Demonstration project: Familjebostäder AB, Hammarby Sjöstad. Kv Lugnvattnet projekt Lysande

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1 Demonstration project: Familjebostäder AB, Hammarby Sjöstad Kv Lugnvattnet projekt Lysande The PV is strongly exposed in the lamella-structured façade of the building. Summary: Site location: Stockholm, Sweden Type of project: A multi-family building block Building size: 8 flats (536 m 2 ) and 362 m 2 of non-residential floor area Ownership: Familjebostäder. People will rent their flats Location of PV modules: PV integrated in a lamella structure that is mounted outside the façade and additional PV mounted on the roof of the building Total peak power: 25,5 kw (9,7 and 15,8 on façade and roof respectively) PV production: 17 MWh AC (calculated production from the façade and the roof) Start of construction: September 2001 Start of PV installation: April 2003 Key partners: Familjebostäder (project developer), White Arkitekter (architect) General information The project consists of a residential multi family house to be built on Sickla Udde in Hammarby Sjöstad, a new residential area, south of the city center of Stockholm. The PV building is a house with high demands on the environmental standard. A neighbor house with a similar architectural exterior will be built as a reference with normal environmental standard. Site information Hammarby Sjöstad, along with Södra Länken, is Stockholm s on-going urban development project. An old dockland and industrial area is being transformed into a modern city area that 1

2 will form a logical extension of Södermalm, with 8, 000 apartments housing a population of 20,000. After completion of all parts of the project in 2010 there will be 30,000 people living and working in the area. Environmentally Hammarby Sjöstad will be a well-planned area with its own recycling model and its own local sewage treatment plant. Hammarby Sjöstad will have an inner-city character with new, exciting architecture. Unique qualities and opportunities flow from the waterside location and the proximity of both the inner city and the Nacka Nature Reserve. In a further response to environmental concerns, Hammarby Sjöstad will be well provided with transportation options including the Tvärbanan tramline, ferries across the Hammarby Canal, and car pooling arrangements. Plans also include a highly developed network of pedestrian and cycling paths. The area will have a strong environmental profile and large efforts have been put into the project to make it the spearhead for the future building projects in Sweden. The use of PV is an important part in this context. Aerial photograph of Södermalm and Hammarby Sjöstad. General plan of Hammarby Sjöstad. The object The Familjebostäder project consists of a multi-family building block where the PV will be installed partly on the façade and partly on the roof. The façade part of the PV installation is designed as a lamella structure that will be mounted outside the building as an independent element. This house is designed to be an experimental building with high demands on the environmental standard. A neighbor house with a similar architectural exterior will be built as a reference with normal environmental standard. They will be located on Sickla Udde on the south side of the lake, Hammarby Sjö. 2

3 Reference PV The neighborhood at Sickla Kaj. The Familjebostäder building PV-building to the right and reference building to the left. The southwest facing façade will be provided with 113 m 2 of semitransparent PV modules that will be integrated in a lamella structure. 122 m 2 of conventional PV-modules will cover almost all area of the west, south and east facing parts of the roof. The façade construction can be easily dismantled in case of repair or maintenance and then be erected again without risk of destroying exterior parts of the building. The density and angle of the modules in the façade has been carefully optimized with respect to energy output and esthetical appearance. The calculated energy production from the building is 17 MWh AC /year including losses when dc-energy is converted to alternating current in a string inverter. A minor hill, covered with old oaks, is located right in front of the building. The hill will partly shadow the façade during hours with low solar angles. It has been estimated that the annual energy production is decreased by less than 10 % due to this shadowing. The produced energy will provide the necessary demand of household electricity and common needs such as lighting in the staircase, elevators, fans etc. But it will not cover the electrical energy required by the heat pump. All calculations assumes that energy can be exported at summertime and imported in wintertime. Details of the façade part of the PV installation Söder (22 väst) The orientation of the building is 22 towards west relative to the south axis. The oakhill is indicated. Highest part of the hill in darker color. The principle of a lamella structured façade, with a tilt of 45 of the modules. 3

4 The PV installation on the façade is designed as a lamella structure, freestanding, half a meter outside the building. There are 10 rows of module per story (2,9 meters) and four stores on the building. The first story is free from modules in order to prevent children to climb on or touch the modules and to decrease problems related to shadowing. In front of a window every second row of modules is removed in order allow more light in to the rooms. White Arkitekter develops the lamella construction in this project. Custom designed semitransparent module (not to scale) A pre design of the module that will be used in the lamella structure gives a module made with 22 poly crystalline Si cells, each with a size of 100 x 100 mm 2. The cells are connected in 2 parallel strings with 11 series connected cells in each. The spacing between cells and from cells to the long edges of the module is 20 mm. The outer size of the module is 1380 x 260 mm 2, and the peak power is 30,8 watt, assuming that cells with an encapsulated efficiency of 14% are available. The thickness of the module will be slightly greater than 8 mm due to the encapsulation of cells between two 4 mm tempered glass sheets. Each module has four holes in the laminate for mounting purpose. The modules shall be provided with two junction boxes on the rear side (plus and minus). By-pass diodes can be located in one of the j-boxes and connected by adapting an integrated conductor. No frame is considered in the design. 4

5 Detail of construction, showing a top view of the outer wall of the facade (right part of the drawing) and the lamella arranged PV-modules (left part of the drawing) Monthly variation of the solar irradiation on the lamella surface on the upper part of the façade. Meteorological data for Stockholm 1991 are used in the calculations together with a calculation program, (PV-Syst). 5

6 Details of the roof part of the PV installation In the pre design, a total number of 169 modules is mounted on the roof. 52 modules on the south, 59 on the west and 58 on the east part of the roof. Module installation will take place on top of the tin roof that is planned to cover the building. The 122 m 2 of PVmodules on the roof has a peak power of 15,8 kw and the calculated AC-energy production is 11,6 MWh AC per year. The arrow points at the lamella structure viewed from above. The tilt of the roof is only 16, which means that the energy production is less sensitive to the fact that two parts of the roof are not facing south. Conventional modules are assumed to be used in the roof plant. In the pre design each module has a size of 1200 x 600 mm 2 and with a nominal output of 94 watts (see figure to the left). The backing and the frame of the modules must have a dark appearance. (Black, dark grey, dark blue etc). Modules with sizes that differ from the sizes in the pre design are accepted. 6

7 Monitoring of PV production and energy consumption The project has identified the importance of making the tenants involved in the operation of the PV project. The energy consumption in the building and the production from the PV installation will be monitored and data will be presented on a display, located in the staircase where it also will be possible to compare the energy consumption with the neighboring reference house. Additional information on environmental and energy related issues A detailed environmental profile has been produced for the project which include all steps from planning, building adaptation to the terrain, local climate noise, air quality, magnetic fields, air temperature - considering vegetation, solar radiation and wind effects, water and waste treatment, recycling, composting etc. As for energy usage this means 37 kwh per m 2 and year of bought energy. The area used in calculations is the sum of all residential and nonresidential areas (898 m 2 ). This has been achieved through the design of an extremely energy efficient building with thick insulation; best window technology available on the market (Uvalue of 1,0 W/m 2 K) controlled ventilation and the selection of energy efficient appliances. The use of PV is also a means of reaching the goal as only bought energy is calculated. Other means of energy supply are: All cooking is made on stoves, fueled from biogas that is locally produced from collected waste in the area of Hammarby Sjöstad. Heat is extracted from the surrounding ground by a heat pump with a heat factor of 3,1. The energy in used air is recycled. The bought energy can be divided in two mayor parts. 26 kwh/m 2 (electricity) which is required by the heat pump and recycling of used air. 9 kwh/m 2 (biogas) used by the stoves and peak heating in wintertime. The reference house is calculated to consume 125 kwh/m 2. Timetable The construction of the building will start in September 2001 with the PV installation starting in April The building is completed in fall Partners Familjebostäder carries out the project and the architect is White Architects. Other mayor consultants are Tyréns Byggkonsult (reference house), K-Konsult (Electrical installations, including the interface to the PV-installation), ÅF-VVS Projekt (Heating) and Energibanken (PV). 7

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