PROSOLIS: a Web Tool for Thermal and Daylight Characteristics Comparison of Glazing Complexes

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1 PROSOLIS: a Web Tool for Thermal and Daylight Characteristics Comparison of Glazing Complexes O. Dartevelle, M. Sc. Arch. A. Deneyer, M. Sc. Arch. M. Bodart, Prof. Université catholique de Louvain (U.C.L.) Belgian Building Research Institute Université catholique de Louvain ABSTRACT Since these last years, the application of the European Energy Performance Building Directive (EPBD) has led to a higher interest in summer comfort issue. In this context, the design of glazing complexes (glazing and solar shading) is a key issue since it directly influences the thermal and visual perception of interior spaces. Glazing complex determine the view and the opening to the outside, determining solar gains and penetration of natural light, but is also responsible for heat loss and can cause overheating and glare. The choice of an adequate glazing complex should therefore be done considering all of these aspects. This paper presents a free web tool realised within the frame of the PROSOLIS research project. Based on a set of results obtained by the advanced use of BSDF functions for optical properties description of solar shading in specific thermal and daylight simulation software s (WINDOW 7, EnergyPlus 8, Lighttools 8.0), the PROSOLIS web tool helps to evaluate the impact of the glazing complex choice on both thermal and visual comforts in residential and office buildings. This web tool, dedicated to building designers, proposes a multi-criteria approach for comparing accurately the most current types of glazing complexes. It considers internal and external screen fabrics and venetian blinds, combined with five different types of glazing and informs designers on energy and light performance levels of the selected combinations. From this information, designer should be able to easily choose glazing complexes fitting with their needs. INTRODUCTION PROSOLIS is a tool designed to compare the energy and light performance levels of different glazing and solar shading combinations. Users can therefore study and compare the behaviour of different combinations of glazing and of solar shading parallel to glazing for a wide range of configurations depending on the position of the solar shading, window orientation and use of the studied building. The tool is divided into 6 main screens: use, orientation, glazing, solar shading, concise and detailed results. It also integrates a word index defining all technical terms used in the tool. The help section shows how to use the tool and presents the hypothesis on which the simulations are based. The tool is available in French and English on

2 USE SELECTION In the first screen of the tool, the user can choose from three room types: living room (residential building), sleeping room (residential building) and individual office space (non residential building). This choice determines the simulation conditions and hypotheses behind the contextualized energy property results (cooling needs of the room, heat balance of the complex (see after)). To provide valid thermal behaviour, two whole buildings have been modeled (Figure 1): one residential building and one office building. Both models include 13 thermal zones. The first covers all everyday functions of a single-family home (kitchen, sleeping room, living room, washroom, etc.) and the second covers those of an office building (office space, corridors, etc.). All thermal simulation hypothesis regarding geometry, construction types, internal gains, hours of occupancy are described in the help section of the tool. Figure 1 Thermal modellings. Left: residential building - Right: office building ORIENTATION SELECTION The user can choose among eight different orientations (North, North-East, East, South-East, South, South-West, West and North-West) determining the conditions for the room being studied. GLAZING SELECTION Five different types of glazing (presented in Table 1) are proposed: clear double glazing; clear double solar control glazing; double glazing with enhanced solar control; reflecting double glazing; triple glazing. Energy properties Thermal transmittance factor Ug [W/m²K] Table 1. Properties of glazing Clear double solar control glazing Clear double glazing Double with enhanced solar control Reflecting double glazing Triple glazing Solar factor g [-] Solar transmittance τ e [%] Solar reflectance ρ e [%] Solar absorption α e [%] Light properties Light transmittance τ v [%] Colour rendering index SOLAR SHADING SELECTION Ra [%] As presented in Figure 2, the user can specify: the potential absence of solar shading; the position of the solar shading: interior or exterior; the type of solar shading: blinds or screens; the properties of

3 the selected solar shading (optical properties, tint, fabrics type, etc.). For screens, the user can choose among 6 screens of different colours (black, grey, white) and fabric types (natte or serge). For blinds, the user can choose among 4 slats of different colours (dark or light grey) and reflexion types (diffuse or specular). The solar shading devices were selected to represent the products found in practice for standard solar shading applications. Their properties are presented in Table 2 for screens and in Table 3 for venetian blinds. For blinds with metal slats, the slats are fixed and inclined at a 30 angle in relation to the horizontal position. Figure 2 Screen for shading device selection Table 3. Properties of slats Diffuse Specular reflection reflection Light grey Light grey Diffuse reflection Dark grey Specular reflection Dark grey Energy properties Solar reflectance ρ e, n-h [%] Light reflectance ρ v,n-h [%] Light properties Light transmittance τ v [%] CONCISE RESULTS This section of the tool allows users to easily compare the behaviour of different glazing complexes (up to four) for the following criteria: Overheating protection; Daylight harvesting; Glare protection. Overheating protection Table 2. Properties of screens Serge White Serge Grey Serge Black Natte White Natte Grey Energy properties Solar transmittance τ e [%] Solar reflectance ρ e [%] Light properties Light transmittance τ v [%] Other properties Openness factor O.F. [%] This criterion compares the efficiency of the chosen glazing complexes (glazing and solar shading)

4 regarding their impact on the reduction of the cooling needs of the room (here, the reduction is seen as the difference of Annual cooling needs of the room (see detailed results after) between the configuration with double clear glazing (and no solar shading) and the configuration with the selected glazing complex). On the right side of the screen (see Figure 3), these values are displayed on a scale defined by the minimum and maximum values of coolings needs reduction obtained in the tool (for the selected use). This permits a precise comparison of the selected combinations. Also, in the center of the screen, symbols are used to describe in a simple way the impact of each selected combination: / for negligible protecion; + for low protection; ++ for medium protection; +++ for high protection. These categories were calibrated by qualifying all internal shading devices for north orientation as negligible protection and all external shading devices for south as high protection. Daylight harvesting This criterion compares the daylight penetration through the glazing complex. It is based on the Daylight harvesting criterion presented in the detailed results section of the tool (see after). For the selected use and orientation, it expresses the daylight penetration through the glazing and solar shading combination (mean for summer and winter conditions) in relative terms in relation to the maximum value obtained for the double clear glazing configuration (without solar shading). The scores obtained depend on the position of the chosen solar shading on a scale defined by the minimum (0%) and the maximum (100%). As already seen for the overheating protection criteria, these values are displayed on a scale on the right side of the screen to ease precise comparison. Also, the following symbols are used to describe the behavior of each selected combination: + for poor daylight supply (0 to 10%); ++ for moderate daylight supply (10 and 23%); +++ for good daylight supply (23 to 100%). Theses boundaries were calibrated to highlights the best cases with shading devices. Glare protection This criterion compares the impact of the chosen glazing complex on protecting against glare. It is based on the Glare protection criterion (see detailed results). The scores obtained depend on the category of solar shading for this criterion. The following symbols are used: / if no solar shading is present, + for low protection; ++ for medium protection; +++ for high protection. a b c d a c b d c d b a Figure 3 Concise results obtained for the comparison of the following combinations: (a) double clear glazing; (b) reflecting double glazing; (c) double clear glazing with internal screen (serge grey); (d) double clear glazing with external venetian blinds (dark grey slats with specular reflection).

5 DETAILED RESULTS This screen (Figure 4 and 5) is used to compare more in details the thermal and visual characteristics of multiple (up to four) different combinations of glazing and solar shading selected by the user. It includes 5 different sections: Summary of choices; Glazing properties; Solar shading properties; Solar energy properties of the combination glazing and solar shading; Light properties of the combination glazing and solar shading. Figure 4 Detailed results - Solar shading properties- obtained for the comparison of the following combinations: (a) double clear glazing; (b) reflecting double glazing; (c) double clear glazing with internal screen (serge grey); (d) double clear glazing with external venetian blinds (dark grey slats with specular reflection).

6 Figure 5 Detailed results Solar energy and light properties of the combination glazing and solar shading - obtained for the comparison of the following combinations: (a) double clear glazing; (b) reflecting double glazing; (c) double clear glazing with internal screen (serge grey); (d) double clear glazing with external venetian blinds (dark grey slats with specular reflection). Summary of choices This section (see Figure 4) summarises the selections made by the user: use, orientation, glazing, solar shading, type, position, colour, type of reflectance, fabric type. Glazing properties This section (see Figure 4) presents the property values of the glazing selected by the user: Solar factor; Thermal transmittance factor (U-value); Light transmittance. Solar factors and light transmittance factors of the glazing were determined by the glazing manufacturer in compliance with the standard NBN EN 410:1998. Thermal transmittance factors of the glazing were determined by the glazing manufacturer in compliance with the standard NBN EN 673:2011. Solar shading properties First, this section (see Figure 4) covers the detailed values of the properties of the solar shading

7 selected by the user. For screens the following properties are described: Openness factor; Solar transmittance (normal-hemispherical, normal diffuse, normal-normal); Reflectance and Absorption; Light transmittance (normal-hemispherical, normal diffuse, normal-normal). For blinds, Solar and Light reflectances are described. The solar and light transmittance, reflectance and absorption values were determined in compliance with the standard NBN EN 14500:2008. The screen openness factor was based on a physical measurement of the proportion of holes in compliance with Annex B of this standard. The classifications for protection against total heat transfer, protection against direct transmittance, protection against secondary heat transfer, opacity, glare control, night privacy, visual contact with the outside and daylight supply are then described according to the standard NBN EN 14501:2005. This standard establishes classifications for these properties ranging from 0 to 3 or 4: 0 being a property resulting in very little effect and 4 being a property resulting in a very good effect. Closing this section of the detailed results, outwards view in daytime conditions and inwards views in nighttime conditions are given. These images were determined for standard daytime and nighttime observation conditions. They were taken in a laboratory under controlled lighting conditions, in particular with regard to background contrast differences, thus generating an accurate reproduction of internal and external views. The observation distance was set to 80 cm from the solar shading device. Under daytime conditions, a lighting contrast with a ratio of 1 to 300 was generated between the vertical plane on which the solar shading device is positioned and the background. Under nighttime conditions, this lighting contrast was maintained at a ratio of 1 to Energy properties of the combination glazing and solar shading First, this section (see Figure 5) covers properties of the glazing and solar shading combination at normal incidence: Solar factor (g tot ); Direct (t e ) and secondary heat transfer factor (q i ); Shading factor (F c ). These values were obtained using the Window 7.2 software (LBNL, 2013). The calculation was made taking into account on the one hand glazing data issued by manufacturers, in compliance with the standard NBN EN 410:2011 and on the other hand the spatial behavioural properties of the solar shading (using Bidirectional Scattering Distribution Functions (BSDF) (Deroisy et al, 2013)). Then, this section presents the energy properties characterising the glazing and solar shading combination in the context (use and orientation) defined by the user: heat balance of the complex; cooling needs of the room; impact of solar shading on cooling needs. All of these results were calculated by dynamic thermal modelling using EnergyPlus V8.1 software (DOE, 2013). These simulations were performed by series of 5-minutes time intervals over a standard year in Brussels (ASHRAE, 2001). The simulations took place for the geographic location of Uccle. The results for this criterion must therefore be considered for this geographic position (Latitude 50.8 N). All of the optical properties of the glazing and solar shading combinations used in the thermal simulation were introduced based on prior detailed modelling results (integrating BSDF measurements of solar screen properties) derived from the WINDOW 7.2 software via a BSDF formalism (Dartevelle et al., 2013). An automated solar shading management system was modelled. This was based on a criterion of 150 W/m² of total solar radiation on the window to trigger the closing of the solar shading device. For more representative results, a solar shading device was modelled on all windows with the orientation selected by the user. No shading caused by the outdoor environment was taken into account. The heat balance is obtained by the sum of the monthly gains and losses of the room by conduction, radiation and convection through the glazing and solar shading combination (DOE, 2013(2)). The monthly cooling needs of the room analyzed are calculated based on an indoor temperature of 25 C that must not be exceeded during occupancy. The impact of solar shading on cooling needs is quantified based on the difference in cooling needs between the considered case and the same case without solar shading (all other considered assumptions (use, orientation, glazing) being identical).

8 Light properties of the combination glazing and solar shading This section (see Figure 5) covers on the one hand the light properties of the combination glazing and solar shading at normal incidence: Light transmittance. The light transmittance values of the different glazing and solar shading combinations were obtained using the Window 7.2 software tool. On the other hand, this section covers the properties characterising the glazing and solar shading combination in the context (use and orientation) defined by the user: Glare control, Daylight supply (summer and winter) according to the selected orientation. Information regarding glare control was collected by collating the results from advanced computer simulations performed using LightTools 8.1 software (OSG, 2013), integrating precise data on the properties of the materials used to constitute the solar shading devices (BSDF data) and brightness measurements for solar shading devices under real external exposure conditions calculated by Photolux 3.2 (SE, 2012) software based on High Dynamic Range (HDR) images. The direction of observation of the solar shading is perpendicular and the distance of the observer from the solar shading is such that with an average solar altitude, direct view of the sun is impossible. Three categories have been created, distinguishing the mean amount of light perceived through glazing and solar shading combinations: Low glare control (mean brightness greater than 3000 cd/m 2) ; Medium glare control (between 1000 and 3000 cd/m 2) ; High glare control (less than 1000 cd/m 2 ). The information regarding "daylight harvesting" was also generated by computer simulations using LightTools 8.1 software and integrating BSDF data measured for the materials used to constitute solar shading devices. It represents the total light flow through the combination with the solar shading device extended where applicable and for a perfectly clear sky. It was calculated for each orientation on a vertical reference plane located behind the glazing complex and exposed to a cumulated clear summer (15 June) and winter (15 December) sky. This criterion is expressed in relative terms compared to the maximum value obtained for all considered configurations. CONCLUSION The PROSOLIS web tool proposes an original multi-criteria approach for comparing precisely performance levels of common types of glazing complexes (glazing and shading devices). It permits to easily obtain and compare their detailed and contextualized energy and light characteristics. In this way, this tool should help designers to choose glazing complexes corresponding to their needs. REFERENCE ASHRAE International Weather for Energy Calculations (IWEC). Atlanta: American Society of Heating Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Engineers, Inc. Dartevelle, O., Lethé, G., Deneyer, A., Bodart, M The use of bi-directional scattering distribution functions for solar shading modelling in dynamic thermal simulation: a results comparison. Lausanne: CISBAT Deroisy, B., Deneyer, A., Lethé, G., Flamant, G Performance analysis of common solar shading devices: experimental assessment and ray-tracing calculations using bi-directional scattering distribution data. Cracovia: Lux Europa DOE EnergyPlus 8 simulation software. Washington DC: U.S. Department of Energy. DOE. 2013(2). EnergyPlus 8 Engineering Reference Document.Washington DC: U.S. Department of Energy. LBNL Window 7 Simulation Tool. Berkeley: Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. NBN EN Blinds and shutters - Thermal and visual comfort - Test and calculation methods. Bruxelles: Bureau for Standardisation. NBN EN Blinds and shutters - Thermal and visual comfort - Performance characteristics and classification. Bruxelles: Bureau for Standardisation. NBN EN Glass in building - Determination of luminous and solar characteristics of glazing. Bruxelles: Bureau for Standardisation. NBN EN Glass in building - Determination of thermal transmittance (U value) - Calculation method. Bruxelles: Bureau for Standardisation. OSG LightTools 8.1 software. Pasadena: Synopsys Optical Solutions Group. SE Photolux 3.2 software. Ecully:Soft Energy SARL.

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