# Speed Control of DC Motor by Programmable Logic Control with High Accuracy

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2 92 Speed Control of DC Motor by Programmable Logic Control with High Accuracy The PID controller diagrom in this circuit is shown in fig.2.we should tunned PID parameters for receiving best stability and overshoot and settling time at manual and simulation. Shaft encoder sense the speed and set the soutable speed Simulation In this section, the PID controller is used to control the PMDC motor. The simulation is obtained by calculating the system transfer function. To better evaluate the performance of the controller system, the change of control coefficients in the simulation are shown in fig.3, fig.4, fig.5, fig.6 Figure 3. The step response of system With Ki and Kd small Figure 4. The step response of system With increasing Ki and Kd

3 Universal Journal of Control and Automation 1(4): 91-97, Figure 5. The step response of system With increasing Kd Figure 6. The step response of system With final obtained Kd, Ki, Kp According to fig.3, fig.4, fig.5, fig.6, improvement the system performance is highly visible and significant. By suitable setting coefficients Ki and Kd and Kp, setting time, steady state error and overshoot is reduced. Step response of the system which holds approximately 52.1% overshoot is shown in fig.3, has been changed to fig.6 that shows appropriate control of system. If a DC motor equivalent circuit is as follows:

4 94 Speed Control of DC Motor by Programmable Logic Control with High Accuracy Frequency Response Method, the critical gain, Kcr and the critical period, Pcr have to be determined first by setting the Ti = and Td = 0. Increase the value of Kp from 0 to a critical value, Kcr at which the output first exhibits sustained oscillation. Table1. DC motor parameters Figure 7. Equivalent circuit of DC motor Relations between the torque and the returned magnetic field is as follow: T K = i (1) t e=ke dθ/ (2) Ke and Kt are equal amount in SI. According to fig.7 and Relationships based on Newton's law and Kirchhoff have: 2 dθ() t dθ() t J + b =.() it 2 e k (3) di() t dθ L + Ri.() t = V() t k (4) By taking the Laplace from the parties of relations (3), (4) have: (5) ( Ls + R ) I ( s) = V ( s) Ksθ ( s) (6) According to the (5), the current is: According to the (6), (7): (7) (8) parameters R L J b K Figure Hardware Implementation value Ω 48 mmmm KKKK. mm NN. mm. ssssss/rrrrrr. ss NN. mm. AA 1 speed versus time graph In this article, speed control of direct current electric motor designed and simulated and made. The main Required components to make are shown in fig.9. According to (8), Voltage input to output speed ratio is as follow: (9) As a result, we have: (10) Dc motor parameters are given in Table 1. The parameters and the amount of these are determined. Ziegler and Nichols proposed rules for determining values of the proportional gain Kp, integral time Ti, and the derivative time Td based on transient response characteristics of a given plant. For the Ziegler-Nichols Figure 9. The overall structure of speed controlling DC motor

5 Universal Journal of Control and Automation 1(4): 91-97, project is shown in fig.14. Figure 10. part of GMWIN program Initially, PLC and HMI should be programmed. We used GMWIN for programming PLC.We used high speed counter and auto tuning for programming PLC. Part of the program in GMWIN is shown in fig.10. For connecting PLC to pc, we used USB to RS-232 converter that shown in fig.11. Figure 12. The general trend of setting up Figure 11. USB to RS232 Converter We used Pannel Editor software for programming HMI. HMI allows to us, display moment to moment status of process and important parameters and displays the error online. In general, to create and implement a program for setting up HMI and PLC, the following steps shown in fig.12 are performed. For receiving and transmission motor speed used shaft encoder. Here's another piece are used that called coupling. For the coaxial and transmission motor speed to shaft encoder because of heterogeneous between two shaft diameter, we need to coupling. This piece was designed so that the input inner diameter 12mm and output inner diameter 6mm. Two screws at the junction of the two shafts are considered to prevent of freewheeling. The basis for the shaft encoder is used. Due to the lower elevation shaft encoder, we needed to a base for strength and to prevent vibrations. Also a board made of MDF for mounting all components were considered, until all pieces are sturdy and without translocation. Fig.13 shows the connection of motor shaft and shaft encoder. Output signals A, B, Z of shaft encoder is connected to the PLC and PLC power supply 24 VDC is connected to shaft encoder. Overarching theme construction of the Figure 13. Shaft encoder connected to the motor shaft Figure 14. hardware implementation

7 Universal Journal of Control and Automation 1(4): 91-97, useful for controlling speed in industrial to avoid damage to the parts. By comparing the simulation results of the system, before controlling and after that, we can conclude that many of the desired characteristics such as rise time and overshoot improve. The results of simulation and hardware implementation show the improved performance of the system. REFERENCES [1] P. C. Sen, Electric motor drives and control: past, present and future, IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, Vol. IE37, NO. 6, 1990, pp [2] M. Rashid, "POWER ELECTRONICS Circuits, Devices, and Applications", Prentice- Hall-2th ed, [3] J. Ziegler, N. Nichols, Optimum Settings for Automatic Controllers, ASME Trans. 64 (1942), pp [4] K.ogata, "Modern control Engineering", 5th ed, [5] T. Krishnan, B. Ramaswamy, A fast response dc motor speed control system, IEEE Transactions on Industrial App, vol., IA-10, No. 5, Sept./Oct. 1974, pp [6] Z. Wan-zhen, "PLC analysis and design applications", Electronic Industry Press, [7] X. XingMing, "PLC control system reliability design", Automation and Instrumentation, 2009

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