# A Quick Tutorial on MATLAB. Gowtham Bellala

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1 A Quick Tutorial on MATLAB Gowtham Bellala

2 MATLAB MATLAB is a software package for doing numerical computation. It was originally designed for solving linear algebra type problems using matrices. It s name is derived from MATrix LABoratory. MATLAB has since been expanded and now has built-in functions for solving problems requiring data analysis, signal processing, optimization, and several other types of scientific computations. It also contains functions for 2-D and 3-D graphics and animation.

3 MATLAB Variable names Variable names are case sensitive. Variable names can contain up to 63 characters ( as of MATLAB 6.5 and newer). Variable names must start with a letter and can be followed by letters, digits and underscores. Examples : >> x = 2; >> abc_123 = 0.005; >> 1ab = 2; Error: Unexpected MATLAB expression

4 MATLAB Special Variables pi Value of π eps Smallest incremental number inf Infinity NaN Not a number e.g. 0/0 i and j i = j = square root of -1 realmin The smallest usable positive real number realmax The largest usable positive real number

5 MATLAB Relational operators MATLAB supports six relational operators. Less Than < Less Than or Equal <= Greater Than > Greater Than or Equal >= Equal To == Not Equal To ~= (NOT!= like in C)

6 MATLAB Logical Operators MATLAB supports three logical operators. not ~ % highest precedence and & % equal precedence with or or % equal precedence with and

7 Matrices and MATLAB

8 MATLAB Matrices MATLAB treats all variables as matrices. For our purposes a matrix can be thought of as an array, in fact, that is how it is stored. Vectors are special forms of matrices and contain only one row OR one column. Scalars are matrices with only one row AND one column

9 Generating Matrices A scalar can be created in MATLAB as follows: >> x = 23; A matrix with only one row is called a row vector. A row vector can be created in MATLAB as follows (note the commas): >> y = [12,10,-3] y = A matrix with only one column is called a column vector. A column vector can be created in MATLAB as follows: >> z = [12;10;-3] z =

10 Generating Matrices MATLAB treats row vector and column vector very differently A matrix can be created in MATLAB as follows (note the commas and semicolons) >> X = [1,2,3;4,5,6;7,8,9] X = Matrices must be rectangular!

11 The Matrix in MATLAB A(2,4) A(17) Note: Unlike C, MATLAB s indices start from 1

12 Extracting a Sub-matrix A portion of a matrix can be extracted and stored in a smaller matrix by specifying the names of both matrices and the rows and columns to extract. The syntax is: sub_matrix = matrix ( r1 : r2, c1 : c2 ) ; where r1 and r2 specify the beginning and ending rows and c1 and c2 specify the beginning and ending columns to be extracted to make the new matrix.

13 Extracting a Sub-matrix Example : >> X = [1,2,3;4,5,6;7,8,9] X = >> X22 = X(1:2, 2:3) X22 = >> X13 = X(3,1:3) X13 = >> X21 = X(1:2,1) X21 = 1 4

14 Matrix Extension >> a = [1,2i,0.56] a = 1 0+2i 0.56 >> a(2,4) = 0.1 a = 1 0+2i repmat replicates and tiles a matrix >> b = [1,2;3,4] b = >> b_rep = repmat(b,1,2) b_rep = Concatenation >> a = [1,2;3,4] a = >> a_cat =[a,2*a;3*a,2*a] a_cat = NOTE: The resulting matrix must be rectangular

15 Matrix Addition Increment all the elements of a matrix by a single value >> x = [1,2;3,4] x = >> y = x + 5 y = Adding two matrices >> xsy = x + y xsy = >> z = [1,0.3] z = >> xsz = x + z??? Error using => plus Matrix dimensions must agree

16 Matrix Multiplication Matrix multiplication >> a = [1,2;3,4]; (2x2) >> b = [1,1]; (1x2) >> c = b*a c = 4 6 >> c = a*b Element wise multiplication >> a = [1,2;3,4]; >> b = [1,½;1/3,¼]; >> c = a.*b c = ??? Error using ==> mtimes Inner matrix dimensions must agree.

17 Matrix Element wise operations >> a = [1,2;1,3]; >> b = [2,2;2,1]; Element wise division >> c = a./b c = Element wise multiplication >> c = a.*b c = Element wise power operation >> c = a.^2 c = >> c = a.^b c =

18 Matrix Manipulation functions zeros : creates an array of all zeros, Ex: x = zeros(3,2) ones : creates an array of all ones, Ex: x = ones(2) eye : creates an identity matrix, Ex: x = eye(3) rand : generates uniformly distributed random numbers in [0,1] diag : Diagonal matrices and diagonal of a matrix size : returns array dimensions length : returns length of a vector (row or column) det : Matrix determinant inv : matrix inverse eig : evaluates eigenvalues and eigenvectors rank : rank of a matrix find : searches for the given values in an array/matrix.

19 MATLAB inbuilt math functions

20 Elementary Math functions abs - finds absolute value of all elements in the matrix sign - signum function sin,cos, - Trignometric functions asin,acos - Inverse trignometric functions exp - Exponential log,log10 - natural logarithm, logarithm (base 10) ceil,floor - round towards +infinity, -infinity respectively round - round towards nearest integer real,imag - real and imaginary part of a complex matrix sort - sort elements in ascending order

21 Elementary Math functions sum,prod - summation and product of elements max,min - maximum and minimum of arrays mean,median average and median of arrays std,var - Standard deviation and variance and many more

22 Graphics Fundamentals

23 2D Plotting Example 1: Plot sin(x) and cos(x) over [0,2π], on the same plot with different colours Method 1: >> x = linspace(0,2*pi,1000); >> y = sin(x); >> z = cos(x); >> hold on; >> plot(x,y, b ); >> plot(x,z, g ); >> xlabel X values ; >> ylabel Y values ; >> title Sample Plot ; >> legend ( Y data, Z data ); >> hold off;

24 2D Plotting Method 2: >> x = 0:0.01:2*pi; >> y = sin(x); >> z = cos(x); >> figure >> plot (x,y,x,z); >> xlabel X values ; >> ylabel Y values ; >> title Sample Plot ; >> legend ( Y data, Z data ); >> grid on;

25 2D Plotting Example 2: Plot the following function Method 1: >> t1 = linspace(0,1,1000); >> t2 = linspace(1,6,1000); >> y1 = t1; >> y2 = 1./ t2; >> t = [t1,t2]; >> y = [y1,y2]; >> figure >> plot(t,y); t y 1/ t >> xlabel t values, ylabel y values ; 0 t 1 t 1 6

26 2D Plotting Method 2: >> t = linspace(0,6,1000); >> y = zeros(1,1000); >> y(t()<=1) = t(t()<=1); >> y(t()>1) = 1./ t(t()>1); >> figure >> plot(t,y); >> xlabel t values ; >> ylabel y values ;

27 Subplots Syntax: subplot (rows, columns, index) >> subplot(4,1,1) >> >> subplot(4,1,2) >> >> subplot(4,1,3) >> >> subplot(4,1,4) >>

28 Importing/Exporting Data

29 Load and Save Using load and save load filename - loads all variables from the file filename load filename x - loads only the variable x from the file load filename a* - loads all variables starting with a for more information, type help load at command prompt save filename - saves all workspace variables to a binary.mat file named filename.mat save filename x,y - saves variables x and y in filename.mat for more information, type help save at command prompt

30 Import/Export from Excel sheet Copy data from an excel sheet >> x = xlsread(filename); % if the file contains numeric values, text and raw data values, then >> [numeric,txt,raw] = xlsread(filename); Copy data to an excel sheet >>x = xlswrite('c:\matlab\work\data.xls',a,'a2:c4') % will write A to the workbook file, data.xls, and attempt to fit the elements of A into the rectangular worksheet region, A2:C4. On success, x will contain 1, while on failure, x will contain 0. for more information, type help xlswrite at command prompt

31 Read/write from a text file Writing onto a text file >> fid = fopen( filename.txt, w ); >> count = fwrite(fid,x); >> fclose(fid); % creates a file named filename.txt in your workspace and stores the values of variable x in the file. count returns the number of values successfully stored. Do not forget to close the file at the end. Read from a text file >> fid = fopen( filename.txt, r ); >> X = fscanf(fid, %5d ); >> fclose(fid); % opens the file filename.txt which is in your workspace and loads the values in the format %5d into the variable x. Other useful commands: fread, fprintf

32 Flow Control in MATLAB

33 Flow control MATLAB has five flow control statements - if statements - switch statements - for loops - while loops - break statements

34 if statement The general form of the if statement is >> if expression >> >> elseif expression >> >> else >> >> end Example 1: >> if i == j >> a(i,j) = 2; >> elseif i >= j >> a(i,j) = 1; >> else >> a(i,j) = 0; >> end Example 2: >> if (attn>0.9)&(grade>60) >> pass = 1; >> end

35 switch statement switch Switch among several cases based on expression The general form of the switch statement is: >> switch switch_expr >> case case_expr1 >> >> case case_expr2 >> >> otherwise >> >> end Example : >> x = 2, y = 3; >> switch x >> case x==y >> disp('x and y are equal'); >> case x>y >> disp('x is greater than y'); >> otherwise >> disp('x is less than y'); >> end x is less than y Note: Unlike C, MATLAB doesn t need BREAKs in each case

36 for loop for Repeat statements a specific number of times The general form of a for statement is >> for variable=expression >> >> >> end Example 1: >> for x = 0:0.05:1 >> printf( %d\n,x); >> end Example 2: >> a = zeros(n,m); >> for i = 1:n >> for j = 1:m >> a(i,j) = 1/(i+j); >> end >> end

37 while loop while Repeat statements an indefinite number of times The general form of a while statement is >> while expression >> >> >> end Example 1: >> n = 1; >> y = zeros(1,10); >> while n <= 10 >> y(n) = 2*n/(n+1); >> n = n+1; >> end Example 2: >> x = 1; >> while x >> %execute statements >> end Note: In MATLAB 1 is synonymous to TRUE and 0 is synonymous to FALSE

38 break statement break terminates the execution of for and while loops In nested loops, break terminates from the innermost loop only Example: >> y = 3; >> for x = 1:10 >> printf( %5d,x); >> if (x>y) >> break; >> end >> end

39 Efficient Programming

40 Efficient Programming in MATLAB Avoid using nested loops as far as possible In most cases, one can replace nested loops with efficient matrix manipulation. Preallocate your arrays when possible MATLAB comes with a huge library of in-built functions, use them when necessary Avoid using your own functions, MATLAB s functions are more likely to be efficient than yours.

41 Example 1 Let x[n] be the input to a non causal FIR filter, with filter coefficients h[n]. Assume both the input values and the filter coefficients are stored in column vectors x,h and are given to you. Compute the output values y[n] for n = 1,2,3 where y[ n] 19 k 0 h[ k] x[ n k]

42 Solution Method 1: >> y = zeros(1,3); >> for n = 1:3 >> for k = 0:19 >> y(n)= y(n)+h(k)*x(n+k); >> end >> end Method 2 (avoids inner loop): >> y = zeros(1,3); >> for n = 1:3 >> y(n) = h *x(n:(n+19)); >> end Method 3 (avoids both the loops): >> X= [x(1:20),x(2:21),x(3:22)]; >> y = h *X;

43 Example 2 Compute the value of the following function y(n) = 1 3 *( )*( )* *( n 3 ) for n = 1 to 20

44 Solution Method 1: >> y = zeros(20,1); >> y(1) = 1; >> for n = 2:20 >> for m = 1:n >> temp = temp + m^3; >> end >> y(n) = y(n-1)*temp; >> temp = 0 >> end Method 2 (avoids inner loop): >> y = zeros(20,1); >> y(1) = 1; >> for n = 2:20 >> temp = 1:n; >> y(n) = y(n-1)*sum(temp.^3); >> end Method 3 (avoids both the loops): >> X = tril(ones(20)*diag(1:20)); >> x = sum(x.^3,2); >> Y = tril(ones(20)*diag(x))+ triu(ones(20)) eye(20); >> y = prod(y,2);

45 Getting more help Where to get help? In MATLAB s prompt type : help, lookfor, helpwin, helpdesk, demos On the Web : s99/matlab-primer.html

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