Design and Simulation of Grid Connected PV system Using Multilevel Inverters

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1 Design and Simulation of Grid Connected PV system Using Multilevel Inverters MD.SAFIA M-tech Student Scholar Department of Electrical & Electronics Engineering, GLOBAL institute of Engineering and Technology; Hyderabad, A.P, India. Abstract Photovoltaic energy is a wide kind of green energy. A high performance on these systems is needed to make the most of energy produced by solar cells. Also, there must be a constant adaptation due to the continuous variation of power production. Control techniques for Power Converters like the MPPT algorithm (Maximum Power Point Tracking) present very good results on photovoltaic chains. Nevertheless, losses on power elements reduce global performance and the voltage/current adaptation is not always possible. This paper presents a single-phase 11-level (5 H-bridges) cascade multilevel DC-AC grid-tied inverter. Each inverter bridge is connected to a 200 W solar panel. OPAL-RT lab was used as the hardware in the loop (HIL) real-time control system platform where a Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) algorithm was implemented based on the inverter output power to assure optimal operation of the inverter when connected to the power grid as well as a Phase Locked Loop (PLL) for phase and frequency match. A novel SPWM scheme is proposed in this paper to be used with the solar panels that can account for voltage profile fluctuations among the panels during the day. Simulation and experimental results are shown for voltage and current during synchronization mode and power transferring mode to validate the methodology for grid connection of renewable resources. Keywords- Multilevel Converter, Cascaded H-bridges, Photovoltaic, MPPT, PWM Technique, Photo Voltaic panels. I. INTRODUCTION Grid-connected single-phase photovoltaic (PV) systems are nowadays recognized for their contribution to clean power generation. A primary goal of these systems is to increase the energy injected to the grid by keeping track of the maximum power point (MPP) of the panel, by reducing the switching frequency, and by providing high reliability. In addition, the cost of the power converter is also becoming a decisive T V V PAVAN KUMAR Associate Professor Department of Electrical & Electronics Engineering, GLOBAL institute of Engineering and Technology; Hyderabad, A.P, India. factor, as the price of the PV panels is being decreased [1]. This has given rise to a big diversity of innovative converter configurations for interfacing the PV modules with the grid. Currently, the state-of-the-art technology is the two-level multi string converter. This converter consists of several PV strings that are connected with dc dc converters to a common dc ac converter [2], [3]. This topology features several advantages such as the independent tracking of the MPP of each string to the existing plant. This converter topology can reach peak efficiencies up to 96% [4]. In the last years, multilevel converter topologies have been also considered in PV applications [5]. These converter topologies can generate high-quality voltage waveforms with power semiconductor switches operating at a frequency near the fundamental [6]. Although, in low-power applications, the switching frequency of the power switches is not restricted, a low switching frequency can increase the efficiency of the converter [7]. Additionally, multilevel converters feature several dc links, making possible the independent voltage control and the tracking of the MPP in each string. This characteristic can increase the efficiency of the PV system in case of mismatch in the strings, due to unequal solar radiation, aging of the PV panels, and different type of the cells or accumulation of dust in the surface of the panels [8]. and the possibility to scale the system by plugging more strings. Traditional multilevel inverters include cascaded H-bridge inverter, diode clamped inverter, and flying capacitors inverter. This paper focuses on 52

2 the single-phase 11-level (5 H bridges) cascade multilevel inverter. Multilevel inverter structures have been developed to overcome shortcomings in solid-state switching device ratings so that they can be applied to high-voltage electrical systems. The multilevel voltage source inverters' unique structure allows them to reach high voltages with low harmonics without the use of transformers. This makes these unique power electronics topologies suitable for flexible ac transmission systems (FACTS) and custom power applications [6, 7]. The use of a multilevel converter to control the frequency, voltage output (including phase angle), and real and reactive power flow at a dc/ac interface provides significant opportunities in the control of distributed power systems. The general function of the multilevel inverter is to synthesize a desired ac voltage from several levels of dc voltages. For this reason, multilevel inverters are ideal for connecting either in series or in parallel an ac grid with renewable energy sources such as photo-voltaic or fuel cells or with energy storage devices such as capacitors or batteries. Additional applications of multilevel converters include such uses as medium voltage adjustable speed motor drives, static var compensation, dynamic voltage restoration, harmonic filtering, or for a high voltage dc back-to-back intertie. Because distributed power sources are expected to become increasingly prevalent in the near future, the use of a multilevel converter to control the frequency and voltage output (including phase angle) from renewable energy sources will provide significant advantages because of its fast response and autonomous control. Additionally, multilevel converters can also control the real and reactive power flow from a utility connected renewable energy source. These power electronic topologies are attractive for continuous control of system dynamic behavior and to reduce power quality problems such as voltage harmonics, voltage imbalance, or sags [8-10] With a capacitance connected in parallel with the renewable energy source, a multilevel converter can provide static var compensation even when there is no output power from the photovoltaic or fuel cell energy source. With banks of batteries or large capacitors on the dc bus, the multilevel converter can provide significant ride through capability for voltage sags or load swings experienced at the utility interface connection. II. MULTILEVEL INVERTER AND PV INTERFACE An overview of the system is shown in Figure1. The core component of this inverter design is the four-switch combination shown in Figure 1. By connecting the DC source to the AC output by different combinations of the four switches, Q11, Q12, Q13, and Q14, three different voltage output levels can be generated for each DC source, +Vdc, 0, and -Vdc. A cascaded inverter with N input sources will provide (2N+1) levels to synthesize the AC output waveform. The DC source in the inverter comes from the PV arrays, and the switching signals come from the multicarrier sinusoidal pulse width modulation (SPWM) controller. The 11-level inverter connects five H-bridges in series and is controlled by five sets of different SPWM signals to generate a near sinusoidal waveform [9-11]. The connection to the grid is done through a variable transformer to assure that at any time the number of H Bridges used can be controlled, the grid voltage generated by the inverter is met and also to give more flexibility to the experiment since irradiance levels might not be enough. For that reason, an additional fixed 10mH inductance was added as the connection inductance for power transferring mode. The individual solar panel output power is proportional to solar irradiance variations that occur during the day. The MPPT algorithm will work sensing the output power so no feedback from the individual panels is provided to reduce the number of sensors [12]. As can be seen in Figure. 1, the lower panels, in terms of control signals, will deliver more energy than the upper panels. In order to avoid uneven power to be drawn from the panels by the inverter, a different inverter control approach for the SPWM scheme is proposed here to be used with the solar panels that can account for the voltage profile variation of the panels that occurs 53

3 during the day. The MPPT and grid synchronization algorithm are fed by output and voltage current signals to generate the gate driver signals as shown in Figure 2. In Figure 3 are shown the inverter and its cycle by cycle SPWM control methodology. The irradiance profile over a day changes a few orders of magnitude than a 60 Hz system [13]. That means that a control change action over the modulation index can be taken over a few cycles of the 50 Hz control system. It is desired to get the same amount of power from each string, which cannot be achieved using a conventional SPWM approach. For example, the lower panels in Fig. 1 would send more power than the upper panels as they are switching for a longer time. Figure 1: Overview of the cascaded multilevel inverter interface with Grid The sinusoidal nature of the current comes as another factor that makes the power drawn from different panels uneven. The multilevel cascade topology does not require any of the H-bridges to be switched in a determined sequence as would be the case for a diode clamped multilevel (DCM) converter. This gives freedom to switch the H- bridges in the circuit in any order, which can be used as strategy to equalize the power transferred from individual panels. The control strategy implemented shifts the carrier signal over N cycles in the case of a (2N+1) level inverter to make it possible to draw the same amount of power from each string. Shifting the carrier down for each cycle is the same as physically changing the position of the H- bridges shown in Fig 3(a) for an 11-level inverter. In that figure five cycles of the fundamental frequency are needed to have each panel switch position with the other four. The energy stored in the capacitor will come to help in this process in a cycle-by-cycle basis to avoid a considerable voltage drop due to its considerable large capacitance (1000 uf). Figure 2: Control Block Diagram III. SYNCHRONIZATION AND TRACKING CONTROL SYSTEM Synchronization between inverter and grid means that both will have the same phase angle, frequency and amplitude. This can be done noise proof with respect to the grid by sensing the grid voltage in a Phase Locked Loop (PLL) [14-17]. Typical PLL algorithms include inverse Parkbased PLL, Hilbert transformer-based PLL, and transport delay-based PLL. The one to be included in this design is the transport delay-based PLL. Fig. 4(a) shows the block diagram of the PLL algorithm. Notice that the delayed angle can be directly controlled at the computer station during the experiment to provide the signal in quadrature with the grid, which is the input to the Park transform block. The PLL output is the actual angle position of the grid voltage. This signal is used to generate the sine wave that is used as the reference signal to the control system, which will generate the SPWM signals to drive the switches. The time required for synchronization will be dependent on the PI block parameters. Fig. 4(b) shows the PLL synchronization simulation. In that figure, the PLL starts its synchronization at 0.03 second, and it is in synchronization after about 0.13 second. Since the angle is now known, it is possible to control 54

4 Figure 3: Inverter Topology IV. ABOUT PHOTO VOLTAIC SYSTEMS AND MPPT ALGORITHM A Photovoltaic (PV) system directly converts sunlight into electricity. The basic device of a PV system is the PV cell. Cells may be grouped to form panels or arrays. The voltage and current available at the terminals of a PV device may directly feed small loads such as lighting systems and DC motors. [7] A photovoltaic cell is basically a semiconductor diode whose p n junction is exposed to light. Photovoltaic cells are made of several types of semiconductors using different manufacturing processes. The incidence of light on the cell generates charge carriers that originate an electric current if the cell is short circuited. Figure 4: Carrier Shifting Control Scheme the phase difference between inverter and grid by controlling δ. This allows the power flow to be controlled according to (1). Figure5: Equivalent Circuit of a PV Device including the series and parallel Resistances. The equivalent circuit of PV cell is shown in figure 5 in the above diagram the PV cell is represented by a current source in parallel with diode. Rs and Rp represent series and parallel resistance respectively. The output current and voltage from PV cell are represented by I and V (1) where Vinv is the inverter voltage, Vgrid is the grid voltage, XL is the connection impedance, and δ is the angle between grid and inverter. Instead of sensing the individual panel voltages, the maximum power point tracking (MPPT) algorithm determines the optimal point of operation of the panel by calculating the output power and phase angle variation [18]. It monitors output voltage and current parameters by making small changes on the phase angle and looking at the power variation, as in a hill climbing optimization method to track the maximum power point. Figure 6: V-I Characteristic of PV Cell The I-V Characteristics of PV cell [7] is shown in figure 6.. The net cell current I is composed of the light- generated current Ipv and the diode current Id Where Id Io exp qv akt Io = leakage current of the diode q= electron charge k = Boltzmann constant T= temperature of pn junction a= diode ideality constant (1) 55

5 The basic equation (1) of the pv cell does not represent the I-V characteristic of a practical PV array. Practical arrays are composed of several connected PV cells and the observation of the characteristic at the terminals of the PV array requires the inclusion of additional parameters to the basic equation. Where Is the thermal voltage of the array with Ns cells connected in series. Cells connected in series provide greater output voltages. The I-V characteristic of a practical PV cell with maximum power point(mpp), Short circuit current(isc) and Open circuit voltage (Voc) is shown in figure 7. The MPP represents the point at which maximum power is obtained. (2) same algorithm depending on how it is implemented. Hill-climbing involves a perturbation on the duty cycle of the power converter and P&O a perturbation in the operating voltage of the DC link between the PV array and the power converter. In the case of the Hill-climbing, perturbing the duty cycle of the power converter implies modifying the voltage of the DC link between the PV array and the power converter, so both names refer to the same technique In this method, the sign of the last perturbation and the sign of the last increment in the power are used to decide what the next perturbation should be. If there is an increment in the power, the perturbation should be kept in the same direction and if the power decreases, then the next perturbation should be in the opposite direction. Based on these facts, the algorithm is implemented. The process is repeated until the MPP is reached. Then the operating point oscillates around the MPP. This problem is common also to the In Cond method, as was mention earlier. A scheme of the algorithm is shown in Figure 8. Figure 7 I-V Characteristic of Practical PV Module Vmp and Imp are voltage and current at MPP respectively. The output from PV cell is not the same throughout the day; it varies with varying temperature and insolation (amount of radiation). Hence with varying temperature and insolation maximum power should be tracked so as to achieve the efficient operation of PV system. A. MPPT Algorithm: MPPT algorithms are necessary in PV applications because the MPP of a solar panel varies with the irradiation and temperature, so the use of MPPT algorithms is required in order to obtain the maximum power from a solar array. There are many MPPT techniques in MPPT Algorithm, Mostly we are using perturb and observation method. The P&O algorithm is also called hill-climbing, but both names refer to the Figure 8: The flowchart of the P&O Algorithm. V. MATLAB/SIMULINK MODELLING AND SIMULATION RESULTS Here the simulation is carried out by four cases 1. Single Phase Cascaded 11 level Inverter connected to grid without PV Cells. 2. Single Phase Cascaded 11 level Inverter connected to grid with PV Cells 3. Three Phase Cascaded 11 56

6 level Inverter connected to grid without PV Cells. 4. Three Phase Cascaded 11 level Inverter connected to grid with PV Cells. All these Cases A carrier shifting PWM Technique is used. Case 1: Single Phase Cascaded 11 level Inverter connected to grid without PV Cells. Figure 12 shows the Matlab/Simulink model photo-voltaic system Figure 13: 11 level Output Voltage of cascaded Multilevel Inverter with PV cell Figure 9: Matlab/Simulink model of Single Phase Cascaded 11 level Inverter connected to grid without PV Cells Figure-9 shows the Matlab/Simulink model of Single Phase Cascaded 11 level Inverter connected to grid without PV Cells Figure 14: Grid voltage Case 3: Three Phase Cascaded 11 levels Inverter connected to grid without PV Cells: Figure 10: 11 level Output Voltage of cascaded Multilevel Inverter Figure 11: Grid Voltage Case 2:. Single Phase Cascaded 11 level Inverter connected to grid with PV Cells: Figure 15: Matlab/Simulink Model of Three Phase Cascaded 11 level Inverter connected to grid without PV Cells The performance of the proposed Three Phase Cascaded 11 level Inverter connected to grid without PV Cells is evaluated through Matlab/Simulink tools; Figure 15 shows the Matlab/Simulink model Diagram. Figure 12: Matlab/Simulink Model of PV Syatem Figure 16: 11 level Output voltage of Three phase Cascaded 11 level inverter Grid connected without pv cells. 57

7 Figure 17 : Three phase grid Voltage Case 4: Three Phase Cascaded 11 level Inverter connected to grid with PV Cells Figure 18: 11 level Output voltage of Three phase Cascaded 11 level inverter Grid connected with pv cells Figure 19: Three phase grid Voltage Figures 18 and 19 show the 11 level output voltage of three phase cascaded multilevel inverter with grid interconnection with PV cells and three phase grid voltage respectively. V CONCLUSION This paper presented a Single Phase and Three phase eleven-level cascade H-bridge inverter, which uses PLL and MPPT with separate solar panels as DC sources to interact with the power grid. A SPWM approach was presented to deal with the uneven power transferring characteristics of the conventional SPWM modulation technique. This technique proved to be successful due to the irradiance profile and the use of capacitors to smooth the voltage fluctuation. The system was driven at 2 khz because of speed constrains of the control platform, which required bulk filter components. Grid connection results were shown using the proposed MPPT algorithm. Future work includes the use of a DSP platform to increase switching frequency and reduce filter requirements. The entire PV system structure and its interaction with the grid through PLL and MPPT algorithms were shown by the simulation results. REFERENCES [1] Faete Filho, Yue Cao, Leon M. Tolbert, 11-level Cascaded H-bridge Grid-tied Inverter Interface with Solar Panels, IEEE Trans pp , June [2] A. J. Morrison, Global Demand Projections for Renewable Energy Resources, IEEE Canada Electrical Power Conference, Oct. 2007, pp [3] J. Rodriguez, S. Bernet, Bin Wu, J. O. Pontt, S. Kouro, Multilevel Voltage-Source-Converter Topologies for Industrial Medium-Voltage Drives, IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, vol. 54, no. 6, pp , Dec [4] L. M. Tolbert, F. Z. Peng, Multilevel Converters as a Utility Interface for Renewable Energy Systems, IEEE Power Engineering Society Summer Meeting, Seattle, Washington, July 15-20, 2000, pp [5] S. Khomfoi, L. M. Tolbert, Multilevel Power Converters, Power Electronics Handbook, 2nd Edition Elsevier, 2007, ISBN , Chapter 17, pp [6] S. Busquets-Monge, J. Rocabert, P. Rodriguez, S. Alepuz, J. Bordonau, Multilevel Diode-clamped Converter for Photovoltaic Generators with Independent Voltage Control of Each Solar Array, IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, vol. 55, July 2008, pp [7] E. Ozdemir, S. Ozdemir, L. M. Tolbert, B. Ozpineci, Fundamental Frequency Modulated Multilevel Inverter for Three-phase Stand-alone Photovoltaic Application, IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exposition, Feb , 2008, pp [8] S. A. Khajehoddin, A. Bakhshai, P. Jain, The Application of the Cascaded Multilevel Converters in Grid Connected Photovoltaic Systems, IEEE Canada Electrical Power Conference, Oct. 2007, pp [9] S. Ozdemir, E. Ozdemir, L. M. Tolbert, S. Khomfoi, Elimination of Harmonics in a Five-level Diode-clamped Multilevel Inverter Using Fundamental Modulation, International Conference on Power Electronics and Drive Systems, Nov , 2007, pp [10] J. S. Lai, F. Z. Peng, Multilevel Converters - A New Breed of Power Converters, IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications, vol. 32, no. 3, May/Jun. 1996, pp

8 [11] B. Kavidha, K. Rajambal, Transformerless Cascaded Inverter Topology for Photovoltaic Applications, India International Conference on Power Electronics, Chennai, India, Dec , 2006, pp [12] O. Alonso, P. Sanchis, E. Gubia, L. Marroyo, Cascaded H-bridge Multilevel Converter for Grid Connected Photovoltaic Generators with Independent Maximum Power Point Tracking of each Solar Array, IEEE Power Electronics Specialist Conference, June 2003, pp [13] A. Abete, R. Napoli, F. Spertino, A Simulation Procedure to Predict the Monthly Energy Supplied by Grid Connected PV Systems, Photovoltaic Energy Conversion, Proceedings of 3rd World Conference on, vol. 3, May 2003, pp [14] E. Villanueva, P. Correa, J. Rodriguez, Control of a Single Phase Hbridge Multilevel Inverter for Gridconnected PV Applications, Power Electronics and Motion Control Conference, Poznan, Poland, Sept. 1-3, 2008, pp [15] R. B. Godoy, H. Z. Maia, F. J. T. Filho, L. G. Junior, J. O. P. Pinto, G. S. Tatibana, Design and Implementation of a Utility Interactive Converter for Small Distributed Generation, IEEE Industry Applications Conference, Oct. 8-12, 2006, pp [16] S. M. Silva, B. M. Lopes, B. J. C. Filho, R. P. Campana, W. C. Boaventura, Performance Evaluation of PLL Algorithms for Singlephase Grid-connected Systems, IEEE Industry Applications Society Annual Meeting, Seattle, Washington, October 3-7, 2004, pp [17] A. Pandey, N. Dasgupta, A. K. Mukerjee, A Simple Single-sensor MPPT Solution, IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, vol. 22, no. 2, March 2007, pp [18] T. Esram, P. L. Chapman, Comparison of Photovoltaic Array Maximum Power Point Tracking Techniques, IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion, vol. 22, no. 2, June 2007, pp T.VV PAVAN KUMAR is from Hyderabad, Andhra pradesh. Completed M.Tech in EEE with specialization High Voltage Engineering from University College of Engineering, Kakinada, affiliated to JNTUK in 2009 and B.TECH in EEE from Dr Paul Raj Engineering College affiliated to JNTUH in 2003.Member of AIEIE since Currently he is working as an Assoc. professor in EEE department at Global Institute of Engineering & Technology, Hyderabad from His areas of interest Power Electronics AUTHORS PROFILE MD.SAFIA received B.Tech degree from ADAMS ENGINEERING COLLEGE in the year 2008 and currently pursing M.Tech in Electrical power engineering at GLOBAL INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY, Hyderabad, and Andhra Pradesh. His areas of interest are Power Quality control, power electronics in power systems. 59

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