1 Introduction to CNCMachining Krishanu Biswas Department of Materials and Metallurgical Engineering IIT Kanpur
2 CNC Machines What is a CNC Machine? CNC : Computer and Numeric Control Conventionally, an operator decides and adjusts various machines parameters like feed, depth of cut etc depending on type of job, and controls the slide movements by hand. In a CNC Machine functions and slide movements are controlled by motors using computer programs.
3 For a CNC machine control unit (MCU) decides cutting speed, feed, depth of cut, tool selection, coolant on off and tool paths. The MCU issues commands in form of numeric data to motors that position slides and tool accordingly.
4 Overview A numerical control, or NC, system controls many machine functions and movements which were traditionally performed by skilled machinists. Numerical control developed out of the need to meet the requirements of high production rates, uniformity and consistent part quality. Programmed instructions are converted into output signals which in turn control machine operations such as spindle speeds, tool selection, tool movement, and cutting fluid flow. Figure 1: Basic components of CNC
5 The part program may be manually generated or, more commonly, generated by computer aided part Overview By integrating a computer processor, computer numerical control, or CNC as it is now known, allows part machining programs to be edited and stored in the computer memory as well as permitting diagnostics and quality control functions during the actual machining. All CNC machining begins with a part program, which is a sequential instructions or coded commands that direct the specific machine functions.
6 Basic CNC Principles All computer controlled machines are able to accurately and repeatedly control motion in various directions. Each of these directions of motion is called an axis. Depending on the machine type there are commonly two to five axes. Additionally, a CNC axis may be either a linear axis in which movement is in a straight line, or a rotary axis with motion following a circular path. Figure 2:
7 Motion control - the heart of CNC The most basic function of any CNC machine is automatic, precise, and consistent motion control. Rather than applying completely mechanical devices to cause motion as is required on most conventional machine tools, CNC machines allow motion control in a revolutionary manner. All forms of CNC equipment have two or more directions of motion, called axes. These axes can be precisely and automatically positioned along their lengths of travel. The two most common axis types are linear (driven along a straight path) and rotary (driven along a circular path).
8 Basic CNC Principles Coordinates System Absolute Coordinate System Incremental Coordinate System
9 Basic CNC Principles K.Biswas (Spring 2010) Each axis consists of a mechanical component, such as a slide that moves, a servo drive motor that powers the mechanical movement, and a ball screw to transfer the power from the servo drive motor to the mechanical component. These components, along with the computer controls that govern them, are referred to as an axis drive system. Figure 3:
10 Basic CNC Principles Using a vertical mill machining center as an example, there are typically three linear axes of motion. Each is given an alphabetic designation or address. The machine table motion side to side is called the X axis. Table movement in and out is the Y axis, while head movement up and down the column is the Z axis. Figure 4
11 Basic CNC Principles If a rotary table is added to the machine table, then the fourth axis is designated the b axis. K.Biswas (Spring 2010) Figure 5
12 Work Positioning The method of accurate work positioning in relation to the cutting tool is called the rectangular coordinate system. On the vertical mill, the horizontal base line is designated the X axis, while the vertical base line is designated the Y axis. The Z axis is at a right angle, perpendicular to both the X and Y axes. Increments for all base lines are specified in linear measurements, for most machines the smallest increment is one ten-thousandth of an inch (.0001). If the machine is graduated in metric the smallest increment is usually one thousandth of a millimeter (.001mm). The rectangular coordinate system allows the mathematical plotting of points in space. These points or locations are called coordinates. The coordinates in turn relate to the tool center and dictate the tool path through the work.
13 Basic CNC Principles Figure 6:
14 CNC Machines- Advantages/Disadvantages Advantages: High Repeatability and Precision e.g. Aircraft parts Volume of production is very high Complex contours/surfaces need to be machined. E.g. Turbines Flexibility in job change, automatic tool settings, less scrap More safe, higher productivity, better quality Less paper work, faster prototype production, reduction in lead times Disadvantages: Costly setup, skilled operators Computers, programming knowledge required Maintenance is difficult
15 Types of Machine Lathes for metal and plastics Used to produce 3D product shapes and moulds for plastic products. Milling machine for mould making and surface milling. Used to produce dies for die cutting printed products.
16 CNC Lathe Automated version of a manual lathe. Programmed to change tools automatically. Used for turning and boring wood, metal and plastic.
17 CNC Milling Machine K.Biswas (Spring 2010) Has 3 to 5 axes. Used for wood, metal and plastic. Used to make 3D prototypes, moulds, cutting dies, printing plates and signs.
18 How CNC Works Controlled by G and M codes. These are number values and coordinates. Each number or code is assigned to a particular operation. Typed in manually to CAD by machine operators. G&M codes are automatically generated by the computer software.
19 Features of CNC Machinery The tool or material moves. Tools can operate in 1-5 axes. Larger machines have a machine control unit (MCU) which manages operations. Movement is controlled by a motors (actuators). Feedback is provided by sensors (transducers) Tool magazines are used to change tools
20 Tools K.Biswas (Spring 2010) Most are made from high speed steel (HSS), tungsten carbide or ceramics. Tools are designed to direct waste away from the material. Some tools need coolant such as oil to protect the tool and work.
21 Tool Paths, Cutting and Plotting Motions K.Biswas (Spring 2010) Tool paths describes the route the cutting tool takes. Motion can be described as point to point, straight cutting or contouring. Speeds are the rate at which the tool operates e.g. rpm. Feeds are the rate at which the cutting tool and work piece move in relation to each other. Feeds and speeds are determined by cutting depth, material and quality of finish needed. e.g. harder materials need slower feeds and speeds. Rouging cuts remove larger amounts of material than finishing cuts. Rapid traversing allows the tool or work piece to move rapidly when no machining is taking place.
22 Point to Point and Tool Paths Figure 7: Figure 8:
23 CNC Programming Basics CNC instructions are called part program commands. When running, a part program is interpreted one command line at a time until all lines are completed. Commands, which are also referred to as blocks, are made up of words which each begin with a letter address and end with a numerical value.
24 CNC Programming Basics Each letter address relates to a specific machine function. G and M letter addresses are two of the most common. A G letter specifies certain machine preparations such as inch or metric modes, or absolutes versus incremental modes. A M letter specifies miscellaneous machine functions and work like on/off switches for coolant flow, tool changing, or spindle rotation. Other letter addresses are used to direct a wide variety of other machine commands.
25 CNC programming Important things to know: Coordinate System Units, incremental or absolute positioning Coordinates: X,Y,Z, RX,RY,RZ Feed rate and spindle speed Coolant Control: On/Off, Flood, Mist Tool Control: Tool and tool parameters
26 CNC programming K.Biswas (Spring 2010) Programming consists of a series of instructions in form of letter codes Preparatory Codes: G codes- Initial machining setup and establishing operating conditions N codes- specify program line number to executed by the MCU Axis Codes: X,Y,Z - Used to specify motion of the slide along X, Y, Z direction Feed and Speed Codes: F and S- Specify feed and spindle speed Tool codes: T specify tool number
27 Programming Key Letters O - Program number (Used for program identification) N - Sequence number (Used for line identification) G - Preparatory function X - X axis designation Y - Y axis designation Z - Z axis designation R - Radius designation F Feed rate designation S - Spindle speed designation H - Tool length offset designation D - Tool radius offset designation T - Tool Designation M - Miscellaneous function
28 Explanation of commonly used G codes G00 Preparatory code to control final position of the tool and not concerned with the path that is followed in arriving at the final destination. G01 Tool is required to move in a straight line connecting current position and final position. Used for tool movement without any machining- point to point control. (linear interpolation) G02 Tool path followed is along an arc specified by I, J and K codes.( circular interpolation)
29 Table of Important G codes G00 Rapid Transverse G01 Linear Interpolation G02 Circular Interpolation, CW G03 Circular Interpolation, CCW G17 XY Plane,G18 XZ Plane,G19 YZ Plane G20/G70 Inch units G21/G71 Metric Units G40 Cutter compensation cancel G41 Cutter compensation left G42 Cutter compensation right G43 Tool length compensation (plus) G43 Tool length compensation (plus) G44 Tool length compensation (minus) G49 Tool length compensation cancel G80 Cancel canned cycles G81 Drilling cycle G82 Counter boring cycle G83 Deep hole drilling cycle G90 Absolute positioning G91 Incremental positioning K.Biswas (Spring 2010)
30 Table of Important M codes M00 Program stop M01 Optional program stop M02 Program end M03 Spindle on clockwise M04 Spindle on counterclockwise M05 Spindle stop M06 Tool change M08 Coolant on M09 Coolant off M10 Clamps on M11 Clamps off M30 Program stop, reset to start
31 Program Command Parameters Optimum machine programming requires consideration of certain machine operating parameters including: Positioning control Compensations Special machine features Positioning control is the ability to program tool and machine slide movement simultaneously along two or more axes. Positioning may be for point-to-point movement or for contouring movement along a continuous path. Contouring requires tool movement along multiple axes simultaneously. This movement is referred to as Interpolation which is the process of calculating intermediate values between specific points along a programmed path and outputting those values as a precise motion. Interpolation may be linear having just a start and end point along a straight line, or circular which requires an end point, a center and a direction around the arc.
32 Rules for programming Block Format N135 G01 X1.0 Y1.0 Z0.125 F5 Sample Block Restrictions on CNC blocks Each may contain only one tool move Each may contain any number of non-tool move G-codes Each may contain only one feed rate Each may contain only one specified tool or spindle speed The block numbers should be sequential Both the program start flag and the program number must be independent of all other commands (on separate lines) The data within a block should follow the sequence shown in the above sample block
33 CAD/CAM Two computer-based systems which impact the use of CNC technology are computer aided design and computer aided manufacturing. A computer aided design, or CAD, system uses computers to graphically create product designs and models. These designs can be reviewed, revised, and refined for optimum end use and application. Once finalized, the CAD design is then exported to a computer aided manufacturing, or CAM, system. CAM systems assist in all phases of manufacturing a product, including process planning, production planning, machining, scheduling, management and quality control.
34 APT Programming Example Cylindrical Part Raw Material Φ Finished Part Φ 17.5 Φ
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