# Signed Binary Arithmetic

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1 Signed Binary Arithmetic In the real world of mathematics, computers must represent both positive and negative binary numbers. For example, even when dealing with positive arguments, mathematical operations may produce a negative result: Example: = 113. Thus needs to be a consistent method of representing negative numbers in binary computer arithmetic operations. There are various approaches, but they all involve using one of the digits of the binary number to represent the sign of the number. Two methods are the sign/magnitude representation and the one s complement method of representation. 1

2 2 The University of Texas at Dallas Binary Sign Representations Sign-magnitude: The left bit is the sign (0 for + numbers and 1 for numbers). All bits to right are the number magnitude Left bit is the sign bit Advantages to sign-magnitude: Simple to implement. Useful for floating point representation. (Big) Disadvantage of sign-magnitude: Sign bit independent of magnitude; can be both + 0 and 0! (Makes math hard to do). One s complement: The negative number of the same magnitude as any given positive number is its one s complement. If m = , then m complement (or m) = The most significant bit is the sign, and is 0 for + binary numbers and for negative numbers. Note the problem: If m = , then m = ; there are two zeros in this method as well.

3 Two s Complement Negative Binary Numbers Due to the problems with sign/magnitude and 1 s complement, another approach has become the standard for representing the sign of a fixed-point binary number in computer circuits. Consider the following definition: The two s complement of a binary integer is the 1 s complement of the number plus 1. Thus if m is the 2 s complement of n, then: m = n + 1 Examples: n = , then m = = n = , then m = = n = , then m = = n = , then m = = Note that to properly represent 2 s complement binary numbers, the full group of numbers showing the range of representation must be retained, because the left-most bit is the sign (0 = +, 1 = ). 3

4 Two s Complement Negative Binary Numbers (2) For integer 2 s complement representation addition and subtraction of both + and numbers always work out correctly (within the range of representation), and there is only one 0. As noted on the previous slide, the left-most bit is always 1 for a negative number, always 0 for a positive number. This means that an n-bit binary number in two s complement can represent a magnitude range of ± 2 n 1 1. In an n-bit representation, there are no extra bits! If adding 2 n-bit numbers results in n+1 bits, the left most bit is discarded! Thus: Let n = Then m = n + 1, or m = = (1) = The 1 is discarded, since in a computer, there are no extra columns. There are only 8-bits, so the (9th-column) 1 is thrown away. Therefore, the 2 s complement of 0 is 0. 4

5 Finding Two s Complements: Examples 5 In the following, remember that for any n-bit computing system, there are no extra bit positions. To convert a negative decimal number to 2 s complement binary: Convert the decimal number to a positive binary number. Take the 1 s complement of that binary number and add 1. Converting negative numbers (still using a single 8-bit byte length): 50: 50 = ; 1 s C. = ; 2 s C. = : 127 = ; 1 s C. = ; 2 s C. = : 1 = ; 1 s C. = ; 2 s C. = But: Positive decimal numbers are converted simply to positive binary numbers as before (no 2 s complement). Example: +67 (using method of successive div.)

6 Two s Complement Binary to Decimal Converting the other direction (2 s complement to decimal) is also simple. Simply do the following: Check the sign bit (left-most bit). If the sign bit is 0 (positive number), simply convert the number directly to a positive decimal number as we learned previously. If the sign bit is 1, the number is a 2 s complement negative number. To convert this number to decimal: Take the 2 s complement of the negative binary number. Convert the resulting + number to decimal and add a negative sign. 6

7 Two s Complement Binary to Decimal (2) Binary 2 s complement-to-decimal examples, negative numbers: = = 1; = = 93; = = 113; = = 126; 126. But for a positive binary number: Not a negative number Not a negative number Not a negative number Not a negative number

8 Decimal 2 s Complement Binary Yes Convert Decimal # To Binary Is the # > 0? Complete No Take Absolute Value of # and Convert to Binary Take 2 s Complement 8

9 2 s Complement Binary Decimal No Convert Binary # To Decimal Is the Binary # Sign Bit 1? Complete Yes Take 2 s Complement of Binary Number Convert Binary # to Decimal & Add Minus Sign 9

10 Exercise 1 Convert the following:

11 Two s Complement Binary Math If we represent binary numbers in 2 s complement form, simple addition and subtraction is easy. To subtract binary number b from a, simply take the 2 s complement of b, and add to a. That is: a b = a + (2 s comp. of b) = a + (b + 1) = a + b + 1 Adding numbers is the same as decimal addition. To add a positive and negative number, simply perform the addition and the minus sign (i.e., the left-most bit in the number) will take care of itself (assuming the result is within the range of representation). 11

12 Two s Complement Math 12 Subtract from : The 2 s complement of is = Adding: Check: 124 Thrown away (1) Add : Note that the 2 s complement of is , so the first number is equivalent to 63 decimal. Adding: Check: 63 Thrown away (1)

13 Two s Complement Binary Math (2) Subtract from (note we are subtracting a negative number): Adding: Check: ( 35) s complement of Add : Adding: Check: ( 127) Check! Check: 2 s C of = = 13, so the number =

14 Outside the Range of Representation 14 A number is outside the range of representation, when it cannot be represented by the bits available. For 8-bit, 2 s complement numbers (since left-most bit is the sign bit): Biggest + number to be represented = (+127). Biggest negative number possible is (= 127, 2 s C of ). Numbers outside the range of representation of n bits may only be represented by adding more bits. Examples: = 78!!! = + 112!!!

15 Summary: 2 s Complement Binary Math For integral mathematics in all modern computers, 2 s complement arithmetic is the customary approach. No ambiguous values crop up in CPU operations. A binary adder can subtract with minor modifications. The 2 s complement binary math unit is simple. For 2 s complement subtraction, the algorithm is very simple: Take the 2 s complement of the number being subtracted. Add the two numbers together. Note that the sign takes care of itself ( assuming the answer is within the range of representation ). 15

16 Exercise 2 Two 2 s comp. problems:

17 Binary Codes Computers also use binary numbers to represent nonnumeric information, such as text or graphics. Binary representations of text, (letters, textual numbers, punctuation symbols, etc.) are called codes. In a binary code, the binary number is a symbol and does not represent an actual number. A code normally cannot be operated on in the usual fashion mathematical, logical, etc. That is, one cannot usually add up, for example, two binary codes. It would be like attempting to add A and G! 17

18 18 The University of Texas at Dallas The ASCII Alphanumeric Code ASCII code represents alphanumeric data in most computers ( American Standard Code for Information Interchange ). Data on this transparency is coded in ASCII. ASCII codes are used for virtually all printers today. In the basic ASCII code that we will study, a single byte is used for each character. The least significant 7 bits represent the character. The eighth bit (the most significant bit, or MSB) may be used for error checking. Super ASCII codes can use all 8 bits (or more) for even more elaborate codes, such as other alphabets and character sets (Greek, Katakana, etc.).

19 ASCII Code (2) There are 128 basic ASCII characters, , or 0-7f 16 ( to binary). Each ASCII code is unique, for example: M = = 7710 = 4D16. m = = = 6D 16. Note that the small letters are exactly 3210 (20 hex) larger in numerical value than the capital letters. ASCII characters are stored as bytes in the computer. ASCII characters are normally represented as pairs of hex numbers (since 1 byte = 2 nibbles = 2 hex numbers). 19

20 Another Binary Code: EBCDIC EBCDIC (Extended Binary Coded Decimal Information Code) is an eight-bit character set developed by International Business Machines (IBM) and used on most IBM computers through the 1970 s. It was a precursor code to ASCII. IBM PC s have used ASCII code from the first models. Most other computer makers have also used the ASCII system since it was developed in the 1960s. EBCDIC is still used in some IBM computer equipment, mainly in systems with legacy code (very old software developed years ago) that was written in the days of EBCDIC. EBCDIC is an 8-bit code like ASCII, but the assignment of characters is very different. A few examples on the next slide. 20

21 EBCDIC and ASCII Hex Codes Character EBCDIC ASCII A C1 41 B C2 42 a b F F B 2E, 6B 2C 7F 22 21

22 22 The University of Texas at Dallas Summary Binary numbers are the numbers of computing. In EE 2310, students must master binary numbers. Since we live in a decimal world, it is also crucial to understand binary/decimal conversions. Hexadecimal numbers are also important, since many computer systems use hex readouts to ease the problem of interpreting 32- and 64- bit binary numbers. Binary codes are numbers that have a different meaning than their simple numerical value. ASCII is the default text code in most computer systems. The basic ASCII code set is shown at the end of these notes. Remember: There are only 10 types of people in the world those that understand binary and those that don t!

23 Exercise 3 Decode the following ASCII message: 47-6f-2c f-6d All numbers are ASCII characters in hex. Hint: We might say this if we had a football team. 23

24 Homework As was discussed last lecture, a good idea is to write down the two or three important things you learned today. Add these to the list you made last time (you did make a list last time, right?). Write down two or three things you did not clearly understand, as was mentioned before also. After finishing the assigned reading, if you still have questions, see me during office hours. 24

25 ASCII Codes 25

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