT scan (computed tomography) of the brain using X-ray beams A radioactive isotope has an unstable nucleus; it emits radiation to become more stable and can be one
Introduction to Geiger Counters A Geiger counter (Geiger-Muller tube) is a device used for the detection and measurement of all types of radiation: alpha, beta and gamma radiation. Basically it consists
2. Interaction of Charged Particles with Matter Detection through interaction of the particles with matter, e.g. via energy loss in a medium (ionization and excitation) Energy loss must be detected, made
Chapter 4 & 25 Notes Atomic Structure and Nuclear Chemistry Page 1 DEFINING THE ATOM Early Models of the Atom In this chapter, we will look into the tiny fundamental particles that make up matter. An atom
Calorimeters The energy of hadrons, pions, photons and electrons can be measured with calorimeters. This in contrast with muons: their momentum is measured from their track curvature (sagitta). The principle
3/31/16 NAME: PD 3 1. Given the equation representing a nuclear reaction in which X represents a nuclide: Which nuclide is represented by X? 2. Which nuclear emission has the greatest mass and the least
SLAC-PUB-7722 January 9 degrees Bremsstrahlung Source Term Produced in Thick Targets by 5 MeV to GeV Electrons X. S. Mao et al. Presented at the Ninth International Conference on Radiation Shielding, Tsukuba,
EXPERIMENTS FOR NUCLEAR CHEMISTRY 2010, 2008, 2004, 1972 by David A. Katz. All rights reserved. Permission for classroom use provided original copyright is included. David A. Katz Department of Chemistry
HOW SENSITIVE IS THE GAMMA-RAD? This is one of the most commonly asked questions. Sensitivity is very important, arguably the most important performance parameter in many applications of gamma-ray spectroscopy.
Chemistry 422L Manual Page 56 I. Introduction Neutron Activation of Indium Nuclear reactions often involve the nuclear capture of particles such as neutrons or protons, resulting in a very unstable "compound"
Intermediate 2 Radioactivity Past Paper questions 2000-2010 2000 Q30. A drawing of the core of a nuclear reactor is shown below. The fuel rods contain uranium-235. (a) Describe what happens when a slow
Production of X-Rays Yoichi Watanabe, Ph.D. Masonic Memorial Building M10-M (612)626-6708 email@example.com MPHY 5170/TRAD 7170, Fall semester Contents 1) Physics of X-ray production 2) The X-ray tube 3)
1 DETECTION OF GAMMA RADIATION FYSZ460 Syventävien opintojen laboratoriotyöt 1. Introduction Detection of gamma radiation is one of the most important research tools in nuclear physics. Detection of gamma
Atomic Structure 1. What is the total number of electrons in the 2p sublevel of a chlorine atom in the ground state? (1) 6; (2) 2; (3) 3; (4) 5. 2. Which is the electron configuration of an atom in the
Vilnius University Faculty of Physics Department of Solid State Electronics Laboratory of Atomic and Nuclear Physics Experiment No. 9 ABSORPTION OF ALPHA PARTICLES AND ELECTRONS by Andrius Poškus (e-mail:
High purity germanium detector in gamma-ray spectrometry Mayeen Uddin Khandaker Department of Physics, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603, Malaysia (Received Jan 2011; Published June 2011) ABSTRACT
Chemistry Notes: Atomic Theory 2.1.1: Positions of Subatomic Particles Protons and neutrons are found in the nucleus of an atom, and electrons are found in the electron cloud (a general area in which there
RADIATION SAFETY Introduction Radioactive isotopes occur naturally or can be generated artificially. They emit ionising radiation in the form of electromagnetic waves or energetic particles. Exposure to
EDXRF of Used Automotive Catalytic Converters Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) is a very powerful technique for measuring the concentration of elements in a sample. It is fast, nondestructive,
Chap. 2 Interaction of Radiation with Matter Classes of Radiation to consider Electromagnetic Gamma rays Neutrons Nuclear Coulombic Electrons +/- Nuclear Charged Particles Neutrons are special, only interact
Final Report on CRP Entitled, NEUTRON BASED TECHNIQUES FOR DETECTION OF ILLICIT MATERIALS AND EXPLOSIVES Research contract 13497 R. M. Megahid *, A. M. Osman and, W. A. Kansouhfg Laboratories for Detection
Introduction Until the early 20 th century physicists used to explain the phenomena in the physical world around them using theories such a mechanics, electromagnetism, thermodynamics and statistical physics
Chem 1A Exam 2 Review Problems 1. At 0.967 atm, the height of mercury in a barometer is 0.735 m. If the mercury were replaced with water, what height of water (in meters) would be supported at this pressure?
Nuclear Physics The forces holding together the nucleus are large. And so are the energies involved. Radioactivity is a natural process. Certain nuclei fall apart and emit ionizing radiation as they do.
Radioactive Decay Certain isotopes of elements are unstable and decompose through one of several processes that release particles or high-energy electromagnetic radiation. In this unit we'll cover examples
NUCLEAR FISSION DOE-HDBK-101/1-3 Atomic and Nuclear Physics NUCLEAR FISSION Nuclear fission is a process in which an atom splits and releases energy, fission products, and neutrons. The neutrons released
Chemistry I Study Guideline Unit Three Atomic Structure By the end of this chapter, you should be able to: 1. Describe the nature and significance of scientific modeling in general and several of the atoms
1 The Atom Unit 3 Atomic Structure And Nuclear Chemistry What are the basic parts of an atom? How is an atom identified? What is nuclear chemistry? How is a nuclear equation written? Atom Smallest particle
Radiation Detection and Measurement June 2008 Tom Lewellen Tkldog@u.washington.edu Types of radiation relevant to Nuclear Medicine Particle Symbol Mass (MeV/c 2 ) Charge Electron e-,! - 0.511-1 Positron
Measurement of Germanium Detector Efficiency Marcus H. Wiggs 2009 Notre Dame Physics REU Advisor: Dr. Philippe Collon Mentors: Matthew Bowers, Daniel Robertson, Chris Schmitt ABSTRACT: A possible discrepancy
International Journal of Physics and Research (IJPR) ISSN 2250-0030 Vol. 3, Issue 3, Aug 2013, 77-86 TJPRC Pvt. Ltd. CALCULATION OF TOTAL MASS ATTENUATION COEFFICIENTS, EFFECTIVE ATOMIC NUMBERS AND EFFECTIVE
Experiment Note: Exploring Compton Scattering Using the Spectrum Techniques UCS-20 Universal Computer Spectrometer. Shanni R. Prutchi and David Prutchi, Ph.D. www.diyphysics.com Objective The objective
Nuclear Physics and Radioactivity 1. The number of electrons in an atom of atomic number Z and mass number A is 1) A 2) Z 3) A+Z 4) A-Z 2. The repulsive force between the positively charged protons does
7 Fission In 1939 Hahn and Strassman, while bombarding U-235 nuclei with neutrons, discovered that sometimes U-235 splits into two nuclei of medium mass. There are two important results: 1. Energy is produced.
Science Section 7- Name: Block: Radioactivity Review. Complete the following table: Isotope Mass Number Atomic Number (number of protons) Number of Neutrons nitrogen-5 5 7 8 sulfur-3 3 6 neon- magnesium-5
Radiology Physics Just take a deep breath OR: I DIDN T SIGN UP TO LEARN THIS STUFF Chris Ober, DVM, PhD, DACVR 7 February 2011 Why worry about physics? Know what the system can give you Know what the system