ENGLISH AS AN ADDITIONAL LANGUAGE (EAL)

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1 ENGLISH AS AN ADDITIONAL LANGUAGE (EAL) GUIDELINES FOR TEACHERS IN PRIMARY SCHOOLS photo ASSESSMENT TARGET SETTING STRATEGIES

2 Introduction An increasing number of pupils in Hillingdon schools use English as an additional language (EAL). These pupils have varied experience both in terms of prior education, first language skills and in learning English. Research into the acquisition of second language indicates that children can take up to two years to develop basic interpersonal communication skills (playground / street survival language) but it can take from five to seven years or more, to acquire the full range of literacy skills ( cognitive academic language proficiency ) needed to cope with the literacy demands of the curriculum. These guidelines are intended to support colleagues and can be used to: assess EAL learners including those who arrive mid term and mid phase track progress of all EAL learners assist teachers with target setting assist teachers seeking suitable teaching strategies help teachers match work to pupils needs inform teachers of the process of English language acquisition demonstrate children s progress to parents identify plateauing of progress highlight possible learning difficulties (if progress is slower than would be expected) provide a consistent system which can be adopted easily with a change of teachers contribute to whole school policy and practice support pupil self assessment We hope you will find the document useful and, as we are always keen to make sure we are responding to your needs in working with EAL learners, would welcome any feedback. Please respond to:

3 EAL learners in our primary schools come from a wide variety of language and literacy backgrounds: some have already been exposed to English language and British culture and others are new to both. Some have already developed literacy skills in their home language and others have not. Some may start in Y2 never having experienced school before. These guidelines use the common scale for assessing EAL as recommended by QCA and published in the document A Language in Common. This scale provides two steps Step 1 and Step 2 - before national curriculum level 1 in English and two levels through to national curriculum level 2 level 1 (threshold) and level 1 (secure). The additional descriptors in column 2 are taken from the extended scale of assessment of EAL developed by NASSEA and have been included to support teachers in their understanding of the process of EAL acquisition. The guidelines also identify specific EAL targets relating to the descriptors which have been taken from the London Borough of Hillingdon document Stages of English Language Acquisition KS1 & KS2. Levels in column 4 refer to these former stages and have been included to help colleagues familiar with them to find the appropriate level on the common scale. Further EAL targets can be found in previous Hillingdon Stages of EAL documents. The final column suggests strategies that teachers can use across the curriculum to support the English language learning of their learners. Listening and speaking early stages NC L2 and above Reading early stages NC L2 and above Writing early stages NC L2 and above

4 Other useful publications and web links A Language in Common QCA 2000 ISBN A scale for the summative assessment of pupils learning English as an additional language which links into NC English levels. There are sections on examples of pupils attainments and on profiling and monitoring. EAL Assessment NASSEA 2001 Tel: An extended assessment scale developed by the Northern Association of Support Services for Equality & Achievement (NASSEA) which builds on the QCA document A Language in Common. Learning to Learn in a Second Language Pauline Gibbons, PETA ISBN Aimed at all teachers of pupils who are learning EAL, this book gives invaluable information about how a new language is learned, how to plan for a newly arrived EAL child and how to assess progress. It also includes chapters on reading and writing in a second language and a whole school response to second language learners. There is a wealth of practical ideas and the book is written in an easily accessible style. Scaffolding Language, Scaffolding Learning Pauline Gibbons,Heinemann 2002 ISBN Following on from Learning to Learn, another practical resource book for mainstream teachers that demonstrates the ways in which content areas provide a context for the teaching of English skills in listening and speaking, reading and writing. It highlights the importance of the social contexts and interactions in which learning takes place and shows how teachers can scaffold language and learning National Association for Language Development in the curriculum (NALDIC) provides a professional forum for the teaching and learning of English as an additional language (EAL). The EAL subject specialist page of the TES site is particularly useful for mainstream teachers featuring ideas for those with little experience of EAL learners. available from Naldic

5 Primary EAL guidelines listening and speaking LEVEL DESCRIPTORS - Listening & Speaking * EAL TARGETS SUGGESTED STRATEGIES Step 1 Pupils listen attentively for short bursts of time. They use non-verbal gestures to respond to greetings and questions about themselves. They follow simple instructions based on classroom routines. Pupils echo words and expressions drawn from classroom routines and social interactions to communicate meaning. They express some basic needs, using single words or phrases in English. Respond appropriately to instructions with non-verbal gestures or body language Listen one to one Recognise and name some objects e.g. bag, pencil, rubber Convey needs in single words or gestures Recognise key words /phrases from classroom routine, e.g. get your pencil, It s time for PE Repeat or echo simple words or phrases 1a use gesture talk through actions / events as they happen teach names of adults and peers 1a use peers to model routines / language plan quality time (daily?) with pupil model social language conventions 1a play games with repetitive language use paired / small group activities with supportive 1a peers highlight key vocabulary action rhymes / songs / poems / stories 1a simple stories with repetitive language practical /doing activities visual props to provide language contexts 1a Step 2 Pupils understand simple conventional English. They listen and respond to the gist of general explanations by the teacher where language is supported by non-verbal cues, including illustrations. Pupils copy talk that has been modelled. In their speech they show some control of English word order and their pronunciation is generally intelligible. Show understanding of the gist of group / peer conversation Respond appropriately to peer group in a social situation Respond appropriately to an instruction when spoken to directly Answer simple yes / no questions Respond verbally to an instruction in a 1:1 situation Respond appropriately to an instruction given to a small group Talk in chunks of 2/3 words to convey meaning give clear instructions with consistent use of key words and phrases provide time for free talk play games (including oral, board, card, track games) respond and reply in words that extend and model encourage child to respond in words ask: closed questions; either/or questions; 1 word answer questions give thinking time for child to mentally rehearse words focus on child s meaning rather than the words used provide the words the child needs expand and extend what child says send on simple errands / messages with partner (check outcome!) * The descriptors that appear in italic print are for listening. 5

6 Primary EAL guidelines listening and speaking LEVEL DESCRIPTORS - Listening & Speaking * EAL TARGETS SUGGESTED STRATEGIES L1 Threshold With support, pupils understand and respond appropriately to straightforward comments or instructions addressed to them. They listen attentively to a range of speakers, including teacher presentation to the whole class. Pupils speak about matters of immediate interest in familiar settings. They convey meaning through talk and gestures and can extend what they say with support. Their speech is sometimes grammatically incomplete at word and phrase level Answer simple questions who, what, where, when Understand the gist of teacher / pupil talk e.g. simple text read aloud Ask simple questions e.g. who, what, where Talk about immediate experiences Use simple sentences Participate in whole class sessions Begin to use appropriate intonation when asking questions Use simple adjectives, prepositions in context teacher modelling / rephrasing sentences and questions. provide models of different language functions e.g. describing, explaining provide sentence starters using visual cues. respond / reply in words that extend and model circle time type activities (using repetitive language) allow time for child to mentally rehearse words whole class reading/ poetry recitation/ singing cloze questions asked, pupil to refer to visual cues games (pelmanism, lotto, snap, track games) information seeking activities e.g. simple questionnaires recycling of language across the curriculum paired feedback at plenary sessions encourage child to make links with home language (within safe environment) L1 Secure In familiar contexts, pupils follow what others say about what they are doing and thinking. They listen with understanding to sequences of instructions and usually respond appropriately in conversations. Pupils speak about matters of interest to a range of listeners and begin to develop connected utterances. What they say shows some grammatical complexity in expressing relationships between ideas and sequences of events. Pupil convey meaning, sustaining their contributions and the listeners interest Act on 2-step instruction Listen to story with increased concentration Contribute occasionally to classroom conversation Change word order to phrase questions Retell a sequence of events Begin to use subject-specific vocabulary provide beginnings of responses display key curriculum vocabulary provide collaborative tasks retell story through sequencing pictures extend child s experience of working groups opportunities for drama / role play / hot seating within curriculum context opportunities to plan / talk in groups opportunities for paired problem solving and feedback information seeking activities /barrier games Chinese whispers Begin to use conjunction/adverb/ adjectives when retelling, recounting or explaining * The descriptors that appear in italic print are for listening. 6

7 Primary EAL guidelines listening and speaking L2 L3 LEVEL DESCRIPTORS Listening & Speaking* EAL TARGETS SUGGESTED STRATEGIES Initiate conversations with a teacher with increased confidence collaborative tasks Pupils can understand most conversations when the subject of the conversation is more concrete than abstract and where there are few information seeking activities / Seek information from an adult jigsaw/ barrier games figurative and idiomatic expressions. Pupils begin to engage in dialogue or conversation within an academic extended listening with tape and Use intonation patterns to show understanding book context. In developing and explaining their ideas they speak clearly and use a growing vocabulary problem solving activities Volunteer information about characters in a story/poem drama / role play / hot seating Pupils begin to show confidence in talking and listening, independent feedback at plenary particularly where topics interest them. On occasions, they show Use a wider range of adjectives appropriately discussion of understanding awareness of the needs of the listener by including relevant detail. additional listening and speaking In developing and explaining their ideas they speak clearly and use Relate real or imaginary events in a connected narrative which opportunities across the curriculum a growing vocabulary. They usually listen carefully and respond conveys meaning to others responses to others' contributions with increasing appropriateness to what others say. They are provide opportunities for: beginning to be aware that in some situations a more formal Volunteer answers to questions within a large group situation giving explanations; vocabulary and tone of voice are used. explaining processes; Be able to express an opinion verbally predicting probabilities. Begin to use more complex sentences Pupils can participate as active speakers and listeners in group tasks. They Extend range of discourse markers (then, besides, also) role play/drama understand most social and academic school interactions delivered at provide time for children to initiate normal speed. Pupils use language appropriately across the curriculum for Use appropriate register for different situations and functions give thinking time for responses different academic purpose (e.g. explaining)-some minor errors may still be (playground, classroom, pupil/teacher exchanges) partner talk and reporting back evident. They are able to use more complex sentences. collaborative activities with good Paraphrase content of short oral and written texts language model partner/groups Pupils talk and listen confidently in different contexts, exploring and questions for varied roles e.g. communicating ideas. In discussion, they show understanding of the Explain and present ideas to others interviews main points. Through relevant comments and questions, they show barrier games to practise positional they have listened carefully. They begin to adapt what they say to the Use appropriate language for cross curricular problem solving & descriptive language needs of the listener, varying the use of vocabulary and the level of hot-seating detail. They are beginning to be aware of standard English and when it Understand metaphorical expressions keyword cards as aide memoires is used. for listening and retelling Communicate in most formal and informal situations using complex language appropriate to age group L4 Pupils have a range of listening skills necessary to participate fully within the curriculum and can be fairly assessed using only the National Curriculum for English. Pupils have a range of speaking skills necessary to participate fully within the curriculum and can be fairly assessed using only the National Curriculum for English. Develop inferential and referential skills NATIONAL CURRICULUM TARGETS APPLY FROM THIS LEVEL teacher modelling guided questioning language topic displays word banks provide a range of thesauruses and dictionaries Pupils talk and listen with confidence in an increasing range of context. Their talk is adapted to the purpose: developing ideas thoughtfully, describing events and conveying their opinions clearly. In discussion, they listen carefully, making contributions and asking questions that are responsive to others ideas and views. They use appropriately some of the features of standard English vocabulary and grammar. * The descriptors that appear in italic print are for listening. 7

8 Primary EAL guidelines reading Step 1 Step 2 LEVEL DESCRIPTORS - Reading EAL Targets Suggested strategies 1a Recognise own name or symbol for name shared reading (books with pictures) Pupils participate in reading activities. They know that 1a find letters in words in English, print is read from left to right and from top Hold the book the right way words in text to bottom. They recognise their names and familiar 1a match letters in words words and identify some letters of the alphabet by Recognise the front of the book words with words shape and sound. 1a model following print with finger/pointer Turn pages one at a time synchronise spoken with written word 1a individual alphabet strip upper & lower case Recognise signs as having meaning alphabet wall chart upper & lower case 1a talking text on tape Choose own books to look at and share with others on CD Rom provide visual cues rich, clearly contextualised print environment Pupils begin to associate sounds with letters in English Match letters in own name to other words (cross curricular) and to predict what the text will be about. They read peer modelling words and phrases that they have learned in different Know and recognise some letters of the alphabet read back any writing, pupil and teacher curriculum areas. With support, they can follow a text ask/provide/demonstrate meanings of words Identify some initial letter sounds read aloud. word games e.g. Lotto, pelmanism find phrases in text Recognise characters in a reading scheme match phrases in text picture dictionaries Read labels around the school bilingual dictionaries ensure word level work appropriate Sequence pictures Predict what text will be about using pictures talk about text Children who use more than one language may not learn the English sound system in the order that it is taught within a monolingual phonics programme. This will need to be taken into account, for example, when teaching English vowels sounds, as children may not yet be able to aurally discriminate between the sounds. 8

9 Primary EAL guidelines reading L1 Threshold LEVEL DESCRIPTORS - Reading EAL TARGETS SUGGESTED STRATEGIES Pupils can read a range of familiar words and Begin to read groups of words with a growing awareness of what their label pictures identify initial and final sounds in familiar words. meaning provide sentence starters using visual cues. cloze procedures with key vocabulary With support, they can establish meaning when cloze procedures with visual cues Say and match letter names to letter sounds reading aloud phrases or simple sentences and use match sentence beginnings to endings contextual clues to gain understanding. teacher modelling/rephrasing sentences and questions Use picture cues to make sense of text Clicker 4 (ICT) They respond to events and ideas in poems, stories Breakthrough sentence makers and non-fiction. use of Language Master Read stories with repetitive language e.g. ORT silly questions (Progression in Phonics) links across curriculum areas make own books at appropriate English Respond to / talk about characters in text language level paired reading talk about text L1 Secure Pupils use their knowledge of letters, sounds and words to establish meaning when reading familiar texts aloud, sometimes with prompting. They comment on events or ideas in poems, stories and non-fiction. Put words in alphabetical order Read the first 45 words (NLS) on sight Read simple texts with pictures and 1-4 lines of text Understand meaning at sentence level Retell story and recall what has happened in the story Express a spontaneous personal reaction while reading Comment: he s funny use of worksheets supported by visual cues games, lotto / pelmanism matching beginnings and ends of sentences paired reading use of tapes to listen and record (developing intonation patterns) answer questions with short phrases sequence text with pictures read play scripts of familiar texts (developing intonation and expression, and understanding of character talk about text 9

10 Primary EAL guidelines reading L2 L3 L4 LEVEL DESCRIPTORS - Reading EAL TARGETS SUGGESTED STRATEGIES Decode using knowledge of consonant clusters and digraphs taught pick out key words (e.g. underlining, Pupils use more than one strategy, such as graphic, Begin to use inference (how, why) when discussing text highlighting) to help understanding phonic, syntactic and contextual, in reading unfamiliar preview text (e.g. introduce key words and extracting information from a variety of Suggest and predict outcomes vocabulary, ideas, subject matter, share texts. From Key stage 2 onwards reading has similar stories, concept maps, word typically begun to be a tool for learning rather than a Be able to express an opinion about a text or a character in it weaving, etc) process which is an end in itself. encourage re-reading Pupils reading of simple texts shows understanding and is generally accurate. They express opinions about major events or ideas in stories, poems and non-fiction. They use more than one strategy, such as phonic, graphic, syntactic and contextual, in reading unfamiliar words and establishing meaning. Pupils understand many culturally embedded references and idioms, but may still require explanations. From Key stage 2 onwards pupils can read a range of complex texts starting to go beyond the literal by using some higher order reading skills such as inference, deduction and hypothesis. Pupils read a range of texts fluently and accurately. They read independently, using strategies appropriately to establish meaning. In responding to fiction and non-fiction they show understanding of the main points and express preferences. They use their knowledge of the alphabet to locate books and find information. Pupils have the range of reading skills necessary to participate fully within the curriculum and can be fairly assessed using only the National Curriculum for English. In responding to a range of texts, pupils show understanding of significant ideas, themes, events and characters. They begin to use inference and deduction. They refer to the text when explaining their views. They locate and use ideas and information. Use intonation to convey meaning Read with sufficient understanding to correct own miscues Use context cues to guess unknown words Give oral explanation of text Discuss characters and their motivations in a story Select key information for a purpose rejecting irrelevant / unimportant information Identify specific genre Compare and contrast texts on similar themes / subjects Know, understand and use alphabetical order appropriately Respond to humour Track ideas throughout a text Re-read and track cohesion within a text to verify understanding Summarise main points of fiction and non-fiction texts Skim text for overall meaning Scan text for specific information Identify language features of specific genre, e.g. persuasive writing, recounts, etc Interpret text on more than one level Support a point of view using text as a point of reference Understand figurative language, subtle humour and nuance NATIONAL CURRICULUM TARGETS APPLY FROM THIS LEVEL revisit known texts scaffold questions leading to how / why questions listening to taped stories for intonation / developing reading stamina listening to others on tape mime / act play scripts explain cultural references talk about text dictionary / thesaurus work use of highlighter to track ideas at paragraph / text level visual / audio / video support for text interactive visual display around text opportunities to link to personal experiences hot seating characters provide a framework to ask / answer questions about the text e.g. who, what, where grid, book reviews discuss homonyms explain cultural references / nuances cross-curricular references and links talk about text ask specific skimming questions ask specific scanning questions use colour coding for different types of information in text discuss ambiguous phrases e.g. the goalkeeper dived for the ball and children illustrate discuss idioms match literal and actual meanings of proverbs newspaper headlines matched to pictures / text talk about text 10

11 Secondary EAL guidelines writing LEVEL DESCRIPTORS - Writing EAL TARGETS SUGGESTED STRATEGIES Step 1 Pupils use English letters and letter-like forms to convey meaning. They copy or write their names and familiar words and write from left to right. Write within m 1cm lines - left to right orientation Use emergent writing to write letters Copy single letters Copy single words and names Write some upper and lower case letters e.g. from name Write own name 1a individual whiteboards and pens mark the starting point for the writing (red dot) 1a pattern making - L - R practice alphabet strips (upper & lower case) magnetic letters 1a name cards / fans letter fans shared group writing with opportunities to have a 1a go alphabet card games and puzzles writing area in the classroom all displayed work named alphabet with visual cues talk about writing / talk for writing Step 2 Pupils attempt to express meanings in writing, supported by oral work or pictures. Generally their writing is intelligible to themselves and a familiar reader and shows some knowledge of sound/letter patterns in English spelling. Building on their knowledge of literacy in other languages, pupils show knowledge of the function of sentence division. Dictate words to be written Copy from model directly above Draw a story in pictures Identify and write some lower case letters Identify and write some upper case letters Write own phrases and captions (not necessarily correct) Use correct initial letter to write simple key words/ common words Know most letter sounds and names Use words to join related phrases e.g. so, then, and Answer questions with short phrases Attempt extended independent writing Write simple sentences without help (not necessarily grammatically correct) to convey ideas use of peer modelling in small groups shared writing - teacher modelling language master scribe for individuals make books as a group talk about writing as it s done paired writing labelling pictures (with example) Cloze procedures use of writing frameworks across the curriculum literacy games interactive literacy hour - e.g. get up and go activities initial sound collections e.g. pictures, objects, display tables talk about writing / talk for writing 11

12 Secondary EAL guidelines writing L1 Threshold LEVEL DESCRIPTORS - Writing EAL TARGETS SUGGESTED STRATEGIES Write regular CVC words handwriting practice Pupils produce recognisable letters and words in cloze procedure texts, which convey meaning and show some Use appropriate spacing between letters and words Clicker 4 knowledge of English sentence division and word building sentences (Breakthrough sentence Form all letters in appropriate script order. Most commonly used letters are correctly makers/ Language Masters) finishing sentences shaped, but may be inconsistent in their size and Write words without models paired writing orientation retelling Use speech balloons (single word or phrases) recounting games for learning vowel sounds Begin to use full stops talk about writing / talk for writing Write one word answers to simple direct questions L1 Secure Pupils use phrases and longer statements which convey ideas to the reader, making some use of full stops and capital letters. Some grammatical patterns are irregular and pupil s grasp of English sounds and how they are written is not secure. Letters are usually clearly shaped and correctly orientated. Write two sentences in sequence and attempt capital letters and full stops Use words to join related phrases e.g. so, then, and Answer questions with short phrases Attempt extended independent writing provide visual stimuli to write from sharing context for writing provide opportunity to rehearse before writing paired work punctuation fans / visual interactive games writing frames customise known text completion of grids / tables Begin to write simple sentences (not necessarily grammatically correct) without help, to convey ideas talk about writing / talk for writing 12

13 Secondary EAL guidelines writing L2 L3 L4 LEVEL DESCRIPTORS - Writing EAL TARGETS SUGGESTED STRATEGIES Use a range of adjectives to describe characters and feeling writing frames Pupils are able to produce written outcomes using a range of appropriate grammatical structures when given scaffolding support modelled writing Begin to use the spelling patterns learned in own writing Clicker 4 (traditional stories) such as writing frameworks and a specific focus on the linguistic requirements of different kinds of writing. Pupils production is more sentence starters Write a story within a given structure sequence key words/phrases prior limited when they receive no such support. Pupils are beginning to understand that different contexts require different forms of to writing expression and they will be attempting to respond to this Describe events in chronological order visual cues e.g. photos, video hot seating understanding in their writing. Spell words with common vowel digraphs role play Pupils writing communicates meaning in both narrative and interactive display e.g. punctuation non-narrative forms, using appropriate and interesting Use a simple grid to record information / spellings vocabulary, and showing some awareness of the reader. Ideas are developed in a sequence of sentences, sometimes Write procedures or instructions using imperative tense e.g. describe demarcated by capital letters and full stops. Simple, a method in science monosyllabic words are usually spelt correctly, and where there talk about writing / talk for writing are inaccuracies the alternative is phonetically plausible. In handwriting, letters are accurately formed and consistent in size. Pupils can produce appropriately structured and generally accurate work in a variety of familiar academic contexts with few errors and without support. They will still require support to develop the organisational skills and appropriate linguistic forms for new contexts. Pupils writing is often organised, imaginative and clear. The main features of different forms of writing are used appropriately, beginning to be adapted to different readers. Sequences of sentences extend ideas logically and words are chosen for variety and interest. The basic grammatical structure of sentences is usually correct. Spelling is usually accurate, including that of common, polysyllabic words. Punctuation to mark sentences full stops, capital letters and question marks is used accurately. Handwriting is joined and legible. Pupils have the range of literacy skills necessary to participate fully within the curriculum and can be fairly assessed by using only the National Curriculum for English. Pupils writing in a range of forms is lively and thoughtful. Ideas are often sustained and developed in interesting ways and organised appropriately for the purpose of the reader. Vocabulary choices are often adventurous and words are used for effect. Pupils are beginning to use grammatical complex sentences, extending meaning. Spelling, including that of polysyllabic words that conform to regular patterns, is generally accurate. Full stops, capital letters and question marks are used correctly, and pupils are beginning to use punctuation within the sentence. Handwriting style is fluent, joined and legible. Use tenses correctly in the future Use a wider range of conjunctions to improve fluency Write a simple report Begin to use paragraphs Monitor own writing for spellings, grammar and omissions Spell words regularly used in talking, reading and writing Use direct speech in writing Monitor own writing for irrelevant sentences, phrases or ideas Proof read work for ways to improve the flow of ideas NATIONAL CURRICULUM TARGETS APPLY FROM THIS LEVEL moving to independent writing writing partners (one element as focus e.g. punctuation) use of highlighters to track ideas report frameworks display to highlight additional literacy focus talk for writing encourage use of dictionary encourage use of thesaurus talk about writing / talk for writing continue to model support the use of subject specific language use texts to develop figurative language e.g. metaphor / idiom etc talk about writing / talk for writing 13

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