2 + Part I Problems Athlete s Face Signs that the athlete is having probelms Arousal Defined Anxiety Defined Stress Defined Common research studies about arousal, anxiety, & stress Common assumptions about arousal, anxiety, & stress
3 + Competition day problems in athletes Controlling one s anxiety Timing of arousal performance readiness Worry Attentional focus
4 + PROBLEMS AT THE COMPETITION SITE EQUIPMENT MALFUNCTION ARRIVING LATE HEALTH STATES CLIMATE
5 + Problems Athletes Experience Prior to Competition Disruption of daily lifestyle routines Lack of familiarity with environment Social environment (crowd noise, etc)
6 + Signs that indicate the athlete are having problems Cannot sleep Reduced attention (e.g., easily distracted by outside factors) Reduced skill level Uncertainty Cognitive errors Nonverbal cues (changes in behavior) Changes in performance expectation Overly concerned with doing well at a home game.
7 + Why are controlling arousal and one s anxiety important? Proper emotional states allow the athlete to perform to their potential
8 + Arousal Arousal is a physiological process on a continuum ranging from sleep to high excitation (Duffy, 1957). Arousal is an emotional component that comprises both positive feelings (i.e., excitement, happiness) and negative feelings (i.e., fear embarrassment). Arousal emotional components are psychological (cognitive) and physiological (somatic) based. Arousal has often been defined as the physiological intensity of behavior synonymous with drive, activation, readiness or excitation.
9 + Anxiety Anxiety is a negative emotional state defined in terms of perceived threat. Anxiety has a thought component called cognitive anxiety. Anxiety has a physiological component call somatic anxiety.
10 + State & Trait Anxiety There are two types of anxiety: state and trait. State anxiety is transitory (fluctuates over time and situations) Competitive state anxiety is state anxiety mainly due to the athlete s perception of the present or upcoming competition is perceived as threatening. Worry is the primary cognitive form of state anxiety. Moment to moment changes in one perceived physiological activation is somatic state anxiety (i.e., sweating, rapid heart rate, etc) Trait anxiety is part of our personality relatively stable and predisposes an individual to perceive a wide range of situations as threatening or non threatening.
11 + Stress Stress is process, a sequence of event that will lead to a particular end. Stress is a substantial imbalance between the demands of the situation and one perceived response capability and/or where they perceive themselves failing (McGrath, 1972). Stress is process, a sequence of event that will lead to a particular end. Stress is a substantial imbalance between the demands of the situation and one perceived response capability and/or where they perceive themselves failing (McGrath, 1972). Two general sources of stress are: importance of the event and level of uncertainty about the outcome.
12 + Common Research Studies about arousal, anxiety, and stress High ones level of life stress relates to higher incident of athletic injury Highly self-regulated athlete seems to be able to control their arousal, anxiety, and stress levels. Level of state and trait anxiety differs across sports. Setting goals seems to help in controlling the anxiety levels in athletes. Experienced sport players level of anxiety is lower as compared to inexperienced sport players. Coaching leadership styles affects the athlete s level of anxiety.
13 + Common Research Studies about arousal, anxiety, and stress Experienced sport players level of anxiety is lower as compared to inexperienced sport players. Coaching leadership styles affects the athlete s level of anxiety. Anxiety levels change across a competitive season, and from competition to competition. Athlete reports that controlling one s anxiety level as problem.
14 + Common Assumption about arousal, anxiety, and stress High trait athletes tend to be more anxious and have higher state anxiety levels across competitive, threatening situations. Worry about performance and negative self-doubt interferes with one s performance. When arousal is too high, athlete excludes too much information because their attention becomes narrow, inflexible or fixed. Inexperienced sport players or youth sport players are less able to control their anxiety level and are more apt to be overly aroused. Use of proper strategies and/or psychological interventions to cope with arousal, anxiety, and stress prevents choking under pressure.
15 + End of Part I
16 + Relaxation & Energizing Techniques
17 + Part II: Arousal X Performance Relationships Drive Theory Inverted U Theory Hanins Zones of Optimal Functioning Multidimensional Anxiety Theory Catastrophe Model Reversal Theory
18 + Assumption There is a relationship between the level of arousal and performance. Ways we explain this relationship is through the following models and theories. Drive Theory Inverted U Theory Hanins Zones of Optimal Functioning Multidimensional Anxiety Catastrophe Model Reversal Theory
19 + Drive Theory Spence-Hull Drive theory indicated that performance is dependent on two factors: drive and habit strength. Habit strength is the dominant correct responses occurs when drive is high, then better performance will occur. Arousal level depends on the skill of the performer, skill to be performed, and or sport. Arousal Drive Theory Performance Some researchers feel that drive theory may explain performance in athlete s who are highly skilled. Many researchers have found little empirical evidence to support this theory.
20 + Inverted U Theory Yerkes and Dodson Law assumes a curvilinear relationship exist between arousal and performance. The effect of arousal on performance is based on the optimal level given a particular skill or sport. Optimal means best performance. As arousal increases, so does performance up to the optimal point then beyond the optimal point performance declines. The athlete attempts to achieve the optimal point based on the performer s stage of learning, skill to perform, and sport. Performance Inverted U Theory Arousal
21 + Hanins Zones of Optimal Functioning Inverted U Theory Athletes perform their best when they are in their optimal zone (emotions). Optimal level does not occur at one exact point but is a bandwidth or zone. Performance Arousal As long as athlete is in their positive emotional zone they will perform optimally. As long as the athlete is in the above box or zone rather than a single point on the inverted U theory curve they will perform to their best.
22 + Multidimensional Anxiety Theory Worry causes poor performance. Worry is a form of cognitive state anxiety. Any level of worry will negatively affect one s level of performance. Somatic levels of anxiety (physical signs such as sweating, etc) are related to performance in an inverted U Fashion. Performance Inverted U Theory Arousal When the athlete worries. Worry or cognitive levels of anxiety will always negatively affect performance. So the above graph only applies to somatic anxiety not cognitive.
23 + Catastrophe Model Worry causes poor performance. 4 Catastrophe Model Worry is form of cognitive state anxiety. Any level of worry will negatively affect one s level of performance. Somatic level of anxiety (physical signs such as sweating, etc) is related to performance in an inverted U relationship. Performance Somatic Worry Above is what how worry affects one performance in a catastrophe way. Once we worry performance drops drastically.
24 + Reversal Theory How arousal affects performance depends on the athlete s interpretation of his or her arousal level. Athlete s make quick reversal shifts when they interpret their level of arousal when it is too high or too low. When an individual interpret their arousal level as positive then little worry occurs. When an individual interpret their arousal level as negative then worry occurs.
25 + End of Part II
26 + Relaxation & Energizing Techniques
27 + Mental Control Should be Automatic (Green & Green, 1977) Trick is to learn how to self-regulate: 1. Arousal 2. Relaxation
28 + Learning to relax is essential to regulating arousal! 1. Prevents the double pulling 2. Promotes differential relaxation
29 + Excessive Muscular Tension More the muscle tension (double pulling), more difficult it is to execute or perform. Athlete s need to recognize unwanted tension and to relax or release tension (differential relaxation)
30 + Excessive Muscular Tension Excessive muscular tension is triggered by mental input which is generated by worry and anxiety about performing well!
32 + Locus of Control Athletes with an internal locus of control and have a positive expectancy are able to master relaxation techniques(lehrer & Woolfork, 1993)
33 + What should coaches do? Coaches need to match the stress management technique with the symptoms of anxiety complaints by their athlete (Matching Hypothesis). 1. Somatic complaints 2. Cognitive complaints
34 + Stress Management Techniques Muscle to Mind Technique (somatic) Progressive relaxation Biofeedback Mind to Muscle Technique (cognitive) Autogenic Training Mediation Relaxation Response (Benson,1975) Imagery
35 + Muscle to Mind Relaxation 1. Proper breathing (centering) 2. Progressive relaxation a. specific muscle groups b. relaxation tapes c. large muscle groups to small d. position 3. Biofeedback
36 + Mind to Muscle Relaxation 1. Mediation a. Mantra b. Relaxation Response (Benson,1975) 2. Visualization a. autogenic training (self hypnosis) b. stages -heavy -warm -3 to 6 cycles
37 + On Site Competition Relaxation Tips (Weinberg,1988) Smile Have fun & enjoy Practices should simulate the contest Slow down and take your time Stay focused on the present Have a good game plan
38 + Most Coaches Are Interested In Psyching Up Techniques Coach needs to assess the athlete(s) feelings and attitudes Signals that they are under activated. -do they seem to move slowly -does their mind seem to somewhere else -do they feel heavy -do they react slowly
39 + Coaches Ways to Increase Arousal! Coach should not get excited before a contest! (Anxiety producing effect) Use first names Set on the site goals Use nonverbal cues Introduce the starting warm up Do a proper physical warm up
40 + Athlete s Ways to Increase Arousal Music Have a pre competition or competition routine Act energized (become physically involved) Use mood words, positive statements Use Imagery People (foe, other athletes, opponents, parents, etc.) Importance of the event Use distractions as a source of arousal
41 + Incorrect Ways of Arousal Regulation that Produces Worry and Anxiety Teaching before and during the contest. Stress winning and losing Use criticism and threaten the athlete! Make the athlete feel guilt. Say Don t do that Tell the athlete that they do not have what it takes! Blame the official
CHAPTER 4 Arousal, Stress, and Anxiety Session Outline Is arousal the same as anxiety? Defining arousal and anxiety Measuring arousal and anxiety Relationship between trait and state anxiety Stress and
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