The Plant Kingdom: Seedless & Seed Plants

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1 The Plant Kingdom: Seedless & Seed Plants Gen Bio 2 Chapters 27/28 Dr. S 1 Colonization of Land by Plants Required anatomical, physiological, and reproductive adaptations Waxy cuticle protects against water loss Stomata (singular: stoma) for gas exchange needed for photosynthesis 2 1

2 1 Gametophyte Spore 5 Meiosis 4 HAPLOID (n) GAMETOPHYTE GENERATION DIPLOID (2n) SPOROPHYTE GENERATION Sperm Egg 2 Fertilization 3 Zygote Remember this from Fungi? Alternation of Generations Sporophyte Embryo 3 Fig. 27-2, p. 563 Alternation of Generations Word learners 2 parts of plant life cycle haploid gametophyte generation diploid sporophyte generation Gametophyte plant produces gametes by mitosis gametes fuse (fertilization) to form zygote (first stage of sporophyte generation) Zygote develops into multicellular embryo protected and nourished by gametophyte Mature sporophyte plant develops from the embryo produces sporogenous cells (spore mother cells) Sporogenous cells undergo meiosis to form spores first stage in gametophyte generation 4 2

3 Vascular Transport System In ferns and other vascular plants xylem conducts water and dissolved minerals phloem conducts dissolved sugar 5 Plant Evolution 6 3

4 Bryophytes Nonvascular (lack xylem and phloem) unlike other land plants Dominant gametophyte generation unlike other plants Sporophytes remain permanently attached nutritionally dependent on gametophytes 7 Mosses (Phylum Bryophyta) Gametophytes are green plants that grow from a filamentous protonema Sporophytes grow out as a foot, seta, and capsule 8 4

5 Liverworts (Phylum Hepatophyta) Many gametophytes are flattened, lobe-like thalli (others are more leafy) Sexual reproduction done using outgrowth of stalklike sporophytes 9 Hornworts (Phylum Anthocerophyta) Also have thalloid (broad lettuce-like leaves) gametophytes Sporophyte projects upward as a spike or horn (thus the name) 10 5

6 Seedless Vascular Plants Have adaptations that algae and bryophytes lack vascular tissues (xylem/phloem) dominant sporophyte generation Reproduction depends on water as transport medium for motile sperm cells (as in bryophytes) 11 Club Mosses (Phylum Lycopodiophyta) Sporophytes consist of true roots, rhizomes, erect branches, microphylls (small, singular, nonwebbed extensions), and the cone-like reproductive strobilus 12 6

7 Ferns (Phylum Pteridophyta) Largest (11,000 species) and most diverse group of seedless vascular plants Fern sporophyte consists of a rhizome that bears fronds and true roots Includes whisk ferns and horsetails Evolution of megaphyll large, branched, webbed leaf 13 Only 12 species today Sporophytes have dichotomously branching (forked) rhizomes and erect stems lack true roots and leaves Whisk Ferns 14 7

8 Horsetails Only 15 species today True roots, unbranched Sporophytes have hollow, jointed roots, rhizomes, aerial stems leaves fused in whorls at each node (reduced megaphylls) 15 Fern Sporophytes Leaves (fronds) bear sporangia in clusters (sori) Meiosis in sporangia produces haploid spores Fern Gametophyte Prothallus Develops from haploid spore Bears both archegonia and antheridia 16 8

9 Homospory Production of one kind of spore in bryophytes, most club mosses, most ferns including whisk ferns and horsetails Spores give rise to gametophyte plants Same plant produces both eggs and sperm 17 Heterospory Production of two kinds of spores (microspores and megaspores) Produce male and female gametophytes Some club mosses and ferns All seed plants 18 9

10 Two Groups of Seed Plants Gymnosperms seeds are totally exposed or borne on the scales of a cone ovary wall does not surround the ovules Angiosperms flowering plants produce seeds within a fruit (a mature ovary) 19 Gymnosperm and Angiosperm Evolution 20 10

11 Gymnosperms Are vascular plants unlike bryophytes Produce naked seeds unlike bryophytes and ferns Produce wind-borne pollen grains unlike ferns and other seedless vascular plants 21 Cycads Tropical with trunk like stems Compound leaves (palms or tree ferns) Reproduction similar to pines, except cycads are dioecious (seed cones on female plants, pollen cones on male plants) Cycads were very important during the Triassic period (251 mya) the Age of cycads 22 11

12 Phylum Ginkgophyta Ginkgo biloba Only surviving species in phylum Deciduous (leaves lost annually), dioecious tree Female ginkgo produces fleshy seeds directly on branches 23 Ginkgo 24 12

13 Gnetophytes Only gymnosperms with efficient vessel elements in xylem Cone clusters and life cycle similar to flowering plants Ephedra is the source of ephedrine (stimulates heart and raises blood pressure) 25 Conifers (Phylum Coniferophyta) Largest phylum of gymnosperms 630 species of woody trees or shrubs Woody plants that bear needles (leaves that are usually evergreen) produce seeds in cones Most are monoecious have male and female reproductive parts in separate cones on same plant 26 13

14 Male and Female Cones 27 Conifers 28 14

15 Pine Life Cycle 1 Pine tree = mature sporophyte Pine gametophytes = pine cones extremely small nutritionally dependent on sporophyte generation 29 Pine Life Cycle 2 Pine is heterosporous produces microspores and megaspores in separate cones Male cones produce microspores that develop into pollen grains (immature male gametophytes) carried by air currents to female cones 30 15

16 Pine Life Cycle 3 Female cones produce megaspores One of each four megaspores (meiosis) develops into a female gametophyte within an ovule (megasporangium) 31 Pine Life Cycle 4 Pollination transfer of pollen to female cones No need for water! Pollen tube grows through megasporangium to egg within archegonium After fertilization zygote develops into embryo encased inside seed adapted for wind dispersal 32 16

17 33 *Each scale bears two microsporangia Microsporangium Microspores, each of which develops into a pollen grain Pine Life Cycle 2 Male cone Scale from a male cone Scale from a female cone 4 Female gametophyte 3 Each scale bears two ovules (megasporangia) Ovule Megasporangium Megaspore Growing pollen tube Meiosis Immature female cone HAPLOID (n) GAMETOPHYTE GENERATION DIPLOID (2n) SPOROPHYTE GENERATION Papery wings Zygote Second sperm nucleus Pollen tube Fertilization 5 Pollen cones Seed coat 6 Sperm nucleus united with egg nucleus 1 Newly germinated seedling Embryo Two seeds Female on the upper gametophyte surface of (nutritive tissue) the scale Mature female cone (seed cone) Fig. 28-4, p. 586 Flowering Plants Angiosperms (phylum Anthophyta) Vascular plants that produce flowers and seeds enclosed within a fruit Most diverse and successful plant group At least 300,000 species! Efficient water-conducting cells called vessel elements in xylem, efficient sugar-conducting cells called sieve tube elements in phloem 34 17

18 Flowering Plants Flower sepals, petals, stamens, carpels functions in sexual reproduction Ovules enclosed within ovary unlike gymnosperms Purple passion flower, common in the Texas Hill Country After fertilization ovules (individual eggs) become seeds ovary develops into fruit Even dry, desert cacti produce flowers! 35 Monocots (Monocotyledons) Most have floral parts in threes Seeds each contain 1 cotyledon Monocot! Cotyledons nutritive organs in mature seeds absorbed nutrients in endosperm 36 18

19 Dicots (Eudicotyledones) Usually have floral parts in fours or fives (or multiples) Seeds each contain 2 cotyledons Endosperm nutritive tissue in mature seeds Dicot! 37 Floral Structure Arabidopsis thaliana flower. CARPEL (or) THE! premiere laboratory flower model organism KNOW this for fill-in-the-blank!!! 38 19

20 Reproduction Flowering plants reproduce sexually by forming flowers Double fertilization (characteristic of flowering plants) = seeds (diploid zygote) form within fruits (triploid endosperm) Both sperm cells participate in fertilization Wind, water, insects, & animals transfer pollen grains and seeds Flower Life Cycle Tetrad of microspores 3 Microspore Meiosis 2 4 Ovary Pollination Pollen grain (immature male gametophyte) Megasporocyte Megaspore 5 HAPLOID (n) GAMETOPHYTE GENERATION DIPLOID (2n) SPOROPHYTE GENERATION Megasporangium (ovule) Developing pollen tube of mature male gametophyte Polar nuclei Fruit 7 6 Embryo sac (mature female gametophyte) Pollen tube Two sperm Egg cells nucleus Double fertilization Endosperm (3n) Zygote (2n) Microsporocytes within microsporangia Fig , p. 593 Anther 1 Embryo Seed coat Endosperm Seedling Seed 20

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