EDIRNE HISTORICAL CENTER: EVOLUTION AND PRESERVATION VALUES

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1 Trakia Journal of Sciences, Vol. 7, Suppl. 2, pp , 2009 Copyright 2009 Trakia University Available online at: ISSN (print) ISSN (online) Original Contribution EDIRNE HISTORICAL CENTER: EVOLUTION AND PRESERVATION VALUES Tulay Canitez, Ilker Salih Canitez, Nevzat Ilhan University of Trakya, Faculty of Eng. & Architecture, Dept. of Architecture, Edirne/Turkey ABSTRACT The existing city was founded as a military base between by the Roman Emperor Hadrian. The walled city was on grid plan and was covering sqm (600m 600m). This Roman city is today 2-2.5m below the existing ground level. Inside the city walls only non-muslims were permitted to settle, according the surrendering condition of the city in This ethic approach has been respected until the end of the Ottoman Empire, The historical center has developed out of this walled city on the east and north sides, as follows: a) The Major Religious Buildings as: The Old Mosque (1414), Uc Shrefeli Mosque (1447), Selimiye Mosque (1575) b)the Commercial Buildings as: The Bedesten (Covered Bazaar), Rustem Pasha Caravanserai, The Covered Bazaar of Ali Pasha, The Public Bath of Sokollu, Tashan (The Stone Khan) Selimiye Mosque Complex and the above mentioned Central Historical District are to be presented to UNESCO for the inclusion at the World Heritage List. Key Words: The Old Mosque (1414), Uc Shrefeli Mosque (1447), Selimiye Mosque (1575) INTRODUCTION It is not clearly known when people first settled in Edirne, who were the first settlers and when Edirne was exactly built. The existing walled city is from and is glorifide by Roman Emperior Hadrianus. We have very few remains from Roman and Byzantion periods. The Macedonian Tower and the excavatied city wall parts are the most significant remains. It was conquered by the Ottoman Sultan Murat I in 1361 and became the second Ottoman capital in 1365 after Bursa. Until the conquest of Istanbul in 1453, Edirne had developed as an economic, cultural and administration centre, and reached an area of 350 hectares by expanding to the west and north at the beginning of the 15th century. * Correspondence to: Tulay Canitez, University of Trakya, Faculty of Eng. & Architecture, Dept. of Architecture, Edirne/Turkey; Even after Istanbul became the new capital of the Empire, Edirne did not lose its importance and many sultans continued to rule the Empire from Edirne until the reign of Ahmet III in the 18th century. Before the conquest of Edirne by the Ottomans, it seems that Byzantion settlement was within the walled city (Kaleici). After the conquest the life and the economic spread out of the city walls to the east and north (Rifat Osman, 1957). I. EVOLUTION CENTER OF THE HISTORIC A) The Religious Buildings in Historical Center (Fig.1):

2 Figure 1. Edirne Historical City Center 1. Old Mosque: The development of the historical center started with the construction of the Old Mosque in 1414 under Çelebi Mehmet. After the disaster of Ankara War in 1402, the Ottoman State had to recover in Edirne as a capital. The tradition of multi-cupola type great mosques has continued after Bursa and been finalized with the Old Mosque in Edirne (Fig.2,3,4,5). minaret at the west and the entrıns portico to the North are further additions. Figure 3. Front elevation of Old Mosque Figure 2. Plan of Old Mosque The mosque has a square plan, with four pillars inside supporting nine cupolas. The cupolas of the central axis are more heigher and more decorated then the others. The mosque is well known by the high quality of its calligraphic values inside. The separete 216 Figure 4. Interior view and the calligraphic values

3 Figure 5.The cupola systems Figure 8. View of the mihrap and minbar 2. Uc Shrefeli Mosque (1447): This is the first building essay of central cupola mosques type in Ottoman architecture; with the span of 24m of its dome (Fig.6,7,8,9). The first apparition of the porticoed courtyard is to be seen as well in this mosque. There is also the evidence of three different stairs up in one minaret. This particularity will later is to be seen in Selimiye Mosque. Figure 9. Interior view of the side aisle Figure 6.. Plan of Uc Shrefeli Mosque 3. Selimiye Mosque: This is the most succesfull example of central cupola mosques in Ottoman architecture, built in 1575 for the Sultan Selim II by architect Sinan. The dome is supported by an octogonal pillar system (Fig.10,11,12,13). The building is settled on the former site of the Old Palace which was later been used as janissaries barracks. Today only the old bath remains from the old palace. Selimiye Mosque complex consist on the mosque, flanqued with to medreses and overlooking the west plan with an arasta (covered bazaar). (Selimiye Mosque Complex is candidate for the UNESCO World Heritage List). Figure 7. Skyline of the central district with Uc Shrefeli Mosque in foreground 217

4 Figure 13. Interior view of the cupola. Figure 10. Plan of Selimiye Mosque Complex B) The Commercial Buildings of The Historical Center (Fig.1) 1. The Bedesten (1418): This is the first commercial building in Edirne. Bedesten is founded as an endowment for Old Mosque. Built by architect Alaeddin (Fig.14,15). The building is restored in 2007, by Charity Foundations Reginoal Directorate. Figure 11. Axonometrical view and section. Figure 14. Aerial view after restoration. Figure 12. The city crown Selimiye Mosque. Figure 15. View of the outside magazines. 218

5 2. Rustem Pasha Caravanserai (1554): One of the most interesting examples of classical Ottoman caravanserais is Rustem Pasha Caravanserai, built by Architect Sinan in 1554 (Fig.16,17,18). It consists of a central rectangular courtyard surrounded by colonnades, behind which are the rooms. Along one of the exterior walls it has a row of shops which provided income for the waqf of the complex. The side unit is for the service facilities and for caravans. Figure 18. The big courtyard and interior view. The contemporary use is a hotel complex. The successful rehabilitation project 3. The Covered Bazaar of Ali Pasha (1569): has been awarded by the Agha Khan prize for Ali Pasha Bazaar is covered marked of 130 shops Architecture, in built by Architect Sinan for Hersekli Semiz Ali Pasha in 1569 (Fig.19, 20, 21). The bazaar is 300 metres long and had six gates. It stands next to the ditches of the Hadrianopolis city walls. This is a respect to the past. Figure 16. Plan of Rustem Pasha Caravanserai by Sinan, The Architect, 1554 Figure 19. Plan of The Covered Bazaar of Ali Pasha. Figure 17. The restored building has been awarded with Agha Khan Prize for Arcitecture. Figure 20. The building has thoroughly been restored after the big fire,

6 Figure 23. Front elevation of Sokollu Bath. Figure 21. The central alley after restoration. 4. The Public Twin Bath of Sokollu Mehmet Pasha (1568): This twin baths ordered by the grand vizir Sokollu Mehmet Pasha ( Sokolovitch) is built by architect Sinan in the last quarter of the 16th century. Located next to Tashan and Uc Shrefeli Mosque these baths has been restored and are still in daily use (for men and women). The administrative unit next to men s part entrance is destroyed in 1950 for the enlargement of the present road. Figure 22. Plan of Sokollu Bath. 220 CONCLUSION Selimiye Mosque Complex and the above mentioned Central Historical District are to be presented to UNESCO for the inclusion at the World Heritage List. This public buldings are regularly maintained and restored by Edirne Vakıflar Bölge Müdürlügü (Regional Directorate of Charity Foundations) in conformity within the philosophy of Venice Charter during the last years. The lack of qualified stone material is a big probleme. This can result wit the use of the old quarries at 30 km far in Bulgaria. A bilateral economic protocol is an urgent need between two countries. REFERENCES 1. Darkot, B., Edirne nin 600.Fethi Yıldonumu Armagan Kitabi, Turk Tarih Kurumu Basimevi, Ankara, Gokbilgin, T., Edirne nin 600. Fethi Yıldonumu Armagan Kitabi, Turk Tarih Kurumu Basimevi, Ankara, Kazancıgil, Ratip; Rifat Osman ve Edirne Rehnüması, Istanbul Türk Kütüphaneciler Dernegi Edirne Subesi Yayinleri, Mansel, A.M., Edirne nin 600.Fethi Yıldonumu Armagan Kitabi, Turk Tarih Kurumu Basimevi, Ankara, Rıfat Osman, Edirne Sarayi, Hazirlayan: Suheyl Ünver, Turk Tarih Kurumu Yayinlarindan VII.Seri, No:30, Turk Tarih Kurumu Basimevi, Ankara, 1957.

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