Thermal Effects of Mobile Phones

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2 The calculation of temperature from Equation is very complex if we take into consideration the heat dissipation processes such as conduction, blood perfusion and convection. However, if we calculate the temperature increase in the worst case, where all the electromagnetic energy is used to increase the temperature and any mechanism of heat dissipation is present, this equation becomes simple: C t dt dt (SAR) (eq. 3) So from the value of the SAR, we can deduce the temperature increase "dt" for a period of time "dt" and equation 3 becomes: dt ( SAR) dt C (eq. 4) t IV. USED MODEL We use for the simulation of the mobile phone a patch antenna operating at 900 frequency at first and then at 1800 frequency: We took the dimensions of the antenna patch as follows (Fig. 1): For the 900 frequency: W=97.87 mm, L=75.9 mm, W1=.86 mm, L1=44.01 mm. For the 1800 frequency: W=48.93 mm, L=37.77 mm, W1=.86 mm, L1= mm. The antenna patch consists of a ground plane type of copper, a Bakelite type substrate permittivity ε r = 4.8 and a rectangular radiating element type copper [9]. Fig. 1: Patch Antenna We have chosen the model of the human head a sphere filled with a dielectric layer similar to the human head as shown in the figure 1. The dimensions we have chosen are as follows: for the sphere, we took a radius of 80 mm for the first layer of skin type, for the thickness, Muscle and Bone we took 5 mm, and the last layer is the Brain, we took 65 mm. The dielectric properties of different biological tissues that constitute the human head are presented in the table : Table Dielectric properties of tissues used in the simulations [10-15] Tissues 900 ε r 900 σ 1800 ε r 1800 σ Density (Kg / m 3 ) Skin Muscle Bone Brain V. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION A. Phone - head simulation of homogeneous type brain We took a homogeneous sphere of type brain and we excited it by a patch working, at first, at 900 and later at

3 We calculated the distribution of specific absorption rate (SAR) average and local level and the increase in average temperature in the head and local uniform for a period of 5 min at tree different distances from the antenna, which is 5 mm, 10 mm and 0 mm. The results are presented in the figure for a patch antenna operating at 900 and figure 3 for a patch antenna operating at 1800 : 3,0,5 Average_SAR_10mm 4 Local_SAR_10mm Average_Temperature_5mm Average_Temperature_10mm Average_Temperature_0mm 0 0,35 0,30 5 Local_Temperature_10mm 0, , Fig. : Simulation of local SAR and average, the local temperature rise and average in the homogeneous sphere composed of the brain, excited by a patch at 900 for distances 5 mm, 10 mm and 0 mm. 1

4 0 Local_SAR_10mm 14 1 Average_SAR_10mm ,6 1,4 Local_Temperature_10mm Local_Temperature_10mm Fig. 3: Simulation of local SAR and average, the local temperature rise and average in the homogeneous sphere composed of the brain, excited by a patch at 1800 for distances 5 mm, 10 mm and 0 mm. 13

5 We note that the level of the SAR has important values if the antenna is too close to the sphere (the head) and poor when it is a bit far. If we increase the frequency of 900 to 1800, the SAR value increases. From the level of the SAR, we deduce the temperature increase. We conclude that the level of the temperature can reach after 5 min of exposure, up to 0.37 C for 900 and 1.65 C for 1800, which is very important. B. Telephone - Inhomogeneous head Simulation composed of four layers: skin, muscle, bone and brain In this section, we used an inhomogeneous sphere composed of four layers: skin, muscle, bone and brain. We have excited the antenna patch used previously, and we have got the following lines: 0,16 0,14 0, ,8 1,6 1,4 14

6 Temperature (C ) Average_Temperature_5mm Average_Temperature_0mm Fig. 4: Simulation of local SAR and average, the local temperature rise and average in the inhomogeneous sphere consisting of skin, muscle, bone and brain, excited by patch antenna at 900 for distances of 5 mm and 0mm. 3,0,5 3,5 3,0,5 15

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