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1 This is not a Greenpeace India publication. This document has been compiled by a volunteer. Prepared by: Anukriti Pokhriyal

2 CONTENTS Solar Energy in India: An Overview... 3 Advantages of Solar Power... 3 Harnessing Solar Energy... 3 How Do Solar Cells Work?... 4 Components of a Solar Electric System... 4 Designing a Solar Electric System : A Review... 5 Important links to government websites:... 5 Solar Success Models:... 6 DIY KIT: Solar Battery Charger... 7 References... 8 Things to Remember... 8

3 Solar Energy in India: An Overview As of November 2015, the total electrical capacity of India was 284,303 GW. Out of this, 69.5% share was of thermal power, 15.2% of Hydroelectricity, 2.1% of nuclear electricity and 13.3%, that is 3.6 GW, of Renewable Energy Resources[1] however, there are still large parts of the country that remain to be electrified and renewable energy can be an excellent solution. To achieve the goal for 24x7 Power For All by 2019 [2], there is a call for an increase in the generation sector and also there is a global commitment towards increased renewable energy generation following the UNFCCC Summit (United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change) held in Paris in India has great plans to emerge as a renewable energy super power; with about 300 clear sunny days, it comes as no surprise that the target for solar energy expansion has been increased to 100,000 MW. Also, the government of India in its submission to the UNFCC (COP 21) stated that the country would achieve 40% of cumulative electric power capacity from RE resources by Recently, an international solar alliance called International Agency for Solar Technologies and Applications (IASTA) was announced to facilitate a special platform for mutual cooperation among 121 solar resource rich countries lying fully or partially between Tropic of Cancer and Tropic of Capricorn [3]. Advantages of Solar Power Did you know that the amount of solar energy incident on earth each year is several times more than the worlds total energy demand? Solar energy can prove to be advantageous for mankind in many ways. It is a non-polluting, renewable and low maintenance source of energy. The installation of solar panels is easy and these cells can last up to years. Not to forget, Photovoltaic (PV) panels can also easily be installed in remote locations. Harnessing Solar Energy There is more than one way to capture this unlimited energy from the sun for our use. Solar Thermal Energy: This method uses the solar energy for heating applications such as solar water heaters, solar cookers, heating space in commercial buildings, process heating, water purification, etc. Electricity Generation: This method uses solar energy for large scale electricity generation by either using Photo Voltaic (PV) panels or by using concentrated solar power (CSP) which concentrates a beam of light, using parabolic mirrors, on a working fluid which is then used to drive a turbine.

4 How Do Solar Cells Work? Photo voltaic or PV cells convert sunlight directly into electricity. These PV cells are made of semiconductor materials such as silicon. When the light falls on these cells, a part of it is absorbed by the semiconductor material and this energy causes the electron movement in the semiconductor. This ultimately leads to flow of current when the electrical circuit is completed. On a cloudy or foggy day, the solar panels might not work with their full efficiency however; they will still produce 15-25% of their rated capacity. One should also note that a few days of cloudy days will not affect the year round performance of the solar panels. Batteries are generally used for power back up. There are mainly 3 types of cells cells that are popularly used: monocrystalline, polycrystalline and thin-film solar cells[4]. Components of a Solar Electric System If you wish to install a solar electric system, it will need the following components [5]: Solar panels: To convert the solar energy into electrical energy Batteries: To store the energy and to provide electricity at night Charge Controller: to prevent overcharging of batteries Inverter: to convert DC to AC Electrical devices which you plan to run Designing a Solar Electric System It is important to keep in mind the following steps for the design process [5]: Assess the project Calculate your energy demand Survey the site for installing panels Calculate the amount of solar energy available at that site Estimate the size of solar electric system Select the right components and do a full cost analysis Make a detailed design

5 2015: A Review This year the target of installed capacity of solar energy was increased to 100GW from 20GW. Also the budget for implementation of grid connected roof top systems was increased to Rs 5,000 Cr from Rs 600 Cr over a period of 5 years up to A draft for the National Renewable Energy Act [6] was published in For residential sector: For residential sector, the government provides the capital subsidy of 30% for all states, except or special category states like North-Eastern States including Sikkim, Uttarakhand, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu & Kashmir and Lakshadweep, Andaman & Nicobar Islands for which it is 70%[3]. For commercial purposes, the government has different schemes such as accelerated depreciation, custom duty concessions, excise duty exemptions and tax holiday, etc. Important links to government websites: Solar roof top calculator: For systems specifications: Average cost of solar water heaters: For comprehensive description of the step-by-step processes needed for commissioning of solar projects in different Indian states: For manufacturers/ suppliers of solar PV and solar thermal systems: Is solar energy cost effective? A record-breaking tariff of Rs 4.63 per kwh was given by SunEdison[7], which has secured the tender for a 500 MW PV project in Andhra Pradesh which sets new targets for other such projects to achieve grid tariff parity. (Tariff parity happens when the solar energy can produce electricity for the same cost as the electricity available on a utility s transmission and distribution grid). For domestic users in India, grid parity is still a major concern. With new policies coming up and the expansion planned by the government of India in solar energy field, solar power costs may become equivalent to conventional thermal energy by [8].

6 Solar Success Models: *These experiments have not been performed or tested by Greenpeace India or the writer of this document. LED power source from discarded laptop battery was developed by Vedant, a Class 6 student. Solar mosquito destroyer developed by Mathews K Mathew. This device makes use of the smell from the septic tank to attract the mosquitoes. Once the mosquitoes get trapped inside the device, the heat builds up inside the device as a result of direct sunlight exposure and kills them. Dr. Anil Rajvanshi had developed a way to use an old sari, glass tubes and the sun to develop a low cost water purifier for rural India.

7 DIY KIT: Solar Battery Charger This charger can be used to charge two AA NiMh batteries which are about 1.2 Volts[9]. Materials Needed: A clear, water-proof container AA Battery Holder One or Two Solar Panels rated 4 Volts or above Blocking Diode Tools Required: Soldering Iron Solder Tape Safety Goggles Some wire STEPS: 1. Solder the diode onto the positive wire coming off the battery holder, and then the other end of the diode onto one of the positive tabs on a solar panel. Also, at this time, solder the negative wire from the battery pack onto one of the negative tabs of the solar panels. The diode is added to block the reverse current. 2. For two panels hooked up in parallel there is a bit more soldering to do. Cut two wires at about the right length for a bridge and solder. And connect positive to positive, and negative to negative of the solar panels. 3. For good measure, always put some tape over the solder points on my solar panel, especially panels with little tabs on them. Then just tape the panels into the lid of your enclosure. 4. For Enclosure use a little Tupperware box. It has a freshness O-ring in it that keeps moisture in, which also means it'll keep moisture out. Handy for projects you want to leave outside for long periods of time. 5. Keep it out in the sunlight and Enjoy!

8 References Things to Remember It is important to do a load calculation as the size of your solar electric system depends upon the maximum load in a day. Also the cost of solar panels and other auxiliary equipment depends upon the size of the size of a solar electric system that has to be installed. Solar electric systems may not need to be only stand-alone (not connected to the grid), one can connect his/her solar electric system to the grid by supplying excess energy to the grid and using the electricity from grid at night time. It is a misconception that solar makes sense only in areas that receive constant and direct sunshine. India on an average has around 300 sunny days, however even in places that receive lesser sunshine during some weather conditions, solar energy can still contribute to energy savings. Even though solar panels can last for about 25 yrs., on an average for a home solar electric system, the batteries need to be replaced after a period of 3-5 years. One may choose to not use batteries as a backup at all. In this case the power generated by solar panels can be directly used for powering some or all electric appliances and the excess energy can be supplied to the grid. During the night the power demand can be met by taking power from the grid. Solar is a long term investment and requires high initial capital investment, but there are subsidies and loans that can be availed and depending on the size of the solar electric system, after some years it will pay for itself by not only cutting down electricity costs but also by reducing carbon emissions!

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