AGR-130 Soybean Planting in Kentucky Chad Lee and James Herbek, Plant and Soil Sciences

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1 COOPERATIVE EXTENSION SERVICE UNIVERSITY OF KENTUCKY COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE, LEXINGTON, KY, AGR-130 Soybean Planting in Kentucky Chad Lee and James Herbek, Plant and Soil Sciences Planting Dates The optimum soybean (Glycine max) planting date is determined by a combination of calendar date and climatic conditions. Soybean seed can germinate in soil temperatures as low as 45 F, but temperatures near 50 F provide better and more consistent germination. Optimum soil temperatures for rapid germination and emergence are above 60 F. Based on research results from Princeton, Ky., full season soybean planting can begin about five to seven days after the median (50%) date for final spring freeze (Table 1). Based on the probabilities in Table 1, the calendar date for the start of planting in western Kentucky of mid-april would correspond to late April in central and eastern Kentucky. Soil temperatures should be at least 50 F, and soils should be suitable for planting. An April planting likely will require higher seeding rates to obtain desired final stands, and it runs a higher risk of being damaged by a late freeze. Historically, early May to early June has been the recommended window for planting full-season soybean in Kentucky. However, recent data from the University of Kentucky Research and Education Center in Princeton indicates that the optimum planting date for full-season soybean is mid-april through mid-may (Table 2, Figure 1). Historically, yield losses generally have occurred when soybean was planted after about June 7 in western Kentucky and June in eastern Kentucky. Recent data indicate that yield losses begin after about mid-may in western Kentucky (Table 2, Figure 1). The three years of study in Princeton were relatively normal for spring temperatures and final freeze dates. The average temperatures for April and May were within 1 to 3 degrees Fahrenheit of the 30-year normal, and the last freeze was April 15 during those three years. In about one out of 10 years in Princeton, the final freeze occurs after April 25 (Table 1). So, planting soybean in mid-april in Princeton runs the risk of a freeze killing the emerging plants in about one out of every 10 years. Optimum yields were achieved by planting five to seven days after the median freeze date in Princeton, but there is the risk that the early seeding will be killed be a freeze. The yield advantage from earlier planting is offset by lower seed germination and emergence and more time from planting to emergence (Table 3). A higher seeding rate is needed in April and early May to achieve desired stands, and the economics of the cost of additional seed versus the potential yield increase should be considered. Table 1. Last freeze date probabilities for spring in Kentucky based on climate data from 1971 to 2000 from the National Climate Data Center. Probability Level for Last Freeze Kentucky (32 F or less) 1 Location 90% 50% 10% Ashland Apr 16 May 04 May 21 Bardstown Apr 3 Apr 20 May 6 Beaver Dam Apr 1 Apr 14 Apr 28 Bowling Green Mar 26 Apr 11 Apr 26 Covington Apr 4 Apr 20 May 6 Danville Mar 30 Apr 12 Apr 26 Glasgow Apr 4 Apr 16 Apr 28 Henderson Mar 29 Apr 9 Apr 20 Hopkinsville Mar 29 Apr 10 Apr 22 Leitchfield Apr 7 Apr 22 May 6 Lexington Apr 2 Apr 15 Apr 28 Madisonville Mar 31 Apr 12 Apr 24 Mayfield Apr 1 Apr 13 Apr 25 Monticello Apr 5 Apr 20 May 6 Murray Mar 24 Apr 5 Apr 17 Nolin River Lake Apr 8 Apr 26 May 13 Princeton Mar 31 Apr 13 Apr 25 Russellville Mar 30 Apr 13 Apr 26 Shelbyville Apr 14 Apr 29 May 14 Somerset Apr 7 Apr 22 May 7 1 Probabilities are for the last date for freeze, where 90% indicates that the final freeze may be later nine out of 10 years, 50% indicates that the final freeze may be later five out of 10 years, and 10% indicates that the final freeze may be later one out of 10 years. Agriculture and Natural Resources Family and Consumer Sciences 4-H Youth Development Community and Economic Development EXTENSION

2 Table 2. Planting date effect on mid-iv maturity group soybean yield, at Princeton, Ky (dry, hot) (wet, cool) 2010 (dry, hot) Planting Date Soybean Yield, bu/acre 3 April a 80 b 41 a April a 84 a 42 a May a 81 b 42 a May b 75 c 38 b June c 69 d 32 cd June d 64 e 34 c July e 50 f 31 d 1 University of Kentucky Research and Education Center, Princeton, Ky. Soybean varieties were Pioneer 94M50 (2008, 2009) and Pioneer 94Y60 (2010). Seeding rate was about 200,000 seeds per acre, with the recognition that a 50% final stand would be enough plants for excellent yield. 2 Dry, hot and wet, cool are descriptions of the overall growing season. Rainfall for June through Sept. was -7.5 inches in 2008, +7.0 inches in 2009, and -4.5 inches in 2010 relative to a 30-year average. 3 Yield values followed by the same letter within the same variety and year are not significantly different according to LSD (P<0.10). Figure 1. Planting date effect on mid-iv maturity group soybean yield, University of Kentucky Research and Education Center, Princeton, Ky., Relative Yield (% of first planting date) Apr Apr May 7-12 May y = 1.298x x R 2 = Jun 3-6 Jun Jul 6-7 Planting Date 1 Soybean varieties were Pioneer 94M50 (2008, 2009) and Pioneer 94Y60 (2010). Rainfall for June through Sept. was -7.5 inches in 2008, +7.0 inches in 2009, and -4.5 inches in 2010 relative to a 30-year average. Seeding rate was about 200,000 seeds per acre. Yields from each planting date are based on a percentage of yields from the first planting date. Planting early into cool soil conditions increases the risk of certain seedling diseases. For management options, see the section in this publication on seed treatments. Early planting also increases the risk of other diseases, such as soybean sudden death syndrome, stem canker, and anthracnose (caused by Fusarium solani f.sp. glycines, Diaporthe phaseolorum var. Table 3. Planting date effect on days to emergence and percent emergence for a mid-iv maturity group soybean, Planting Date Days to 2 % Days to % Days to % April April May May June June July April and May temperatures were within 1 to 3 degrees Fahrenheit of the 30-year normal. The latest freeze event in any year was April Days to emergence is days from planting to 50% emergence. Percent emergence is a percentage of total seeds planted. caulivora or var. merdionalis, and Colletotrichum dematium var. truncatum, respectively). Seeding Rates Recent studies suggest that full-season soybean normally will reach maximum yield when final plant populations are near 100,000 plants per acre (Tables 4 and 5). These studies were conducted in 14- or 15-inch rows, and in most cases, soybean with glyphosate-resistance (Roundup Ready ) were used. Similar responses to population would be expected with glyphosate-resistance (RoundupReady2Yield ) or glufosinateresistance (Liberty Link ) where the herbicides applied are not altering soybean canopy development. Double-crop soybean often is seeded into drier field conditions and has less time from emergence to flowering. Double-crop soybean requires about 140,000 to 180,000 plants per acre, depending on the year. Since yields of double-crop soybean are often lower than full-season soybean, a target stand of about 140,000 plants per acre is the more economic option. The proper final stand of soybean depends on seeding rate, seed quality, standard germination, seedbed conditions, and environmental conditions. To determine the proper seeding rate for your conditions, as a general guide use Table 6 for full-season soybean and Table 7 for double-crop soybean. The standard germination of most commercial soybean seed is about 90% or more. However, in years when severe stress occurred during seed production, seed quality has been lower with standard germination as low as 80% for some brands. In addition to seed quality, field conditions during and after planting will affect the number of viable seeds that germinate and emerge. Seedling losses will be larger in heavy clay soils, which are prone to crusting after a rain event. than in silt loam soils, which typically do not crust. Soil temperatures below 50 F can delay or reduce germination and emergence. The guidelines in Tables 6 and 7 provide final seeding rates that are higher than the desired final stand. Local field knowledge is extremely valuable when deciding on final seeding rates, because that knowledge includes known risks within each field. 2

3 Soybean seed is expensive, and proper planter calibration will help ensure that the desired amount of seed is being planted, saving money, and protecting yield potential. Table 8 can help with the calibration process by providing correlations between seed spacing within a row and seeding rates. Expected seed costs per acre based on seeding rates and seed size or seed count per bag are provided in Tables 9 and 10. Drills and planters with seed cups need to be calibrated for different seed sizes. An air delivery system might require different plates for different seed sizes. Inoculation Soybean is a legume that, when properly inoculated with the bacteria Bradyrhizobium japonicum, can fix atmospheric nitrogen. A bushel of soybean seed contains about 3 pounds of nitrogen, so 50 bushels will contain 150 pounds of nitrogen, and 70 bushels will contain 210 pounds. Most commercial inoculants cost a few dollars per acre, so the inoculation is much less expensive than fertilizer nitrogen. Use of B. japonicum is recommended with any of the following conditions: A new soybean field A field that has been out of soybean for three to five years A field in which the previous soybean crop had poor nodulation Some evidence exists that soils remaining saturated for long periods of time might have reduced populations of B. japonicum. Such soils are usually wet in nature and might be good candidates for inoculation each time soybean is grown. Some producers prefer to inoculate soybean each year, regardless of soil type. The inoculant is packaged in either a peat-based dry material or in a liquid formulation. While both formulations are effective, the liquid formulations generally provide better coverage of each seed. When using dry forms, some type of sticking agent should be used to help the dry material remain on the surface of each seed. The bacteria are living organisms, and care should be given to keep the inoculant out of extreme hot or cold temperatures and away from drying conditions. Seed should be inoculated immediately before planting. Only fresh packages of inoculant should be used. Most companies include expiration dates on their packages. Fungicides and molybdenum can impair B. japonicum, and producers should avoid premixes containing all three. Instead, seed treated with either fungicides or molybdenum can be inoculated and immediately planted. If the time between inoculation of the treated seed and planting is more than a few hours, the viability of the inoculant may be impaired. Seed Treatments Fungicide and insecticide seed treatments are increasing in popularity. Most studies suggest that such seed treatments might be beneficial when planting early into very cool, wet soils. Soybean seedlings in these conditions are more prone to damping off (caused by several fungal species) and Phytophthora spp. Early planting dates that prolong germination and emergence would be good candidates for use of fungicide seed treatments, especially Table 4. Calculated minimum plants per acre required for optimum soybean yield. 1 Seeding Date (timing) 2 24 April 2003 (full season) 21 May 2004 (full season) 21 June 2004 (late) Minimum Plant Population for Variety Relative Maturity Optimum Yield (plants/acre) 3 Stressland ,500 CF ,400 CF ,800 B ,300 B ,100 CF ,800 B ,400 B ,100 1 Soybean was planted into 15-inch rows with a drill at Spindletop Farm near Lexington, Ky. (Data reported in Lee, et al ) 2 Timing was considered full season for April and May and late for June. The late seeding date conditions are different from the double-crop conditions because soils in a double-crop system often will be much drier than soils planted with full-season soybeans at a later date. 3 Prediction model used is exponential rise to maximum,three-parameter model: plant population required for 95% of yield that was achieved at maximum plant population tested. The minimum plant population was set at 95% maximum yield because of model limitations (the model does not account for plant lodging at extremely high populations and assumes that yield increases to infinity as plant population increases to infinity). those that include either metalaxyl or mefanoxam (active ingredients in Allegiance and Apron XL, respectively). Cool conditions cause slower plant growth and in some cases could make insect feeding more severe. An insecticide seed treatment might protect seedlings from some of these insects, especially seedling damage from adult overwintering bean leaf beetles. Such treatment is more likely to offer protection in early planted soybean. Some seed companies apply fungicide/insecticide seed treatments to all of their soybean seed. If inoculant is to be used as well, the soybean seed must be inoculated and planted immediately. Seed Depth For maximum germination, soybean seed should be planted about 1 to 1.5 inches deep into moist soil and have good seedto-soil contact. Shallow seed placement increases the risk that fluctuating soil moistures will reduce germination. Deep seed placement delays emergence and increases the risk that the soybean seedling will not reach the soil surface. Variations in soil texture, temperature, and moisture will dictate slightly different planting depths: Sandy soils are often droughty and can lose soil moisture quickly, so soybean seeds should be placed at about 2 inches for good emergence. Heavy, clay soils are prone to crusting, so soybean should be planted about 1 to 1.5 inches deep when planted in May. Soils that are cool and moist will cause slower germination and seedling growth, so soybean seed should be planted about 1 inch deep. Soils that are dry will result in slow germination; however, soybean seeds should not be placed any deeper than 2 inches. If possible, delay planting until after a rainfall event and place the seed 1 to 1.5 inches deep. 3

4 Although less common, some herbicides dictate a slightly deeper planting depth, for which the herbicide label should be followed. Seeding depth should be checked at the start of each field and modified if soil conditions change during planting. Planters, equipped with soybean cups or air delivery, generally provide more accurate seed depth and placement and better soil-to-seed contact than drills. Planters also provide more accurate seeding rates and are easier to calibrate than drills. For these reasons, soybean in 15-inch rows with a planter is favored over soybean in 7.5-inch rows with a drill. Table 5. Seeding rate effect on final population and soybean yield in Princeton, Ky., for 2005 through Pioneer 93M90 1 Seeding Rate (seeds/acre (in Plants/Acre Seeding Date 2 thousands) 3 (in thousands) 4 Yield (bu/acre) 5 May a 63 b 49 a a 66 b 48 a a 73 a 47 a a 73 a 38 b a 72 a 35 bc a 72 a 33 bc a 72 a 34 bc a 72 a 33 c June c 32 b bc 36 a b 38 a b 37 a a 37 a a 37 a a 36 a a 34 ab Pioneer 94M70 or 94M80 Seeding Rate(seeds/acre Plants/Acre Seeding Date 2 in thousands) 3 (in thousands) 4 Yield (bu/acre) 5 May a 71 ab 38 a a 71 ab 38 a a 72 a 35 b a 72 a 32 c a 70 ab 31 c a 69 b 30 c a 68 b 30 c a 62 c 25 d June c 32 d bc 35 c bc 38 a ab 38 ab a 38 ab a 38 ab a 37 abc a 36 bc 1 Soybean varieties Pioneer 93M90 and Pioneer 94M70 have relative maturities of 3.9 and 4.7, respectively. Pioneer 94M80 was used in place of 94M70 in Seed dates were May 25, 2005, May 23, 2006, and May 14, 2007 for full season and June 28, 2006, and June 20, 2007, for late season. Row widths were 15 inches for 2005 and 14 inches for 2006 and Seeding rate was based on viable seed and drill calibration. Seeding rates for 2005 and 2006 are displayed in the table. In 2007, all seeding rates were increased by 10,000 seeds per acre, to 60,000, 85,000, 110,000, 135,000, 160,000, 185,000, 210,000, and 235,000 seeds per acre. 4 Final plant populations were rounded to the nearest 1,000 plants per acre in 2006 and the nearest 5,000 plants per acre in 2005 and Yield values followed by the same letter within the same variety and year are not significantly different according to LSD (P<0.10). 4

5 Table 6. Soybean seeding rate calculations for full-season soybean. 1 Actual Seeding Rate Standard Initial Desired Germination Assumed Seeding Row Spacing (inches) Final Stand (from seed Stand Rate (plants/acre) tag) Loss 2 (seeds/acre) 3 (seeds/acre) (seeds/foot 5 ) 100,000 85% 5% 117, , % 111, , % 105, , ,000 85% 10% 117, , % 111, , % 105, , ,000 85% 20% 117, , % 111, , % 105, , ,000 85% 30% 117, , % 111, , % 105, , Seeding rate should be based on germination rate as well as expected stand losses. Stand losses are typically more severe in damp, cool conditions with heavy residue or soil crusting. Stand losses are typically less with warm conditions and adequate soil moisture. 2 Assumed stand loss is the anticipated loss in stand due to planting date, field conditions, and field history. 3 Initial seeding rate calculated as: target stand/standard germination. For example, 100,000 seeds/acre 0.95 = 105,263 seeds/acre. 4 Actual seeding rate is calculated as: initial seeding rate (1 assumed stand loss). For example, 105,263 seeds/acre (1-0.05) = 110,803 seeds/acre. 5 Seeds/foot calculated as: (actual seeding rate 43,560 ft 2 ) (row width in inches 12). For example, (110,803 seed/acre 43,560 ft 2 /acre) (7.5 inches 12 inches) = 1.6 seeds/ft of row. Table 7. Soybean seeding rate calculations for double-crop season soybean. 1 Actual Seeding Rate Standard Desired Germination Assumed Initial Row Width (inches) Final Stand (from seed Stand Seeding Rate (plants/acre) tag) Loss 2 (seeds/acre) 3 (seeds/acre) (seeds/foot 5 ) 140,000 85% 5% 164, , % 155, , % 147, , ,000 85% 10% 164, , % 155, , % 147, , ,000 85% 20% 164, , % 155, , % 147, , ,000 85% 30% 164, , % 155, , % 147, , Seeding rate should be based on germination rate as well as expected stand losses. Stand losses are typically more severe in damp, cool conditions with heavy residue or soil crusting. Stand losses are typically less with warm conditions and adequate soil moisture. 2 Assumed stand loss is the anticipated loss in stand due to planting date, field conditions, and field history. 3 Initial seeding rate calculated as: target stand/standard germination. For example, 140,000 seeds/acre 0.95 = 147,368 seeds/acre. 4 Actual seeding rate is calculated as: initial seeding rate (1 assumed stand loss). For example, 147,368 seeds/acre (1-0.05) =155,125 seeds/acre. 5 Seeds/foot calculated as: (actual seeding rate 43,560 ft 2 ) (row width in inches 12). For example, (155,125 seed/acre 43,560 ft 2 /acre) (7.5 inches 12 inches) = 2.2 seeds/ft of row. 5

6 Figure 2. Soybean in rows of 15 inches (or less) typically yields more than soybean in 30-inch rows. This field study in Shelby County in 2010 was an exception: soybean in both 15- and 30-inch rows yielded similarly. Figure 3. Double-crop soybean yields better in rows of 15 inches or less because of the later planting date, drier soil conditions, and shorter time between emergence and flowering. Seed Bed Preparation Prior to planting, lime, phosphorus, and potassium should be added to the field according to a soil test. Agricultural lime should be applied in the fall, while phosphorus and potassium can be applied any time prior to planting. In fields where soil ph is below 6.2, molybdenum is recommended. About 1 to 2 ounces of sodium molybdate per acre can be used as a seed treatment, or 1 pound of sodium molybdate per acre may be sprayed in a spray volume of about 20 gallons per acre prior to planting. Molybdenum will reduce viability of soybean inoculant (B. japonicum). If both are applied to the seed, apply the sodium molybate first, then apply the inoculant and plant immediately. Molybdenum should be considered a rescue treatment only when a lime application is not possible. No more than 2 pounds of sodium molybdate per acre should be applied to a field in a five-year period. With modern farming practices, soybean is successfully grown in no-tillage conditions. No-tillage conserves soil, increases soil organic matter, improves soil structure and porosity, and reduces overall fuel consumption and labor requirements. The relatively shallow soils and rolling landscape makes most Kentucky fields best suited to no-tillage management. In notillage fields, weeds should be killed with a burndown herbicide application one to two weeks before planting. Residual herbicides can be included with the burndown herbicide to help keep summer annuals from competing with early soybean growth. Generally, a soil-residual herbicide will provide about four weeks of activity against susceptible weeds. The actual duration of herbicide activity depends on soil moisture, soil texture, soil ph, rainfall events after application, temperature, and the amount of sunlight reaching the chemical. Table 8. Spacing between seeds within a row and corresponding seeding rate per acre. Seeds per Foot Inches Between Seeds Row Width (inches) Seeding rate (seeds/acre) , , ,574 48, ,514 55, ,453 62,726 47, ,392 69,696 52, ,331 76,666 57, ,270 83,635 62, ,210 90,605 67, ,149 97,574 73,181 48, , ,544 78,408 52, , ,968 91,476 60, , ,544 69, , ,612 78, , ,680 87, , ,748 95, , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , ,936 Note: For the same population, as rows get wider, there are more seeds per foot. 3 seeds/ft in 15-inch rows is the same population as 6 seeds/ft in 30-inch rows. 6

7 Table 9. Soybean seed costs based on a 50-pound bag adjusted to different seed sizes. Seed Rate Seed /Bag 1 Seed Size (seeds/lb) seeds/ acre lb/acre bags/ acre Cost /Acre 2 $ , $ , $ , $ , $ , $ , $ $ , $ , $ , $ , $ , $ , $96.25 $ , $ , $ , $ , $ , $ , $94.29 $ , $ , $ , $ , $ , $ , $82.50 $ , $ , $ , $ , $ , $ , $78.57 Table 9. continued Seed Rate Seed /Bag 1 Seed Size (seeds/lb) seeds/ acre lb/acre bags/ acre Cost /Acre 2 $ , $ , $ , $ , $ , $ , $68.75 $ , $ , $ , $ , $ , $ , $62.86 $ , $ , $ , $ , $ , $ , $55.00 $ , $ , $ , $ , $ , $ , $47.14 $ , $ , $ , $ , $ , $ , $ Bulk containers are generally equivalent to 50-bags with no difference in cost per acre between bulk containers and 50-pound bags. 2 Values in this column are based on the following calculation: $/acre = ($ per bag [seed size x 50 lb]) x seeds per acre. An alternate calculation would be seed cost per bag x bags per acre, resulting in a slightly different number due to rounding. Minimum tillage may be necessary to alleviate surface compaction and/or help remove certain weeds. Chisel plows and field cultivators are preferred over moldboard plows and disks. Moldboard plows destroy soil organic matter more rapidly than other tillage systems, break down soil structure, and require more fuel to operate than most other implements. Disks tend to cause the most soil compaction at the tillage depth. Deep tillage can be done to alleviate compaction at the 6- to 10-inch depth. The ideal deep tillage implement will have a very narrow shank and cause as little surface disturbance as possible. The soil should be dry to maximize shattering of the compaction layer. Deep tillage implements require a lot of fuel to operate, so they should only be used when necessary. Row Width Most research over the past 30 years indicates that soybean grown in 15-inch rows is the preferred system. Soybean in 15- inch rows will yield more or at least equal to soybean in 30-inch rows. Conversely, soybean in 30-inch rows almost never yields more than soybean in 15-inch rows (Figure 2). Soybean in 7.5- inch rows will yield as much as soybean in 15-inch rows, but usually no more. When soybean is double-cropped or planted after the last optimum planting date, row widths of 15 inches or less consistently provide a yield increase (Figure 3). Soybeans planted late in wide rows will be shorter, have less vegetative growth, and not reach full canopy. 7

8 Table 10. Soybean seed costs for bags sold with a specified seed number. Costs for a 140,000-unit bag Costs for a 130,000-unit bag /Bag Seed Rate (seed/acre) /Acre /Bag Seed Rate (seed/acre) /Acre $70 120,000 $60.00 $70 120,000 $ ,000 $ ,000 $ ,000 $ ,000 $ ,000 $ ,000 $ ,000 $ ,000 $ ,000 $ ,000 $ $60 120,000 $51.43 $60 120,000 $ ,000 $ ,000 $ ,000 $ ,000 $ ,000 $ ,000 $ ,000 $ ,000 $ ,000 $ ,000 $ $50 120,000 $42.86 $50 120,000 $ ,000 $ ,000 $ ,000 $ ,000 $ ,000 $ ,000 $ ,000 $ ,000 $ ,000 $ ,000 $84.62 $40 120,000 $34.29 $40 120,000 $ ,000 $ ,000 $ ,000 $ ,000 $ ,000 $ ,000 $ ,000 $ ,000 $ ,000 $ ,000 $67.69 $30 120,000 $25.71 $30 120,000 $ ,000 $ ,000 $ ,000 $ ,000 $ ,000 $ ,000 $ ,000 $ ,000 $ ,000 $ ,000 $50.77 Replanting Soybean is able to compensate for low populations and gaps in stands. For full-season soybean, replanting generally will not be profitable until the initial stand drops below 50,000 plants per acre. The relatively low yield loss from a final stand of 50,000 or more plants per acre combined with the expected yield loss of a later planting date plus the cost of the additional planting normally does not justify replanting. There are exceptions to this statement. If the field with the poor stand is one that you or your neighbors see every day, you may want to replant not for economics, but simply to feel better about the field. Similar logic applies to rented fields that the landowner sees on a regular basis. Conclusion Soybean planting should begin based on a combination of calendar date and good environmental conditions. Inoculation is only necessary when a field has been out of soybean for three to five years or the previous soybean crop had poor nodulation. Full season soybean generally requires fewer plants to reach maximum yield than does double-crop soybean. A row width of 15 inches is about ideal for most situations in Kentucky. Replanting full-season soybean probably is not necessary until populations drop below 50,000 plants per acre. References AGR-1: Lime and nutrient recommendations for field crops University of Kentucky Cooperative Extension Service. Lee, C. D., D. B. Egli, and D.M. TeKrony Soybean response to plant population at early and late planting dates in the Mid-South. Agronomy Journal. 100: Educational programs of Kentucky Cooperative Extension serve all people regardless of race, color, age, sex, religion, disability, or national origin. Issued in furtherance of Cooperative Extension work, Acts of May 8 and June 30, 1914, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Agriculture, M. Scott Smith, Director of Cooperative Extension Programs, University of Kentucky College of Agriculture, Lexington, and Kentucky State University, Frankfort. Copyright 2011 for materials developed by University of Kentucky Cooperative Extension. This publication may be reproduced in portions or its entirety for educational or nonprofit purposes only. Permitted users shall give credit to the author(s) and include this copyright notice. Publications are also available on the World Wide Web at Revised

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