SR Communications Tower Task Force Dr. Jeff Liva, Allen Cohen, Rebecca Rogers

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1 SR Communications Tower Task Force Dr. Jeff Liva, Allen Cohen, Rebecca Rogers 1

2 Table of Contents 2

3 Chemical hazards. These develop from excessive exposure to concentrations of chemicals in environment. People can be exposed through inhalation, ingestion, or skin contact. Physical hazards. These include noise, vibration, temperature extremes, and radiation: ionizing and non-ionizing. Biological hazards. These include molds, fungi, bacterial, and viral agents found in the work place. Ergonomic and human factors hazards. Concerns itself with the person/machine interface (e.g., tools machines, video display terminals, biomechanics.) 3

4 Hazard Identification- Define the hazard and establish the endpoint (Cell Phone Tower and Health Concern) Dose Response Assessment-Review the Literature for dose and effect on health Exposure Assessment-Estimating exposure to the target population (Children) Risk Characterization- Exposure level at which a particular level of excess risk exists 4

5 Ionizing Radiation-Radiation that falls within the ionizing radiation" range has enough energy to remove tightly bound electrons from atoms, thus creating ions. This is the type of radiation that people usually think of as 'radiation.' We take advantage of its properties to generate electric power, to kill cancer cells, and in many manufacturing processes. Non-Ionizing Radiation- Radiation that has enough energy to move atoms in a molecule around or cause them to vibrate, but not enough to remove electrons, is referred to as "non-ionizing radiation." We take advantage of the properties of non-ionizing radiation for common tasks: microwave radiation-- telecommunications and heating food infrared radiation --infrared lamps to keep food warm in restaurants radio waves-- broadcasting X-rays and Gamma Rays RF (radio frequency), a type of nonionizing radiation. 5

6 The Radio Frequency of the proposed T-Mobile antenna in Saddle River is 1900MHz-2100MHz. 6

7 Effects on the body vary with wavelength and energy (longer wavelengths are more penetrating) RF and microwave radiation can raise tissue temperatures causing damage to those tissues control (e.g., eyes, lungs. GI tract, testes). Shorter microwave wavelengths may cause rise in whole body temperature: longer wavelengths may penetrate deep body tissue with damage to internal organs. 7

8 Most genotoxicity studies have been negative and RF radiation is not thought to be directly mutagenic and to date none have been experimentally verified. 8

9 Specific absorption rates(sars) are used to quantify energy delivered to tissues and are measured in watts per Kilogram. Adult Humans SAR of 4W/Kg is approximately equivalent to a power density of 10mW/cm² at MHZ for ill effects. For the SR Cell Tower frequency of 1900MHz and 2100 MHz the power density is MPE is 1.0 mw/cm². A protection factor of 10 is used. 9

10 Frequency range (MHz) Electric field strength (V/m) Magnetic field strength (A/m) Power density (mw/cm 2 ) (A) Limits for Occupational/Controlled Exposures Averaging time (minutes) *(100) /f 4.89/f *(900/f 2 ) f/ , (B) Limits for General Population/Uncontrolled Exposure *(100) /f 2.19/f *(180/f 2 ) f/ ,

11 Ground Distance (feet) T Mobile 1900MHZ MPE% T Mobile 2100MHz MPE% Borough OF SR MPE% Total MPE% Notes: These values are expressed as percentages These are worst case calculations that assume: 100% (mirror-like) ground reflection All transmitters at full power 11

12 The largest dose of the T- Mobile Frequencies cell tower is generated at 300 feet and represents % of the Maximum Permissible Exposure or 1/2,100 th of MPE with a safety factor of 10 or 1/12,000 th of the dose known to cause health effects. The % of MPE for the cellular portion of the tower is equal to / or 10.88% Total Exposure of all transmitters is less than 1% at all distances with the greatest at at 140 Ft and at 500 Ft. 12

13 Human Value and Social decision not scientific Cancer-Hazard is acceptable if it does not cause of lifetime death rate greater than one in a million exposed people Society determines how safe it wants to be and how much it is prepared for that level of security* (B. Fischoff 1978) 13

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17 Group 2B: The agent is possibly carcinogenic to humans. This category is used for agents for which there is limited evidence of carcinogenicity in humans and less than sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity in experimental animals. It may also be used when there is inadequate evidence of carcinogenicity in humans but there is sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity in experimental animals. In some instances, an agent for which there is inadequate evidence of carcinogenicity in humans and less than sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity in experimental animals together with supporting evidence from mechanistic and other relevant data may be placed in this group. An agent may be classified in this category solely on the basis of strong evidence from mechanistic and other relevant data. 17

18 "A reduced odds ratio (OR)9 related to ever having been a regular mobile phone user was seen for glioma [OR 0.81; 95% confidence interval (CI) ] and meningioma (OR 0.79; 95% CI ), possibly reflecting participation bias or other methodological limitations. No elevated OR was observed 10 years after first phone use (glioma: OR 0.98; 95% CI ; meningioma: OR 0.83; 95% CI ). ORs were < 1.0 for all deciles of lifetime number of phone calls and nine deciles of cumulative call time. In the tenth [highest] decile of recalled cumulative call time, 1640 h, the OR was 1.40 (95% CI ) for glioma, and 1.15 (95% CI ) for meningioma; but there are implausible values of reported use in this group. ORs for glioma tended to be greater in the temporal lobe10 than in other lobes of the brain, but the CIs around the lobe-specific estimates were wide. ORs for glioma tended to be greater in subjects who reported usual phone use on the same side of the head as their tumor than on the opposite side." 18

19 A reduced OR for glioma and meningioma related to ever having been a regular mobile phone user possibly reflects participation bias or other methodological limitations. No elevated OR for glioma or meningioma was observed 10 years after first phone use. There were suggestions of an increased risk of glioma, and much less so meningioma, in the highest decile of cumulative call time, in subjects who reported usual phone use on the same side of the head as their tumour and, for glioma, for tumors in the temporal lobe. Biases and errors limit the strength of the conclusions that can be drawn from these analyses and prevent a causal interpretation. 19

20 Country or Organization T h e N o n R e g A d v Power Density uw/cm2 Field Strength V/m r u i US FCC (1900 MHz) x x Canada (1900 MHz) x x ICNIRP x x Italy x x Saddle River, 300 ft Saddle River, T-Mo + Boro ft. 5.7 Saddle River, AT&T USPS/B of A location < 65 ft 6.1 Switzerland x x Salzburg Resolution x x

21 Cell Tower Worst Case MPE % 1 st Carrier (T-Mobile) nd Carrier * 3 rd Carrier * 4 th Carrier * 5 th Carrier * * Assumes similar RF emissions for other carriers. Assumes no infrastructure (antennas, transmitters, etc) sharing among carriers. * Worst Case MPE% calculation for T-mobile is.0238 at 300 feet 21

22 Emission Source Power Density uw/cm2 Cell Tower at Borough Hall 8.908*** AT&T Cell Site at USPS < 10 ** Hand held Cell Phone 1210* * Calculated based on a standard Cell Phone transmitting at 24 dbm (250 mw) held 2cm away from body ** At any distance greater than 65 ft from the antennas - AT&T Cell Site #387 Report dated Aug 1, 1996 *** Worst Case MPE at 140 feet T-Mobile Report dated April 18,

23 Regular monthly monitoring of RF emissions and accompanying analysis of the radio frequency environment from the SR cell tower. Regular monthly analysis of new scientific findings and/or health reports released by experts like ICNIRPI and IARC regarding health effects of RF emissions. Public education on projected RF emissions from SR cell tower and actual RF emission levels once tower is activated. The information, details, views, publications and ideas provided/recommended herein regarding health subjects and all other subjects and articles submitted are only for general awareness only, and the authors are not responsible for any consequence through use or misuse of the same. This presentation is designed for general information only. The authors were not involved in the decision-making process with respect to the T-Mobile cell tower siting in Saddle River, nor are we trying to provide a post-decision justification for the Borough's actions. 23

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