Participation in adult education and training

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1 Participation in adult education and training Nordic PIAAC Conference Copenhagen May 2015 Antero Malin Finnish Institute for Educational Research https://ktl.jyu.fi/en

2 Outline 1. Types of adult education and training in PIAAC 2. Participation in adult education and training by background factors 3. Participation in AET and key-informationprocessing skills 4. Summary Based on: Anders Rosdahl, Adult education and training (Chapter 6 in the report) Sulkunen, S., & Malin, A. (2014). Adult education and training in the Nordic countries. In A. Malin (Ed.), Associations between age and cognitive foundation skills in the Nordic countries : A closer look at the data (pp ). Jyväskylä, Finland: University of Jyväskylä, Finnish Institute for Educational Research. Sulkunen, S., & Malin, A. (2015). Adult education and training: How is it associated with key information processing skills in the Nordic countries? 6th Nordic Conference on Adult Education and Learning March 2015, Tampere, Finland

3 1. Types of adult education and training in PIAAC Two types of adult education and training were identified in PIAAC: Formal education results in a qualification documented in diploma or certificate approved by educational authorities in a country according to certain standards. Non formal education includes the following types of activities: Open or distance education Organised sessions for on the job training or training by supervisors or co workers Seminars or workshops Other courses or private lessons Focus is on the age group years

4 1. Types of adult education and training in PIAAC Respondents were asked about participation both in formal and non formal education within the last 12 months before the interview. Respondents are divided into three categories: 1) Participated in formal education, 2) Participated in non formal education, 3) No participation in adult education and training. Some of the persons in the first category also participated in one or more of the courses labelled non formal education. However, all persons having participated in formal education are placed in one category

5 2. Participation in adult education and training About 60% of the population aged in Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden participated in formal or non formal education. The proportion in Estonia was a little lower about 50%. 6 13% participated in formal education % participated in non-formal education % did not participate in AET at all

6 2. Participation in non-formal education and training Women are slightly more active than men in Denmark, Estonia and Finland Aged are more active (50-60%) than aged (37-49%) Non-immigrants are more active than immigrants Higher education is associated with more active participation Employed are more active tha unemployed or persons who do not belong to labour force

7 2. Motives for participation For job related reasons or for non-job related reasons? Participation for job related reasons in formal education: Between 80 and 90% of participants in Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden; In Estonia this was a little lower, below 70%. Participation for job related reasons in non-formal education: Between 83% and 90% of the participants. Obliged to participate or voluntary participation? In Estonia 5%; in Sweden 8%; and in Norway, Denmark, and Finland between 16 and 20% reported that they were obliged to participate in non formal education and training; participation was a requirement from their employer. On the contrary, most participation in non formal training and education is voluntary by the participants

8 2. Participation during working hours or outside working hours? Formal education: In Denmark, the largest proportion participated in only or mostly during working hours (41%). In other countries, about half participated only or mostly outside working hours. Non-formal education: Majority participated only or mostly during working hours (59 76%)

9 2. How useful the education and training was for the job? Very few of those who participated reported not useful at all! Formal education: The largest proportion who reported very useful (76%) is in Denmark. In other countries, the proportion of very useful is 40 65%. Non-formal education: In Denmark again, the largest proportion who reported very useful (78%). In other countries, the proportion of very useful is 30 54%

10 2. Who is paying? Employers are more often involved in payments associated with non formal than formal education and training. Formal education: In Denmark, 58% on participation was paid totally or partly by employers In other countries, the proportion is lower, 21 49%. Non-formal education: In Denmark, Norway, and Finland, in 70% or more cases employer paid totally or partly In Sweden and Estonia, in about 60% of cases employer paid totally or partly

11 2. Duration of participation in non-formal education and training Shortest duration in Finland (63 hours) and longest in Denmark (81 hours). Women have slightly longer duration in Denmark, Estonia and Finland, men in Sweden. Duration decreases by age, but not in Finland Immigrants have longer duration Compulsory school is associated with longer duration, but not in Estonia People without work have longer duration

12 2. Who feel they need further training in job? Do you feel that you need further training in order to cope well with your present duties? In Estonia, 48% of the employed persons feel that they need more training to cope well with their present duties, 24-36% in other countries Only small differences between men and women and between different age categories. Especially in Finland and Norway immigrants feel a little more often than non immigrants that they need more training. Especially in Finland and Estonia, the higher the level of education, the higher the proportion feeling they need more training. Particularly in Estonia, the selfemployed more often than wage earners feel they need more training. Employees in the public sector somewhat more often have such a need compared to people employed in the private sector

13 2. Who wanted to participate but did not? In the last 12 months, were there learning activities you wanted to participate in but did not? Overall, 24-33% wanted to participate more but did not Women in Estonia and Finland more often than men Younger persons in all countries than older Immigrants in Finland and Norway Persons with higher educational level more often than with lower educational level Persons in labour force more often than persons outside the labour force Most important reported barriers for training: Too busy at work Lack of employer s support

14 3. Participation in non-formal AET and keyinformation processing skills Does participation in AET help adults to prevent the decline in their key competencies and even develop them further? How the length of the participation in the non-formal adult education is associated with proficiency in key information processing skills?

15 3. Participation in non-formal AET and keyinformation processing skills The countries studied now are Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden. The population studied is now year-olds, excluding year-olds still in their initial cycle of studies. 64% of participants in this age group excluded, which is equal to 11% of all participants in the four Nordic countries. Based on: Sulkunen, S., & Malin, A. (2014). Adult education and training in the Nordic countries. In A. Malin (Ed.), Associations between age and cognitive foundation skills in the Nordic countries : a closer look at the data (pp ). Jyväskylä, Finland: University of Jyväskylä, Finnish Institute for Educational Research. Sulkunen, S., & Malin, A. (2015). Adult education and training: How is it associated with key information processing skills in the Nordic countries? 6th Nordic Conference on Adult Education and Learning March 2015, Tampere, Finland

16 3. Participation in non-formal AET and keyinformation processing skills* Participation in non-formal adult education in the four Nordic countries is positively associated with adults information processing skills in generally: Unadjusted differences: Those who participated had better skills on average than those who did not. In literacy score points; equal to s.d. (=50) in numeracy score points ; equal to s.d. (=53) in problem solving to score points ; equal to s.d. (=42) Adjusted differences: When the results are adjusted for background characteristics, this association reduces dramatically. In literacy 3-9 score points ; equal to s.d. in numeracy 2-7 score points ; equal to s.d. in problem solving to 4-11 score points ; equal to s.d. Most of the differences were explained by respondents age, gender, education, occupation, and familiarity with the test language!

17 3. Unadjusted and adjusted score point differences by participation in non-formal AET and by country Literacy Numeracy PS in TRE

18 3. Unadjusted and adjusted score point differences in literacy by length of participation in non-formal AET Numeracy and Problem-solving in TRE have almost similar associations with length of participation in non-formal AET

19 4.Summary Overall, there are more similarities than differences between the five countries with respect to behaviour, perceptions, and attitudes related to AET. Non formal training is the dominating type of AET. Most AET is job related. Very much takes place during working hours and is useful for the job. Employers very often cover a substantial part of the costs. The total duration of non formal training for the participants within the last 12 months is estimated to be between 63 hours (Finland) and 81 hours (Denmark)

20 4. Summary (cont.) Non employed persons and immigrants participate less often, but their training has a longer duration compared to employed persons and non immigrants, respectively. Elderly persons tend to participate less often and for fewer hours than younger persons. Between one quarter (Denmark) and half (Estonia) of the employed persons feel that they need more training to cope well with their present duties at their workplace. This may be an indicator of a real discrepancy between competencies and job requirements

21 4. Summary (cont.) Those who participated in AET have higher unadjusted scores in literacy, numeracy and problem-solving in TRE on average than those who did not. The adjusted differences between participants in AET and nonparticipants are clearly smaller than the unadjusted in all three skill domains. Thus, most of the unadjusted differences in skill proficiency are explained by age, education, gender, occupation and familiarity with test language

22 4. Summary (cont.) The results do not seem to give much support to the hypothesis that participation in AET has clear positive influence in strengthening the adults key information processing skills. This does not mean that AET is meaningless! We do not know exactly the contents and objectives of the participants non-formal training, but most probably it is not primarily targeted at enhancing the participants key information processing skills. Also, PIAAC data is cross-sectional and we have to be careful with causal conclusions about the effectiveness of the adult education. Maybe also one year of adult education and training is too short period to observe significant changes

23 4. Summary (cont.) In all, participants in AET have better skills and higher education than those who do not participate. The challenge is to get those who need AET programs most, those with the poorest skills or lowest qualifications, to participate. Key information-processing skills take years to develop in compulsory and secondary education. It may be unrealistic to think that short time participation in AET would have the same positive impact. Average difference associated with an additional year of completed education is 7-9 score points in literacy and 6-8 score points numeracy. To achieve significant gains in improving key-information skills, AET programs need to be long and intensive enough

24 Thank you very much!

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