# Second Midterm for ECE374 04/16/12 Solution!!

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1 ECE374: Second Midterm 1 Second Midterm for ECE374 04/16/12 Solution!! Instructions: Put your name and student number on each sheet of paper! The exam is closed book. You have 90 minutes to complete the exam. Be a smart exam taker - if you get stuck on one problem go on to another problem. Also, don't waste your time giving irrelevant (or not requested) details. The total number of points for each question is given in parenthesis. There are 100 points total. An approximate amount of time that would be reasonable to spend on each question is also given; if you follow the suggested time guidelines, you should finish with 10 minutes to spare. The exam is 90 minutes long. Show all your work. Partial credit is possible for an answer, but only if you show the intermediate steps in obtaining the answer. If you make a mistake, it will also help the grader show you where you made a mistake. Good luck.

3 ECE374: Second Midterm 3 g. An IP subnet is specified by /24. What is the subnet address? What is the maximum number of nodes that can be located in this subnet? To what value would you change the subnet mask if a maximum of 20 nodes were located in this subnet? , 2^8-2=254, 32-5=27 h. What are IP destination and source addresses of a DHCP discover message? What are IP destination and source addresses of a DHCP offer messge? What are the three values that are contained in a DHCP server offer message? destination: , source: destination: , source: actual DHCP server IP address IP address for client, network mask, IP address lease time

4 ECE374: Second Midterm 4 Problem 2: Routing (24 Points, 20 minutes) A 12 F O 5 B 4 D 5 G C 4 E Consider the network shown above. a. (7 Points) Show the operation of Dijkstra s (LinkState) algorithm for computing the least cost path from O to all destinations. N O D(A), P(A) D(B), P(B) D(C), P(C) D(D), P(D) D(E), P(E) D(F), P(F) D(E), P(E) N D(A), P(A) D(B), P(B) D(C), P(C) D(D), P(D) D(E), P(E) D(F), P(F) D(E), P(E) O 2,O 5,O 4,O Inf Inf Inf Inf OA - 4,A 4,O 9,A Inf 14,A Inf OAB - - 4,O 8,B 7,B 14,A Inf OABC ,B 7,B 14,A Inf OABCE ,B - 14,A 14,E OABCED ,A 13,D OABCEDG ,A - b. (7 Points) From these results, show the least cost path from O to nodes A- G, and briefly describe (in a sentence) how you got that answer from your work in part a).

5 ECE374: Second Midterm 5 O- A O- B O- C O- D 0- E O- F O- G OA OAB OC OABD OABE OAF OABDG c. (4 Points) What are the distance vectors in nodes B and D? Note: you do not have to run the distance vector algorithm; you should be able to compute distance vectors by inspection. [DB(O)=4, DB(A)=2, DB(C)=1, DB(D)=4, DB(E)=3, DB(F)=12, DB(G)=9] [DD(O)=8, DD(A)=6, DD(B)=4, DD(C)=5, DD(E)=2, DD(F)=8, DD(G)=5] d. (6 Points) Now, consider a network in which all nodes are connected to four other nodes. In a single time step, a node can receive all transmitted broadcast packets from its neighbors, duplicate the packets, and send them to all of its neighbors (except to the node that sent a given packet). At the next time step, neighboring nodes can receive, duplicate, and forward these packets, and so on. Suppose that uncontrolled flooding is used to provide broadcast in such a network. At time step t, how many copies of the broadcast packet will be transmitted, assuming that during time step 1, a single broadcast packet is transmitted by the source node to its three neighbors. After 1 step 4 copies are transmitted, after 2 steps 12 copies are transmitted. After 3 steps, 36 copies are transmitted, and so on. After k steps, 4*3^k- 1 copies will be transmitted in that step.

6 ECE374: Second Midterm 6 Problem 3: Wireless (20 Points, 15 minutes) The figure below shows three wireless nodes and their transmission ranges. (A and C use directional antennas and can communicate with B but not with each other.) a. (4 Points) Use the figure below to explain the hidden node problem. What happens when nodes A and C start sending a message simultaneously? A cannot detect a transmission from C and vice versa. If A and C start sending simultaneously to B a collision at B will happen but A and C will not become aware of the collision. b. (8 Points) Use the diagram below to explain how CSMA/CA is realized in the case of the IEEE protocol. For your explanation, assume that A wants to send a frame to the destination. See diagram below c. (4 Points) Why are acknowledgements used in but not in wired Ethernet? Usually no packet loss in wired Ethernet. This is much more likely in a wireless scenario. Robustness is increased through retransmissions. To be able to perform retransmissions ACKs are required. d. (4 Points) Why does the protocol require sequence numbers? Because ACKs can get lost, the sender may send multiple copies of a given frame. Sequence numbers allow a receiver to distinguish between a newly transmitted frame and a retransmitted one. A B C

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