NUTRIENT REQUIREMENTS FOR GRAPEVINES. Andrew Teubes Viticultural Consultant

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1 NUTRIENT REQUIREMENTS FOR GRAPEVINES Andrew Teubes Viticultural Consultant

2 Nutrient requirements Five (5) critical aspects of importance for grapevine nutrition Which elements are required by the vine What the function of each element is Physiological stage when the element is mostly required When to fertilize How much fertilizer should be applied

3 Which elements are most important? Most important macro elements (required in higher amounts) Nitrogen (N) Phosphates (P) Potassium (K) Calcium (Ca) Magnesium (Mg) Sulfur (S) Most important micro elements (required in small amounts) Iron (Fe) Boron (B) Manganese (Mn) Zink (Zn) Copper (Cu)

4 Importance of Nitrogen (N) Nitrogen Growth especially early season Component in vegetative organs (shoots, leaves, clusters) After harvest period for building of reserves (especially in roots) 1 ton of grapes remove 1.39 kg nitrogen High requirement by plant

5 Importance of Potassium (K) Potassium Most important metal element High requirement by grapevine especially clusters Regulation of water movement in the plant Very movable Maturation of canes after harvest 1 ton of grapes removes 1.98 kg potassium

6 Importance of Calcium (Ca) Calcium Important in organs (shoots, leaves, roots), especially leaves Constituent in cell membranes, permeability of cell membranes Important for survival during cold winter (dormant period) Strength of berry skins 1 ton grapes remove 0.17 kg calcium (low requirement in clusters)

7 Importance of Magnesium (Mg) Magnesium Essential for photosynthesis, part of chlorofil, therefore very important in leaves (production of sugar) 1 ton of grapes remove 0.09 kg/ton Mg Low percentage in the grapes

8 Importance of phosphorus (P) Phosphorus Important for transport of energy through the plant, especially green parts (leaves, clusters) Not required in large amounts 1 ton of grapes remove 0.25 kg P

9 Importance of micro nutrients Iron Synthesis of chlorofil in the leaves, therefore very important (photosynthesis) Deficiencies associated with high ph soil conditions (soils with free lime) Boron, Zink Important for cell division, especially at fruit set Development of pollon, very important Deficiencies cause poor fruit set

10 Distribution of most important elements in the organs of the vine for the production of 1 ton of grapes (%) Element Value in brackets after total is absolute total in kg Organ Grapes Roots Stem Leaves Shoots Total N (3.89) P (0.72) K (3.05) Ca (2.01) Mg (0.60)

11 Deficiency symptoms of nutrients Every nutrient has symptom of deficiency Very important to know symptoms of deficiency, because you need to apply the correct fertilizer to solve the problem

12 General yellow coloration of leaves, weak growth Nitrogen deficiency Dark green colour

13 Vineyard with serious nitrogen deficiency

14 Phosphorus deficiency General weak growth, leaves curl downwards

15 Phosphorus deficiency Yellow color with red spots in late season General red coloration of leaves, veins also red

16 Magnesium deficiency White cultivars Red cultivars

17 Magnesium deficiency Symptoms start off as white and then change to red

18 Potassium deficiency Burning of leaf edges late season Yellow coloration of leaf edges early season

19 Iron deficiency Yellow coloration of leaf with green veins

20 Boron deficiency Symptoms on young leaves

21 Zinc deficiency Irregular growth of young leaves

22 Yellowish coloration between veins Manganese deficiency

23 Salinity Foliar application (chlorine) Soil salinity (sodium)

24 Availability of nutrients to the vine at different soil ph levels General soil ph in Afghanistan Be careful for deficiencies -Phosphorus -Magnesium -Iron -Manganese -Boron -Zinc

25 When is the element required? Elements have different functions and is required during different times of the season Most common periods for fertilizer applications are: After bud break After fruit set After harvest Foliar applications through the growing season

26 When is the element required? Macro elements (N, P, K, Ca, Mg) should be applied to the soil for uptake by roots Micro elements (B, Zn, Mn, Cu, Fe etc) is required in small amounts and can be applied through foliar sprays Applications of macro elements should be during periods of active root growth After bud break After harvest Applications must be done with irrigation to ensure infiltration to the root zone

27 Uptake of different elements during the season Growth stage Nitrogen (N) % Phosphorus (P) % Potassium (K) % Calcium (Ca) % Magnesium (Mg) % Bud Break to Fruit set Fruit set to Berry Softening Berry Softening to Harvest After harvest Total

28 NUTRIENT UPTAKE BY THE VINE days days days 62% N 5% N 33% N 58% P 71% K 89% Ca 72% Mg 2% P 7% K 9% Ca 13 Mg 40% P 20% K 4% Ca 15% Mg Bud break Flowering Fruit set Pea size Berry softening Harvest Leaf fall GROWING SEASON

29 Fertilizer applications After bud break Only if vineyard has poor growth or no irrigation was available during the after harvest period Risk of too much vigour can result in poor fruit set (low yield) After fruit set Very active period of berry growth (cell division) Important for large berry size High requirement period After harvest Building of reserves Extremely important period for growth of next spring

30 Effect of after harvest nitrogen application on reserve status in roots

31 Fertilizer applications Do not apply fertilizer after berry softening or during harvest period Requirement low by the vine Cluster is the most important concentration point, therefore do not want to encourage active growth Risk of increased disease if too much nitrogen applied (rot) Only fertilizer applications during this period could be micro nutrients like magnesium and calcium that is required by leaves

32 High nitrogen fertilizer rates result in compact bunches Sour rot Botrytis rot

33 How much to apply? Determine what the requirements are by Soil analysis Leaf analysis Calculate what was removed by the crop and then replacing it (Depletion model) Visual evaluations For nitrogen (N) For micro element deficiencies

34 Taking a soil sample for analysis Transport in clean bag to soil laboratory

35 Analysis results Typical soil analysis will give the following information Electrical Conductivity (EC) Indication of salts in the soil (salinity) ph Contents of Calcium (Ca), Magnesium (Mg), Potassium (K), Sodium (Na) most important metal elements Content of Phosphorus Contents of micro elements Copper (Cu), Zinc (Zn), Manganese (Mn), Boron (B) Organic matter content

36 Norms for interpretation of soil analysis results Measure EC (ms/m) ph P (ppm) Ca (ppm) Mg (ppm) K (ppm) Na (ppm) Cu (ppm) Zn (ppm) Mn (ppm) B (ppm) OM % Acceptable Levels < (S) 300 (S) 40 (S) 80 (S) <200 (S) 5-25 >0.5 > S=sand L=loam C=clay 25 (L) 30 (C) 500 (L) 1000 (C) 70 (L) 100 (C) 100 (L) 120 (C) <250 (L) <300 (C)

37 Leaf blade analysis norms for grapevines Element Acceptable levels Nitrogen (N) % Phosphorus (P) % Potassium (K) % Calcium (Ca) % Magnesium (Mg) % Sodium (Na) ppm Manganese (Mn) ppm Iron (Fe) ppm Copper (Cu) 3-20 ppm Zinc (Zn) ppm Boron (B) ppm

38 Nitrogen fertilizer applications No accurate method of determining the amount of available nitrogen for the vine in the soil Evaluate the vigour of the vineyard for determining the N requirement

39 PLANT PHYSIOLOGICAL NORM POOR VIGOUR -Shoot length cm -Shoot diameter pencil thickness on average -Shoot ends show poor maturation (browning) -Short internodes (less than 5 cm) -Leaf colour yellow-green ->50% sun spots below trellis -No active growing tips at berry softening IDEAL VIGOUR -Shoot length cm leaves per cluster -Shoot ends mature completely (browning) -Inter node length 5-9 cm; single tip action required -Leaf colour bright green -20% sun spots below trellis % active growing tips at berry softening EXCESSIVE VIGOUR -Shoot length cm+ -Long, thick, flat shoots common (up to 5 m long) -Regular topping of shoots for sunlight penetration -Large, dark green colour of basal leaves; becomes yellow -Poor fruit set (loose clusters) -High risk of rot -Lateral shoot development very strong Nitrogen (kg/ha/season) Bud break After fruit set After harvest Total N No application

40 Nitrogen fertilizer applications Sources Inorganic: AN19, AN33, Urea(46), AS(21), DAP(16-18) Organic: Application suggestion Cow(1.6%N), Sheep(2.3%N), Chicken(3-5%N), Compost(1%N) Bud break: Depending on vigour After fruit set: Inorganic source After bud break: Inorganic source + Organic before winter

41 Phosphorus fertilizer application Required in very small amount by vine Soil analysis every 3-4 years to determine the available levels are adequate 20 ppm for sandy soils 25 ppm for loamy soils 30 ppm for clay soils Sources Super phosphate (11.3%), Double supers DSP, TSP (19.6%) DAP (18% N, 19.8% P) Phosphoric acid (26%) for applications through irrigation ph ranges for uptake 4-6; problems with availability in high ph soils Application suggestion At bud break or after harvest, depending on availability of irrigation water

42 Potassium fertilizer application High requirement by the vine Use depletion model for annual applications 1.98 kg K removed per 1 ton of grapes 20 ton/ha yield requires 20 x 1.98 = 39.6 kg K/ha/year (100 kg/ha K-sulfate) Sources: Potassium chloride(50%), K-sulfate(40%)-saline situations, K-nitrate (13%N, 37%K) Application suggestions 50% after bud break 50% after harvest

43 Calcium fertilizer application Required in low amounts by plant Soil analysis every 3-4 years to determine if available levels are adequate >300 ppm for sandy soils 500 ppm for loamy soils 1000 ppm for clay soils Afghan soils contain high Ca levels generally, so do not expect deficiencies Annual foliar applications can be done to increase levels in leaves if required Sources Gypsum, Ca-nitrate (19% Ca, 15.5% N)

44 Magnesium fertilizer application Required in low amounts by the plant Soil analysis every 3-4 years to determine if available levels are adequate 40 ppm for sandy soils 70 ppm for loamy soils 100 ppm for clay soils Ratio of Ca:Mg = 3:1 ideal Annual foliar applications can be done to increase levels in leaves if required Sources: Mg-sulfate (20.2% Mg), Dolimitic lime

45 Other elements Sulfur: Enough applied as fungicide Boron: As foliar spray pre-flowering on cultivars with poor fruit set (Na-borate) Zinc: As foliar spray only when deficiency symptoms are seen (Zn-sulfate) Iron: As foliar spray 3-4 times in season on high ph soils (Fe-EDTA)

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