Cue-based analysis of speech: Implications for prosodic transcription

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Cue-based analysis of speech: Implications for prosodic transcription"

Transcription

1 Cue-based analysis of speech: Implications for prosodic transcription Stefanie Shattuck-Hufnagel Speech Communication Group Research Laboratory of Electronics MIT

2 A stark view: Some unanswered questions What are the contrastive categories of spoken prosody? How does their phonetic implementation vary systematically with context? How do they relate to meaning and to interaction?

3 Prosodic parallels to a feature-cue-based approach to speech processing? 1) Segmental phonology: growing evidence that language users systematically control: individual acoustic cues to contrastive phonemic segments contextually appropriate parameter values of these cues 2) Models: representation and processing of surface phonetic information at this level of detail feature-cue-based processing (Halle, Stevens) 3) Parallels in prosodic phonology? if so, what are the implications for prosodic transcription?

4 Instruction giver s map Instruction follower s map

5 Reduction of surface word forms It s probably the same thing.

6 probably the

7 Strengthening/clarification of surface word forms Are you going to have to do that all over again? ProbabLY.

8 Extremes of variation in word forms

9 Surface phonetic segments often not appropriate for transcription Cues not aligned in time Cues to a feature can be distributed over time nasality in V preceding a nasal coda C in I can go duration of V preceding a voiceless coda C in I can t go Cues to features of two segments can overlap in time /n + dh/ of win those interdental nasal Cues selected individually Individual cues to features survive deletion of segment Duration of V preceding a deleted voiced coda C in cat Individual cues to features are sometimes added Glottalized word-final /t/ sometimes also has closure and release burst

10 Feature-cue-based transcription provides a better fit Stevens 2002 (extending Halle 1972): Two types of features, two types of cues Landmarks: abrupt spectral changes as cues to articulator-free features Consonant, Vowel, Glide, Continuant, Sonorant, Strident Landmark-related cues: spectral patterns near Landmarks, as cues to articulator-bound features Labial, Coronal, Velar, Voiced, Nasal etc. Additional acoustic events

11 Landmark cues Rapid spectral changes across several energy bands which provide information about articulator-free features Boyce et al. 2013

12 Landmark labelling captures individual cue patterns

13 Advantages of Landmark Cues in Speech Perception Reliably produced 80% of predicted LMs in AEMT Corpus (Shattuck- Hufnagel & Veilleux 2007) Robustly detectable ( auditory edges ) Highly informative Articulator-free features (~manner) provide estimate of CV structure of the utterance Identification of regions rich in cues to other features (place, voicing) Inter-Landmark times provide estimate of durational markers of prosodic structure

14 Extension to Production A sketch of an extrinsic timing model Stage 1: a phonological planning stage symbolic segmental representations are sequenced and slotted into an appropriate prosodic structure appropriate acoustic cues are selected for each segment s features in its context Stage 2: a phonetic planning stage cues are mapped onto sets of articulators appropriate values for spatial and temporal parameters of movement are computed Stage 3: a motor-sensory implementation stage articulator movements are generated and tracked. Turk and Shattuck-Hufnagel 2014

15 Extension to Production A sketch of an extrinsic timing model Stage 1: a phonological planning stage symbolic segmental representations are sequenced and slotted into an appropriate prosodic structure appropriate acoustic cues are selected for each segment s features in its context Stage 2: a phonetic planning stage cues are mapped onto sets of articulators appropriate values for spatial and temporal parameters of movement are computed Stage 3: a motor-sensory implementation stage articulator movements are generated and tracked. Turk and Shattuck-Hufnagel 2014

16 Evidence for a Feature-Cue-Based production planning model Evidence that speakers can choose among individual cues Feature cues left behind in phonetic reduction New cues in challenging speaking circumstances Inventory constraints on LM modification Evidence that speakers compute cue parameter values Conversational convergence: partial, governed by social values Covert contrast in development Inventory constraints on final lengthening

17 Evidence for a Feature-Cue-Based production planning model Evidence that speakers can choose among individual cues Feature cues left behind in phonetic reduction New cues in challenging speaking circumstances Inventory constraints on LM modification Evidence that speakers compute cue parameter values Conversational convergence: partial, governed by social values Covert contrast in development Inventory constraints on final lengthening

18 Conversational convergence/divergence Neilson 2011

19 Evidence for a Feature-Cue-Based production planning model Evidence that speakers can choose among individual cues Feature cues left behind in phonetic reduction New cues in challenging speaking circumstances Inventory constraints on LM modification Evidence that speakers compute cue parameter values Conversational convergence: partial, governed by social values Covert contrast in development Inventory constraints on final lengthening

20 Covert contrast in child speech Scobbie 1998; see also Gibbon 1990

21 Covert contrast for stop voicing Macken & Barton 1980 JCL

22 Characteristics of the FCBP approach More complex planning by the speaker Not choose a surface allophone But instead, choose context-appropriate feature cues and cue parameter values Extensive interpretation by the listener Which linguistic constituents and structures does the signal contain cues for? What information about the interaction and the situation does the signal contain cues for?

23 Parallels in Prosodic Processing? Individual variation in cue patterns Irregular pitch periods at prosodic boundaries and prominences (Pierrehumbert & Talkin 1992, Dilley et al. 1996) New cues in challenging speaking situations Dysarthric speakers use duration instead of F0 to signal question vs statement (Patel 2003) Whispered speech in Mandarin shows amplitude variation analogous to F0 shape for tones (Gao 2003) Interpretation of ambiguous cues in context Early prominence patterns influence interpretation of ambiguous later prominence (Dilley & Shattuck-Hufnagel 1998) Early speaking rate influences interpretation of ambiguous cues to function words (Dilley & Pitt 2008)

24 Parallels in Prosodic Processing? Individual variation in cue patterns Irregular pitch periods at prosodic boundaries and prominences (Pierrehumbert & Talkin 1992, Dilley et al. 1996) New cues in challenging speaking situations Dysarthric speakers use duration instead of F0 to signal question vs statement (Patel 2003) Whispered speech in Mandarin shows amplitude variation analogous to F0 shape for tones (Gao 2003) Interpretation of cues in context Early prominence patterns influence interpretation of ambiguous later prominence (Dilley & Shattuck-Hufnagel 1998) Early speaking rate influences interpretation of ambiguous cues to function words (Dilley & Pittt 1998)

25 Patel 2003 New cues in challenging speaking situations: Dysarthric Speech

26 New cues in challenging speaking situations: Whispered Speech https://lingos.co/blog/mandarin-tones/ Gao 1999

27 New cues in challenging speaking situations: Whispered Speech Gao 1999

28 New Cues in challenging speaking situations: Whispered Speech Gao 2003

29 Implications for Prosodic Transcription? Determine the contrastive categories Determine the range of appropriate cues and cue parameter values for each category, across contexts Determine the relationship of the categories (and cue parameter values) to meaning and to interaction

30 Implications for Prosodic Transcription? Determine the contrastive categories Determine the range of appropriate cues and cue parameter values for each category, across contexts Determine the relationship of the categories (and cue parameter values) to meaning and to interaction Can cue-based transcription move us toward these goals?

31 Some useful steps Consider prosodic elements in terms of distributed cues to contrastive elements and parameter values for those cues Rather than as a sequence of surface elements Develop displays of parameters as compelling as F0 contours Duration and amplitude as % of typical Autodetection of irregular pitch periods Create inventories of contrastive use of prosodic phrasing and prominence across languages Investigate phonological equivalence in prosody

32 Phonological equivalence

33 Which differences distinguish contrasts?

34 Some unanswered (but answerable) questions What are the contrastive categories of spoken prosody? How does the phonetic implementation of these categories vary systematically with context? How do these categories relate to meaning and to interaction?

35

36 Evidence for a Feature-Cue-Based production planning model Evidence that speakers can choose among individual cues Feature cues left behind in phonetic reduction New cues in challenging speaking circumstances Inventory constraints on LM modification Evidence that speakers compute cue parameter values Covert contrast in development Conversational convergence: partial, governed by social values Inventory constraints on final lengthening Recall evidence from prosodic hierarchy: ipp s, VOT

37 Evidence for a Feature-Cue-Based production planning model Evidence that speakers can choose among individual cues Feature cues left behind in phonetic reduction New cues in challenging speaking circumstances Inventory constraints on LM modification Evidence that speakers compute cue parameter values Covert contrast in development Conversational convergence: partial, governed by social values Inventory constraints on final lengthening Recall evidence from prosodic hierarchy: ipp s, VOT

38 Speakers can select among cues: cues left behind in reductions even if whole strings of segments are no longer delimitable in reduced forms compared with fuller pronunciations of the same lexical items, there will still be articulatory prosodies, superimposed upon the remaining sound material, which retain essential components of the fuller forms, the phonetic essence that characterizes the whole form class of a word. The extreme reduction [ai~~i] of the German modal particle eigentlich, 'actually', is a case in point. The length, palatality and nasality of its gliding movement reflect the polysyllabicity, the central nasal consonant and the final palatal syllable of the fuller forms. It is assumed that this phonetic essence triggers lexical identification in the listener. Niebuhr & Kohler 2011

39 Speakers can select among cues Speakers constrain LM modification to maintain contrasts in their language (Lavoie 2002)

40 Lavoie 2002

41 Lavoie 2002

42 Speakers can compute context-appropriate cue values Recall examples from cues to prosodic structure: Duration adjustments of rhyme for boundaries, prominences (many languages) Duration adjustments of stop VOT for initial boundaries (Korean)

43 Neilson 2011 Speakers can compute context-appropriate cue values Conversational convergence/divergence

44 Speakers can compute context-appropriate cue values Inventory-sensitive constraints on degree of final lengthening: Nakai et al. (2009) have also shown that a quantity language like Finnish exhibits final lengthening, but its implementation is regulated to preserve the language-specific quantity system, namely the contrast between single or short vowels and double or long vowels. This important empirical finding raises the question whether final lengthening, and perhaps also other prosodic cues, is a universal cue to phrasing that is implemented in language-particular ways. If so, cue variation may be the result of the conspiracy of specific phonologies against universal tendencies in language, and experimental approaches are decisive to disentangle the two factors. (Frota 2012)

45 A sketch of an extrinsic timing model of speech production Stage 1) a phonological planning stage symbolic segmental representations are sequenced and slotted into an appropriate prosodic structure appropriate acoustic cues are selected for each segment s features in its context Stage 2) a phonetic planning stage cues are mapped onto sets of articulators appropriate values for spatial and temporal parameters of movement are computed Stage 3) a motor-sensory implementation stage articulator movements are generated and tracked. Turk & Shattuck-Hufnagel, Sp Prosody 2014

46 Outline Past 30 years have seen two contrasting developments in speech prosody: the emergence of grammatical theories of prosodic structure, and deep disagreements about how prosodic structure should be annotated/what matters about prosody/the role of prosodic phonology. In this talk I will review what seems to me to be a parallel pair of contrasting views about segmental phonology, one of which focuses on range of variation in word forms across contexts, and the other on the systematic nature of this variation in relation to abstract linguistic categories. This approach seems to me to provide a framework for uniting the largely statistical and probabilistic view of phonetics with the more traditional view of phonology based on abstract contrastive categories, to the benefit of both.

47 Collaborators Segmental phonology and phonetics: Cue-based approaches Ken Stevens, Morris Halle, Jay Keyser, Haruko Kawasaki, Helen Hanson The role of prosodic structure in utterance planning Pat Keating, Alice Turk Cues to prosodic structure Jon Barnes, Alejna Brugos, Nanette Veilleux Jennifer Cole

48 Both segmental and prosodic phonetics signal several different types of information Linguistic constituents and structures Situation-specific information the language/dialect the frequency/predictability of the words the speaker (attitude, emotion, physiology) the speaking situation the relationship between the speakers

49 The plan for this talk Evidence that segmental phonetics has many of the same problems as prosodic phonetics How a model based on cues to contrastive categories, and their parameter values, addresses some of these problems for both segmental phonetics How this might work for prosodic phonetics Evidence for a phonetics model based on cues and their parameter values Implications of this Cue-Based-Processing approach for prosodic transcription

50 Segmental phonetics has many of the same problems as prosodic phonetics Often, expected cues aren t there Reduction in segmental phonology Ambiguity

51 Cue-based processing solves problems

52 Evidence for Cue Based Processing Speakers typically leave cues behind in reduction Speakers use new cues in challenging situations Developing child speakers use cues differently Listeners are sensitive to cue parameter values even if they can t accurately report them Listeners can parse cues and parameter values into their sources appropriately Listeners can reproduce cue parameter values in their conversational or imitative behavior Listeners tune their perception to cue parameter values of individual speakers

53 Speakers typically leave cues behind

54 Speakers use new cues

55 Developing child speakers use cues differently

56 Listeners are sensitive to cue parameter values

57 Implications of Cue-Based-Processing for Prosodic Transcription

58 After three decades of literature focusing on prosodic structure, the view that prosodic structure has a role to play as the organizing framework of speech is well established. This structure consists of the grouping of chunks of speech into prosodic constituents arranged according to a hierarchy, delimited by prosodic boundaries or edges and with prominences or heads at the various levels. Prominence strength and boundary strength reflect the hierarchy. Prosodic domains are marked by constellations of cues, which stand as the major empirical evidence for prosodic structure and the constituents it comprises. These cues have been shown to be used in lexical processing, in the disambiguation of syntax, or in the identification of morpho-syntactic units (as in bootstrapping).

59

60 An alternative title for this talk Why I sleep better at night these days, and how you can too

61 Summary What questions do we need to address? What counts as an answer to the question what is the prosody of this utterance? An abstract specification of the linguistic constituents that make up the utterance and its structure? An exact specification of the quantifiable, measurable and prosodically-relevant aspects of the signal? A cue-based specification that links the abstract contrastive categories to their quantitative implementation?

CLASSIFICATION OF STOP CONSONANT PLACE OF ARTICULATION: COMBINING ACOUSTIC ATTRIBUTES

CLASSIFICATION OF STOP CONSONANT PLACE OF ARTICULATION: COMBINING ACOUSTIC ATTRIBUTES CLASSIFICATION OF STOP CONSONANT PLACE OF ARTICULATION: COMBINING ACOUSTIC ATTRIBUTES Atiwong Suchato Speech Communication Group, Laboratory of Electronics, MIT, Cambridge, MA, USA atiwong@mit.edu ABSTRACT

More information

Applied Phonetics and Phonology Weekday section Mid-Term Exam Study Guide

Applied Phonetics and Phonology Weekday section Mid-Term Exam Study Guide Applied Phonetics and Phonology Weekday section Mid-Term Exam Study Guide Thomas E. Payne, Hanyang Oregon 2007 The following are questions that may appear on the mid-term exam for Linguistics 511G. Approximately

More information

Applied Phonetics and Phonology Weekend section Mid-Term Exam Study Guide

Applied Phonetics and Phonology Weekend section Mid-Term Exam Study Guide Applied Phonetics and Phonology Weekend section Mid-Term Exam Study Guide Thomas E. Payne, Hanyang Oregon 2007 The following are questions that may appear on the mid-term exam for Linguistics 511G. Approximately

More information

Common Phonological processes - There are several kinds of familiar processes that are found in many many languages.

Common Phonological processes - There are several kinds of familiar processes that are found in many many languages. Common Phonological processes - There are several kinds of familiar processes that are found in many many languages. 1. Uncommon processes DO exist. Of course, through the vagaries of history languages

More information

24.900: Introduction to Linguistics. Phonology Class 3. April 13, 2005

24.900: Introduction to Linguistics. Phonology Class 3. April 13, 2005 24.900: Introduction to Linguistics Phonology Class 3 April 13, 2005 Phoneme: A contrastive phonological segment whose phonetic realizations are predictable by rule. a. Review sheet for quiz. b. No practice

More information

Notes on English Intonation. Ken de Jong, Indiana University 2/23/06

Notes on English Intonation. Ken de Jong, Indiana University 2/23/06 Notes on English Intonation, p. 1 Notes on English Intonation. Ken de Jong, Indiana University 2/23/06 Introduction. Following are some very general notes to introduce you to an analysis of the intonation

More information

CALL EM AS YOU HEAR EM:

CALL EM AS YOU HEAR EM: CALL EM AS YOU HEAR EM: Ear Training & Phonetic Transcription (& Brain Stuff) for Teaching Pronunciation Dr. Robin C. Barr Linguist-in-Residence American University, Washington DC January 29, 2012 Myths

More information

Introducing Voice Analysis Software into the Classroom: how Praat Can Help French Students Improve their Acquisition of English Prosody.

Introducing Voice Analysis Software into the Classroom: how Praat Can Help French Students Improve their Acquisition of English Prosody. Introducing Voice Analysis Software into the Classroom: how Praat Can Help French Students Improve their Acquisition of English Prosody. Laurence Delrue Université de Lille 3 (France) laurence.delrue@univ-lille3.fr

More information

Stress and Accent in Tunisian Arabic

Stress and Accent in Tunisian Arabic Stress and Accent in Tunisian Arabic By Nadia Bouchhioua University of Carthage, Tunis Outline of the Presentation 1. Rationale for the study 2. Defining stress and accent 3. Parameters Explored 4. Methodology

More information

THE VOICE OF LOVE. Trisha Belanger, Caroline Menezes, Claire Barboa, Mofida Helo, Kimia Shirazifard

THE VOICE OF LOVE. Trisha Belanger, Caroline Menezes, Claire Barboa, Mofida Helo, Kimia Shirazifard THE VOICE OF LOVE Trisha Belanger, Caroline Menezes, Claire Barboa, Mofida Helo, Kimia Shirazifard University of Toledo, United States tbelanger@rockets.utoledo.edu, Caroline.Menezes@utoledo.edu, Claire.Barbao@rockets.utoledo.edu,

More information

Introduction to Linguistics Chapter 1 (pp. 1-13)

Introduction to Linguistics Chapter 1 (pp. 1-13) Introduction to Linguistics Chapter 1 (pp. 1-13) I. Basic concepts Linguistics is the study of mental grammar There are many things you know about your language that you have not been taught To study language

More information

The sound patterns of language

The sound patterns of language The sound patterns of language Phonology Chapter 5 Alaa Mohammadi- Fall 2009 1 This lecture There are systematic differences between: What speakers memorize about the sounds of words. The speech sounds

More information

Prelinguistic vocal behaviors. Stage 1 (birth-1 month) Stage 2 (2-3 months) Stage 4 (7-9 months) Stage 3 (4-6 months)

Prelinguistic vocal behaviors. Stage 1 (birth-1 month) Stage 2 (2-3 months) Stage 4 (7-9 months) Stage 3 (4-6 months) 3 stages of phonological development 1. Prelinguistic vocal behaviors 2. Phonology of the first 50 words 3. Emergence of rules Prelinguistic vocal behaviors Reflexive/vegetative sounds (birth-1 month)

More information

Ling 403/603 Introduction to Phonology D A Y 6 C E S A R K O I R A L A

Ling 403/603 Introduction to Phonology D A Y 6 C E S A R K O I R A L A Ling 403/603 Introduction to Phonology D A Y 6 C E S A R K O I R A L A Representations in Phonology How are the sounds of speech represented in the mind? Representations in Phonology How are the sounds

More information

Consonantal coarticulation resistance in vowel-consonant-vowel sequences in two Australian languages

Consonantal coarticulation resistance in vowel-consonant-vowel sequences in two Australian languages PAGE 270 Consonantal coarticulation resistance in vowel-consonant-vowel sequences in two Australian languages Simone Graetzer School of Languages and Linguistics The University of Melbourne, Australia

More information

English Phonetics and Phonology: English Consonants

English Phonetics and Phonology: English Consonants Applied Phonetics and Phonology English Phonetics and Phonology: English Consonants Tom Payne, TESOL at Hanyang University 2007 How Speech Sounds are Produced Speech sounds are produced by a moving column

More information

Intonational Disambiguation in Sentence Production and Comprehension

Intonational Disambiguation in Sentence Production and Comprehension Journal of Psycholinguistic Research, Vol. 29, No. 2, 2000 Intonational Disambiguation in Sentence Production and Comprehension Amy J. Schafer, 1,4 Shari R. Speer, 2 Paul Warren, 3 and S. David White 2

More information

English Speech Timing: A Domain and Locus Approach. Laurence White

English Speech Timing: A Domain and Locus Approach. Laurence White English Speech Timing: A Domain and Locus Approach Laurence White PhD The University of Edinburgh 2002 Abstract This dissertation presents a descriptive framework for suprasyllabic processes in speech

More information

Internal push or external pull?

Internal push or external pull? Internal push or external pull? Real-time variation and change in the Scottish Vowel Length Rule in Glasgow TAMARA RATHCKE & JANE STUART-SMITH UNIVERSITY OF KENT & UNIVERSITY OF GLASGOW The Vowel Length

More information

Distinctive Features

Distinctive Features 1 CSD 232 Descriptive Phonetics Distinctive Features Eulenberg/Farhad Spring 2011 2 Phonological Analysis A Phonological Analysis consists of the following elements: List of the phonemes of a language

More information

Vowel length in Scottish English: new data based on the alignment of pitch accent peaks

Vowel length in Scottish English: new data based on the alignment of pitch accent peaks Vowel length in Scottish English: new data based on the alignment of pitch accent peaks Bob Ladd (bob@ling.ed.ac.uk) Edinburgh University 13 th mfm, May 5 Work carried out in collaboration with Astrid

More information

Place Assimilation Jongho Jun February 25, 2014

Place Assimilation Jongho Jun February 25, 2014 Iman Albadar LING 861 Place Assimilation Jongho Jun February 25, 2014 Place assimilation occurs in consonant clusters when one consonant takes on the place of articulation of an adjacent consonant. Examples:

More information

THE DIFFERENCE IN THE STRESS PATTERNS BETWEEN THE NOUN AND VERB FORMS

THE DIFFERENCE IN THE STRESS PATTERNS BETWEEN THE NOUN AND VERB FORMS ASSINGMENT - 2 Phonology (5658) THE DIFFERENCE IN THE STRESS PATTERNS BETWEEN THE NOUN AND VERB FORMS Mrs Ishrat Aamer Qureshi Student of Diploma TEFL Roll No : AP504192 Department of English, Alama Iqbal

More information

The Open University s repository of research publications and other research outputs

The Open University s repository of research publications and other research outputs Open Research Online The Open University s repository of research publications and other research outputs Stress and : Acoustic correlates of metrical prominence in Catalan Conference Item How to cite:

More information

Stricture and Nasal Place Assimilation. Jaye Padgett

Stricture and Nasal Place Assimilation. Jaye Padgett Stricture and Nasal Place Assimilation Jaye Padgett Stricture Stricture features determine the degree of constriction in the vocal tract; [son], [ cons], [cont] [-cont]: Verschluss im mediosagittalen Bereich

More information

Literacy and prosody The case of low literate Senegalese learners of L2 Italian

Literacy and prosody The case of low literate Senegalese learners of L2 Italian Literacy and prosody The case of low literate Senegalese learners of L2 Italian Marta Maffia and Anna De Meo University of Naples L Orientale LESLLA Conference Nijmegen, 28 30 August 2014 Outline of the

More information

Lecture 2-5: Formant Transitions

Lecture 2-5: Formant Transitions Lecture 2-5: Formant Transitions Overview 1. Stationary and Dynamic sounds: so far we have been concerned with sounds such as monophthongs and fricatives for which the quality does not rely on a moving

More information

Vowel Length Contrast and Word Stress in Somali-Accented Swedish

Vowel Length Contrast and Word Stress in Somali-Accented Swedish Proceedings of the International Symposium on the Acquisition of Second Language Speech Concordia Working Papers in Applied Linguistics, 5, 2014 2014 COPAL Vowel Length Contrast and Word Stress in Somali-Accented

More information

Thirukkural - A Text-to-Speech Synthesis System

Thirukkural - A Text-to-Speech Synthesis System Thirukkural - A Text-to-Speech Synthesis System G. L. Jayavardhana Rama, A. G. Ramakrishnan, M Vijay Venkatesh, R. Murali Shankar Department of Electrical Engg, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012,

More information

L3: Organization of speech sounds

L3: Organization of speech sounds L3: Organization of speech sounds Phonemes, phones, and allophones Taxonomies of phoneme classes Articulatory phonetics Acoustic phonetics Speech perception Prosody Introduction to Speech Processing Ricardo

More information

Are Pitch Contour and Quantity Independent Distinctive Features in Bosnian Serbian?

Are Pitch Contour and Quantity Independent Distinctive Features in Bosnian Serbian? Are Pitch Contour and Quantity Independent Distinctive Features in Bosnian Serbian? IKP-Arbeitsbericht NF 14 Petra Wagner and Jelena Mandić pwa@ikp.uni-bonn.de This study investigates the independent phonological

More information

Speech Production 2. Paper 9: Foundations of Speech Communication Lent Term: Week 4. Katharine Barden

Speech Production 2. Paper 9: Foundations of Speech Communication Lent Term: Week 4. Katharine Barden Speech Production 2 Paper 9: Foundations of Speech Communication Lent Term: Week 4 Katharine Barden Today s lecture Prosodic-segmental interdependencies Models of speech production Articulatory phonology

More information

Text To Speech Conversion Using Different Speech Synthesis

Text To Speech Conversion Using Different Speech Synthesis INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SCIENTIFIC & TECHNOLOGY RESEARCH VOLUME 4, ISSUE 7, JULY 25 ISSN 2277-866 Text To Conversion Using Different Synthesis Hay Mar Htun, Theingi Zin, Hla Myo Tun Abstract: Text to

More information

Towards a Typology of English Accents

Towards a Typology of English Accents Towards a Typology of English Accents The Speech Accent Archive and STAT Steven H. Weinberger George Mason University Stephen Kunath Georgetown University http://accent.gmu.edu Outline Archive architecture

More information

Linguistics 45: Phonetics & Phonology

Linguistics 45: Phonetics & Phonology Alderete/Ling 45/syllabus 1 Linguistics 45: Phonetics & Phonology Classroom: Kohlberg 302 (also Dupont 138); TTh 2:40-3:55 Instructor: John Alderete Contact Information Office: 102 Pearson Phone: x6863,

More information

The Effect of Anticipatory Coariticulation in VCV Sequences in Chinese

The Effect of Anticipatory Coariticulation in VCV Sequences in Chinese International Journal of Engineering Inventions e-issn: 2278-7461, p-issn: 2319-6491 Volume 2, Issue 12 (August 2013) PP: 17-22 The Effect of Anticipatory Coariticulation in VCV Sequences in Chinese Maolin

More information

Articulatory Phonetics. and the International Phonetic Alphabet. Readings and Other Materials. Introduction. The Articulatory System

Articulatory Phonetics. and the International Phonetic Alphabet. Readings and Other Materials. Introduction. The Articulatory System Supplementary Readings Supplementary Readings Handouts Online Tutorials The following readings have been posted to the Moodle course site: Contemporary Linguistics: Chapter 2 (pp. 15-33) Handouts for This

More information

The Linguistics, Phonology, and Phonetics Perspective

The Linguistics, Phonology, and Phonetics Perspective Oxford Scholarship Online You are looking at 1-10 of 12 items for: fulltext : science social point value major theories effect human linphon The Linguistics, Phonology, and Phonetics Perspective Mark Tatham

More information

Things to remember when transcribing speech

Things to remember when transcribing speech Notes and discussion Things to remember when transcribing speech David Crystal University of Reading Until the day comes when this journal is available in an audio or video format, we shall have to rely

More information

Progress Report Spring 20XX

Progress Report Spring 20XX Progress Report Spring 20XX Client: XX C.A.: 7 years Date of Birth: January 1, 19XX Address: Somewhere Phone 555-555-5555 Referral Source: UUUU Graduate Clinician: XX, B.A. Clinical Faculty: XX, M.S.,

More information

Part II Phonology. 2. Segmentals Vowels and Diphthongs. 3. Suprasegmentals Words Accents, Sentence Tonic, Rhythm

Part II Phonology. 2. Segmentals Vowels and Diphthongs. 3. Suprasegmentals Words Accents, Sentence Tonic, Rhythm Part II Phonology 1. Segmentals Consonants 2. Segmentals Vowels and Diphthongs 3. Suprasegmentals Words Accents, Sentence Tonic, Rhythm 4. Suprasegmentals Tones and Intonations The English Consonants Stops

More information

LING 220 LECTURE #4. PHONETICS: THE SOUNDS OF LANGUAGE (continued) VOICE ONSET TIME (=VOICE LAG) AND ASPIRATION

LING 220 LECTURE #4. PHONETICS: THE SOUNDS OF LANGUAGE (continued) VOICE ONSET TIME (=VOICE LAG) AND ASPIRATION LING 220 LECTURE #4 PHONETICS: THE SOUNDS OF LANGUAGE (continued) VOICE ONSET TIME (=VOICE LAG) AND ASPIRATION VOICE ONSET TIME (VOT): the moment at which the voicing starts relative to the release of

More information

Consonants Vs. Vowels. Consonants. Place of Articulation. Formant Frequencies. Source-Filter Theory of Speech Production

Consonants Vs. Vowels. Consonants. Place of Articulation. Formant Frequencies. Source-Filter Theory of Speech Production The Acoustics of Speech Production: Consonants Source-Filter Theory of Speech Production Source Filter Speech Speech production can be divided into two independent parts Sources of sound (i.e., signals)

More information

L2 EXPERIENCE MODULATES LEARNERS USE OF CUES IN THE PERCEPTION OF L3 TONES

L2 EXPERIENCE MODULATES LEARNERS USE OF CUES IN THE PERCEPTION OF L3 TONES L2 EXPERIENCE MODULATES LEARNERS USE OF CUES IN THE PERCEPTION OF L3 TONES Zhen Qin, Allard Jongman Department of Linguistics, University of Kansas, United States qinzhenquentin2@ku.edu, ajongman@ku.edu

More information

Section Handout 10/24/2008

Section Handout 10/24/2008 Section Handout 10/24/2008 Vowels Acoustic-Phonetics: At any given time in the production of a vowel, the spectrum of the sound radiated from the lips can be found from the product of the excitation (source)

More information

From Sounds to Language. CS 4706 Julia Hirschberg

From Sounds to Language. CS 4706 Julia Hirschberg From Sounds to Language CS 4706 Julia Hirschberg Studying Linguistic Sounds Who studies speech sounds? Linguists (phoneticians, phonologists, forensic), speech engineers (ASR, speaker id, dialect and language

More information

Linguistics 203 Phonology 9/10/2010

Linguistics 203 Phonology 9/10/2010 Linguistics 203 Phonology 9/10/2010 Key Words / Concepts Phonology vs. phonetics Phoneme vs. allophone Distribution types: contrastive / complimentary / free variation Distinctive feature Minimal Pair

More information

STRESSED VOWEL DURATION AND PHONEMIC LENGTH CONTRAST

STRESSED VOWEL DURATION AND PHONEMIC LENGTH CONTRAST Research in Language, 2012, vol. 10.2 DOI 10.2478/v10015-011-0049-2 STRESSED VOWEL DURATION AND PHONEMIC LENGTH CONTRAST TOMASZ CISZEWSKI University of Gdańsk Abstract It has been generally accepted that

More information

7.2. The structure of the syllable. Phonotactic constraints

7.2. The structure of the syllable. Phonotactic constraints Chapter 7: Beyond the segment: yllable structure in English 7.1. The yllable: a fundamental phonological unit in any language. A tentative definition 7.2. The structure of the syllable. Phonotactic constraints

More information

LINGUISTICS 321 Lecture #6 Phonology. BETWEEN THE SEGMENT AND THE SYLLABLE (Part 1) Example: In Polish, stress falls on the penultimate syllable.

LINGUISTICS 321 Lecture #6 Phonology. BETWEEN THE SEGMENT AND THE SYLLABLE (Part 1) Example: In Polish, stress falls on the penultimate syllable. LINGUISTICS 321 Lecture #6 Phonology BETWEEN THE SEGMENT AND THE SYLLABLE (Part 1) 1. THE SYLLABLE SPE: The phonological representation consists of linear strings of segments with no hierarchical organization.

More information

'Phonetics' is the study of pronunciation. Other designations for this field of inquiry include 'speech

'Phonetics' is the study of pronunciation. Other designations for this field of inquiry include 'speech Phonetics 'Phonetics' is the study of pronunciation. Other designations for this field of inquiry include 'speech science' or the 'phonetic sciences' (the plural is important) and 'phonology.' Some prefer

More information

. Niparko, J. K. (2006). Speech Recognition at 1-Year Follow-Up in the Childhood

. Niparko, J. K. (2006). Speech Recognition at 1-Year Follow-Up in the Childhood Psychology 230: Research Methods Lab A Katie Berg, Brandon Geary, Gina Scharenbroch, Haley Schmidt, & Elizabeth Stevens Introduction: Overview: A training program, under the lead of Professor Jeremy Loebach,

More information

Learning to Recognize Talkers from Natural, Sinewave, and Reversed Speech Samples

Learning to Recognize Talkers from Natural, Sinewave, and Reversed Speech Samples Learning to Recognize Talkers from Natural, Sinewave, and Reversed Speech Samples Presented by: Pankaj Rajan Graduate Student, Department of Computer Sciences. Texas A&M University, College Station Agenda

More information

Vowel formant trajectory patterns for shared vowels of American English and Korean

Vowel formant trajectory patterns for shared vowels of American English and Korean 1!"#$% &'()% * +,% * + -%./0102% % 334%156% Vowel formant trajectory patterns for shared vowels of American English and Korean Chung, Hyunju 1)! Kong, Eun Jong, 2)! Weismer, G.ary 3) ABSTRACT The purpose

More information

Prosody and Intonation / April 14, 2005 Ted Gibson

Prosody and Intonation / April 14, 2005 Ted Gibson Prosody and Intonation 9.59 / 24.905 April 14, 2005 Ted Gibson Prosody and Intonation Definition of prosody Intonation: pitch and boundaries Timing within intonation phrases Stress Intonational phrasing

More information

An acoustic analysis of voicing in American English dental fricatives

An acoustic analysis of voicing in American English dental fricatives An acoustic analysis of voicing in American English dental fricatives Bridget Smith Ohio State University In this study, an acoustic analysis of the dental fricatives as produced by American English speakers

More information

The syllable as emerging unit of information, processing, production

The syllable as emerging unit of information, processing, production The syllable as emerging unit of information, processing, production September 27-29, 2012 Dartmouth College, Hanover NH Neukom Institute for Computational Science; Linguistics and Cognitive Science Program

More information

HMM Speech Recognition. Words: Pronunciations and Language Models. Pronunciation dictionary. Out-of-vocabulary (OOV) rate.

HMM Speech Recognition. Words: Pronunciations and Language Models. Pronunciation dictionary. Out-of-vocabulary (OOV) rate. HMM Speech Recognition ords: Pronunciations and Language Models Recorded Speech Decoded Text (Transcription) Steve Renals Acoustic Features Acoustic Model Automatic Speech Recognition ASR Lecture 9 January-March

More information

Computational Psycholinguistics. Lecture 9: Models of Spoken-Word Recognition

Computational Psycholinguistics. Lecture 9: Models of Spoken-Word Recognition Computational Psycholinguistics Lecture 9: Models of Spoken-Word Recognition Andrea Weber aweber@coli.uni-sb.de Computerlinguistik Universität des Saarlandes Overview lectures This week: Short summary

More information

Bachelors of Science Program in Communication Disorders and Sciences:

Bachelors of Science Program in Communication Disorders and Sciences: Bachelors of Science Program in Communication Disorders and Sciences: Mission: The SIUC CDS program is committed to multiple complimentary missions. We provide support for, and align with, the university,

More information

Subphonemic and Suballophonic Consonant Variation: The Role of the Phoneme Inventory

Subphonemic and Suballophonic Consonant Variation: The Role of the Phoneme Inventory Subphonemic and Suballophonic Consonant Variation: The Role of the Phoneme Inventory Lisa M. Lavoie Research Laboratory of Electronics, Speech Communication Group Massachusetts Institute of Technology

More information

Perception of Flaps in American English and Korean

Perception of Flaps in American English and Korean Perception of Flaps in American English and Korean Eun-kyung Sung University of Delaware 1. Introduction Linguistic experience influences the mind of a listener. Listeners pick up the same acoustic signals

More information

Influences on articulatory timing in consonant sequences

Influences on articulatory timing in consonant sequences Journal of Phonetics (1996) 24, 29 244 Influences on articulatory timing in consonant sequences Dani Byrd* UCLA Department of Linguistics Recei ed 1 5 th October 1 9 9 4, and in re ised form 8 th August

More information

LING 520 Introduction to Phonetics I Fall Week 1. Introduction Anatomy of speech production Consonants and vowels Phonetic transcription

LING 520 Introduction to Phonetics I Fall Week 1. Introduction Anatomy of speech production Consonants and vowels Phonetic transcription LING 520 Introduction to Phonetics I Fall 2008 Week 1 Introduction Anatomy of speech production Consonants and vowels Phonetic transcription Sep. 8, 2008 What is phonetics? 2 Phonetics is the study of

More information

Vowel formant trajectory patterns for shared vowels of American English and Korean

Vowel formant trajectory patterns for shared vowels of American English and Korean 1 말소리와음성과학제 X 권제 X 호 (2010) pp. 1~7 Vowel formant trajectory patterns for shared vowels of American English and Korean Chung, Hyunju 1) Kong, Eun Jong, 2) Weismer, G.ary 3) ABSTRACT The purpose of this

More information

The Production of English Noun-verb Stress Contrast in Rising Intonation by Taiwanese EFL Learners 國立中山大學外文所程筱雯 ABSTRACT

The Production of English Noun-verb Stress Contrast in Rising Intonation by Taiwanese EFL Learners 國立中山大學外文所程筱雯 ABSTRACT The Production of English Noun-verb Stress Contrast in Rising Intonation by Taiwanese EFL Learners 國立中山大學外文所程筱雯 ABSTRACT The present study aims to investigate how the acoustic cues (i.e., mean pitch, duration,

More information

Relationship Between Acoustic Measures and Judgements of Intelligibility in Parkinson s Disease: A Within-Speaker Approach

Relationship Between Acoustic Measures and Judgements of Intelligibility in Parkinson s Disease: A Within-Speaker Approach Relationship Between Acoustic Measures and Judgements of Intelligibility in Parkinson s Disease: A Within-Speaker Approach Lynda Feenaughty, Kris Tjaden, & Joan Sussman Clinical Linguistics and Phonetics,

More information

An analysis of coding consistency in the transcription of spontaneous. speech from the Buckeye corpus

An analysis of coding consistency in the transcription of spontaneous. speech from the Buckeye corpus An analysis of coding consistency in the transcription of spontaneous speech from the Buckeye corpus William D. Raymond Ohio State University 1. Introduction Large corpora of speech that have been supplemented

More information

Invariance and Vowels

Invariance and Vowels Invariance and Vowels Vowels are cued by the frequencies of the first three formants. Duration, fundamental frequency and the shape of the short-term spectrum are acoustic correlates of vowel identity.

More information

Master of Arts in Linguistics Syllabus

Master of Arts in Linguistics Syllabus Master of Arts in Linguistics Syllabus Applicants shall hold a Bachelor s degree with Honours of this University or another qualification of equivalent standard from this University or from another university

More information

Pronunciation Difficulties of Japanese Speakers of English: Predictions Based on a Contrastive Analysis Steven W. Carruthers

Pronunciation Difficulties of Japanese Speakers of English: Predictions Based on a Contrastive Analysis Steven W. Carruthers 17 Pronunciation Difficulties of Japanese Speakers of English: Predictions Based on a Contrastive Analysis Steven W. Carruthers Abstract A contrastive analysis of English and Japanese phonology can help

More information

Rhythmic Perception, Music and Language: A New Theoretical Framework for Understanding and Remediating Specific Language Impairment

Rhythmic Perception, Music and Language: A New Theoretical Framework for Understanding and Remediating Specific Language Impairment 1 Rhythmic Perception, Music and Language: A New Theoretical Framework for Understanding and Remediating Specific Language Impairment Usha Goswami, Ruth Cumming and Angela Wilson Centre for Neuroscience

More information

Phonotactics. Darrell Larsen. Linguistics 101

Phonotactics. Darrell Larsen. Linguistics 101 Phonotactics Darrell Larsen Linguistics 101 Outline 1 Phonotactics Syllable Structure Constraints Sound Sequence Constraints Resolving Constraint Violations 2 Phonotactics Overview Phonotactics is part

More information

Appositions versus Double Subject Sentences what Information the Speech Analysis brings to a Grammar Debate

Appositions versus Double Subject Sentences what Information the Speech Analysis brings to a Grammar Debate Appositions versus Double Subject Sentences what Information the Speech Analysis brings to a Grammar Debate Horia-Nicolai Teodorescu 1,2 and Diana Trandabăţ 1,3 1 Institute for Computes Science, Romanian

More information

Language. Language. Communication. The use of an organized means of combining i words in order to communicate

Language. Language. Communication. The use of an organized means of combining i words in order to communicate LANGUAGE Language Language The use of an organized means of combining i words in order to communicate Makes it possible for us to communicate with those around us and to think about things and processes

More information

Aspects of Normal Language. COMD 326, Intro. 1

Aspects of Normal Language. COMD 326, Intro. 1 Aspects of Normal Language COMD 326, Intro. 1 Communication - exchanging information and ideas -encoding -transmitting (communication modes) -decoding COMD 326, Intro. 2 transmitting (communication modes)

More information

Acoustic coustic Realization and Perception of English Lexical Stress by Mandarin Learners

Acoustic coustic Realization and Perception of English Lexical Stress by Mandarin Learners Acoustic coustic Realization and Perception of English Lexical Stress by Mandarin Learners Yuwen Lai University of British Columbia University of Kansas Joan Sereno University of Kansas Allard Jongman

More information

Only Prosody? Perception of speech segmentation in Kabyle and Hebrew

Only Prosody? Perception of speech segmentation in Kabyle and Hebrew Only Prosody? Perception of speech segmentation in Kabyle and Hebrew Amina Mettouchi 1, Anne Lacheret-Dujour 2, Vered Silber-Varod 4, Shlomo Izre el 3 1 Laboratoire de Linguistique de Nantes, Université

More information

Building a Better Indian English Voice using More Data

Building a Better Indian English Voice using More Data Building a Better Indian English Voice using More Data Rohit Kumar, Rashmi Gangadharaiah, Sharath Rao, Kishore Prahallad, Carolyn P. Rosé, Alan W. Black Language Technologies Institute Carnegie Mellon

More information

Using pronunciation data as a starting point in modeling word recognition

Using pronunciation data as a starting point in modeling word recognition Using pronunciation data as a starting point in modeling word recognition Mark A. Pitt and Keith Johnson Ohio State University, Columbus, OH E-mail: pitt.2@osu.edu, kjohnson@ling.ohio-state.edu ABSTRACT

More information

Develop Software that Speaks and Listens

Develop Software that Speaks and Listens Develop Software that Speaks and Listens Copyright 2011 Chant Inc. All rights reserved. Chant, SpeechKit, Getting the World Talking with Technology, talking man, and headset are trademarks or registered

More information

Variability in the implementation of voicing in American English obstruents. Lisa Davidson. New York University

Variability in the implementation of voicing in American English obstruents. Lisa Davidson. New York University Variability in the implementation of voicing in American English obstruents Lisa Davidson New York University Running head: Voicing in American English obstruents Address for correspondence: Department

More information

Lecture 12: An Overview of Speech Recognition

Lecture 12: An Overview of Speech Recognition Lecture : An Overview of peech Recognition. Introduction We can classify speech recognition tasks and systems along a set of dimensions that produce various tradeoffs in applicability and robustness. Isolated

More information

RESEARCH ON SPOKEN LANGUAGE PROCESSING Progress Report No. 22 (1998) Indiana University

RESEARCH ON SPOKEN LANGUAGE PROCESSING Progress Report No. 22 (1998) Indiana University THE PHONETICS OF PHONOLOGICAL SPEECH ERRORS RESEARCH ON SPOKEN LANGUAGE PROCESSING Progress Report No. 22 (1998) Indiana University The Phonetics of Phonological Speech Errors: An Acoustic Analysis of

More information

PHONEMIC INVENTORY OF PUNJABI

PHONEMIC INVENTORY OF PUNJABI 179 PHONEMIC INVENTORY OF PUNJABI NAYYARA KARAMAT ABSTRACT Punjabi belongs to Indo-Aryan family. In this paper its phonemic inventory is discussed. Dialect spoken in Lahore region is considered. Documented

More information

Early Phonological Acquisition in a Set of English-Spanish Bilingual Twins. David Ingram, Arizona State University

Early Phonological Acquisition in a Set of English-Spanish Bilingual Twins. David Ingram, Arizona State University 1 Early Phonological Acquisition in a Set of English-Spanish Bilingual Twins David Ingram, Arizona State University Virginia Dubasik, Arizona State University Juana Liceras, University of Ottawa Raquel

More information

Speech Analysis using PRAAT (A brief guide prepared by Pranav Jawale)

Speech Analysis using PRAAT (A brief guide prepared by Pranav Jawale) Speech Analysis using PRAAT (A brief guide prepared by Pranav Jawale) 1. Praat installation Windows users can install the latest version of Praat from http://www.fon.hum.uva.nl/praat/download_win.html

More information

Thai Pronunciation and Phonetic Symbols Prawet Jantharat Ed.D.

Thai Pronunciation and Phonetic Symbols Prawet Jantharat Ed.D. Thai Pronunciation and Phonetic Symbols Prawet Jantharat Ed.D. This guideline contains a number of things concerning the pronunciation of Thai. Thai writing system is a non-roman alphabet system. This

More information

Neurologic Music Therapy Techniques and Definitions

Neurologic Music Therapy Techniques and Definitions Neurologic Music Therapy Techniques and Definitions from Thaut, M. H. (2005). Rhythm, Music and the Brain. New York and London: Taylor and Francis Group Sensorimotor Rehabilitation Rhythmic Auditory Stimulation

More information

The Prosodic Structure in French: Properties and Constraints.

The Prosodic Structure in French: Properties and Constraints. The Prosodic Structure in French: Properties and Constraints. In this lesson we will attempt to formalize the properties of the prosodic structure and define its relationship with the syntactic structure

More information

Differences of Vowel Pronunciation in China English and American English: A Case Study of [i] and [ɪ]

Differences of Vowel Pronunciation in China English and American English: A Case Study of [i] and [ɪ] Sino-US English Teaching, ISSN 1539-8072 February 2013, Vol. 10, No. 2, 154-161 D DAVID PUBLISHING Differences of Vowel Pronunciation in China English and American English: A Case Study of [i] and [ɪ]

More information

English Language Arts and Reading Generalist EC 6 Standards. Final

English Language Arts and Reading Generalist EC 6 Standards. Final English Language Arts and Reading Generalist EC 6 Standards Final Texas State Board for Educator Certification Page i ENGLISH LANGUAGE ARTS AND READING GENERALIST EC 6 STANDARDS Standard I. Standard II.

More information

Text-To-Speech Technologies for Mobile Telephony Services

Text-To-Speech Technologies for Mobile Telephony Services Text-To-Speech Technologies for Mobile Telephony Services Paulseph-John Farrugia Department of Computer Science and AI, University of Malta Abstract. Text-To-Speech (TTS) systems aim to transform arbitrary

More information

The Sounds of Spanish: Analysis and Application, by Robert M. Hammond Chapter 1 review questions

The Sounds of Spanish: Analysis and Application, by Robert M. Hammond Chapter 1 review questions Chapter 1 review questions 1. What is the difference between positive transfer and negative transfer? 2. What is the difference between a phonological representation and a phonetic representation? 3. In

More information

Phonology Epenthesis. If a person were to look up the word phonology in a dictionary, that person will find

Phonology Epenthesis. If a person were to look up the word phonology in a dictionary, that person will find B r i n k m a n 1 Manda Brinkman Debbie Mitre-Smith SLS 4220 3 February 2015 Phonology Epenthesis If a person were to look up the word phonology in a dictionary, that person will find something similar

More information

Author's Name: Stuart Davis Article Contract Number: 17106A/0180 Article Serial Number: 09-005 Article Title: Loanwords, Phonological Treatment of

Author's Name: Stuart Davis Article Contract Number: 17106A/0180 Article Serial Number: 09-005 Article Title: Loanwords, Phonological Treatment of 1 Author's Name: Stuart Davis Article Contract Number: 17106A/0180 Article Serial Number: 09-005 Article Title: Loanwords, Phonological Treatment of Loanwords, Phonological Treatment of The term loanword

More information

Chapter 5. English Words and Sentences. Ching Kang Liu Language Center National Taipei University

Chapter 5. English Words and Sentences. Ching Kang Liu Language Center National Taipei University Chapter 5 English Words and Sentences Ching Kang Liu Language Center National Taipei University 1 Citation form The strong form and the weak form 1. The form in which a word is pronounced when it is considered

More information

A System for Labeling Self-Repairs in Speech 1

A System for Labeling Self-Repairs in Speech 1 A System for Labeling Self-Repairs in Speech 1 John Bear, John Dowding, Elizabeth Shriberg, Patti Price 1. Introduction This document outlines a system for labeling self-repairs in spontaneous speech.

More information

OCPS Curriculum, Instruction, Assessment Alignment

OCPS Curriculum, Instruction, Assessment Alignment OCPS Curriculum, Instruction, Assessment Alignment Subject Area: Grade: Strand 1: Standard 1: Reading and Language Arts Kindergarten Reading Process The student demonstrates knowledge of the concept of

More information

Intonation difficulties in non-native languages.

Intonation difficulties in non-native languages. Intonation difficulties in non-native languages. Irma Rusadze Akaki Tsereteli State University, Assistant Professor, Kutaisi, Georgia Sopio Kipiani Akaki Tsereteli State University, Assistant Professor,

More information