Ana Paula Ramos, M. Filomena Caetano, Marta Rocha, Sara Belchior & Arlindo Lima

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1 10 th M a y 2013 Ana Paula Ramos, M. Filomena Caetano, Marta Rocha, Sara Belchior & Arlindo Lima UTL - Instituto Superior de Agronomia Centro de Engenharia dos Biossistemas & Laboratório de Patologia Vegetal Veríssimo de Almeida, Tapada da Ajuda, Lisboa, Portugal

2 Pests and diseases threatening urban palms in Portugal In recent years, interest in planting palm trees with ornamental purposes has increased significantly. Frequently used in gardens and streets, in flower beds and interior spaces. These plants show high plasticity, hardiness and adaptability to vegetate in varied soil and climatic conditions.

3 Ramos et al. (2000) Ramos & Caetano (2004) Caetano et al. (2008) False smut Trunk rot Caetano et al. (2000) Anthracnose but! Pink rot are affected by several diseases and pests symptoms: chlorotic and necrotic leaves, spots on the leaves and rachis, rot of the rachis, sheath, and trunk, dieback death of plants

4 DGAV (2007) Red palm weevil and in 2007 Rhynchophorus ferrugineus was detected municipalities and botanical gardens implemented expensive biological and chemical control measures but what about the impact of pink rot and Thielaviopsis trunk rot diseases?

5 Pests and diseases threatening urban palms in Portugal Objectives Importance of the pink rot disease Which problems are affecting palm trees? How to face all the problems? Importance of the Thielaviopsis trunk rot Does the weevil disseminate these diseases?

6 Pink rot - Nalanthamala vermoesenii Light-brown spots on the leaves and rachis Chlorotic and necrotic leaves Rot of the rachis, sheath, and trunk Eventual death of infected plants

7 Pink rot - Nalanthamala vermoesenii A pinkish-orange to salmon-like layer on the surface and within the infected tissues masses of spores that are released. 9% incidence in some municipalities Hosts: Archontophenix alexandrae, Howeia belmoreana, Phoenix canariensis, Washingtonia filifera, Washingtonia robusta

8 Pink rot - Nalanthamala vermoesenii Nalanthamala vermoesenii was isolated from symptomatic petioles and the pinkish-orange layer of the sheath. Nalanthamala vermoesenii was also isolated from adults of Rhynchophorus ferrugineus. Morphological and molecular (rdna ITS) characteristics confirmed identity to N. vermoesenii. PDA, 5 d a.i. hyaline conidiophores with penicillate branches, ovoid, single-celled conidia in chains ( 3-4 x 4-6 µm, n=30) conidiophores acremonium-like

9 The palm trunk collapses on itself or the canopy suddenly falls off. Thielaviopsis trunk rot - Thielaviopsis paradoxa Attacking stressed plants The rot occurs on only one side of the trunk and moves from the outside to the inside of the trunk. an acetic fermentative odour emanated from the rotting tissues Hosts: Phoenix canariensis, P. dactylifera

10 Thielaviopsis trunk rot - Thielaviopsis paradoxa The canopy often appears normal and healthy. If infection has occurred on mature palms through leaf pruning cuts, leaves die progressively from the oldest up.

11 Thielaviopsis trunk rot - Thielaviopsis paradoxa Thielaviopsis paradoxa (anamorph of Ceratocystis paradoxa) was isolated from symptomatic trunks. Thielaviopsis paradoxa was also isolated from adults of Rhynchophorus ferrugineus. Morphological and molecular (rdna ITS) characteristics confirmed identity to T. paradoxa. PDA, 12 d a.i. phialospores 5-20 x 4-5 µm aleuriospores x 7-15 µm

12 Pink rot versus Thielaviopsis trunk rot

13 Pink rot versus Thielaviopsis trunk rot Different symptoms Different signs

14 RHYNCHOPHORUS FERRUGINEUS IN PORTUGAL

15 RHYNCHOPHORUS FERRUGINEUS IN PORTUGAL Hosts: Phoenix canariensis Phoenix dactylifera Sabal palmetto Trachycarpus fortunei Washingtonia robusta Washingtonia filifera

16 RHYNCHOPHORUS FERRUGINEUS IN PORTUGAL 3.May.2012 Monthly treatments 2.June.2013

17 Red Palm Weevil and Pink rot Red Palm Weevil and Pink rot Red Palm Weevil Pink rot

18 Red Palm Weevil and Thielaviopsis trunk rot

19 Where are we going? The incidence and severity of both diseases are increasing The palm weevil is threatening the continuity of palms in amenity spaces The dissemination of both diseases and the spread of the pest are following the same pattern The weevil has the ability to carry the spores of both N. vermoesenii and T. paradoxa and inoculate them into the mature palms Also: Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae have been isolated from dead weevils (larvae and adults) Recent results coming out: the biological control against N. vermoesenii and R. ferrugineus is possible with Beauveria bassiana.

20 Grazie Obrigada Thank you Merci

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