# Physics/Science *P41764A0120* Edexcel GCSE P41764A. Unit P1: Universal Physics. Higher Tier. Thursday 8 November 2012 Morning Time: 1 hour

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2 FORMULAE You may find the following formulae useful. wave speed = frequency wavelength v = f wave speed = distance time v = x t electrical power = current potential difference P = I V cost of electricity = power time cost of 1 kilowatt-hour power = energy used time taken E P = t (useful energy transferred by the device) efficiency = 100% (total energy supplied to the device) primary voltage secondary voltage = number of turns on primary coil number of turns on secondary coil V V p s N = N p s 2 *P41764A0220*

4 (c) Which of these ionising radiations is from a radioactive source and is also part of the electromagnetic spectrum? Put a cross ( ) in the box next to your answer. A alpha particles B C beta particles gamma rays D X-rays (d) An X-ray of wavelength 2.0 nm has a frequency of Hz. 1.0 nm = m Calculate the speed of the wave. speed =... m/s (Total for Question 1 = 8 marks) 4 *P41764A0420*

5 Solar energy 2 There are two types of solar panels. One type of solar panel uses the Sun s energy to heat water. The other type uses solar cells to produce electricity. (a) The diagram shows solar panels in a system used to heat water for a house. Cold water goes into the panels and is heated by energy from the Sun. Solar hot water system sunlight solar panels heated water cold water supply controller cold water heat exchanger (i) Complete the sentence by putting a cross ( ) in the box next to your answer. The solar heating panels are painted black because A B C black is a good absorber of heat black is a good conductor of heat black is a good radiator of heat D black is a good reflector of heat *P41764A0520* 5 Turn over

6 (ii) On one sunny day no hot water is used in the house. The water in the panels reaches a constant temperature even though the water is still absorbing energy from the Sun. Explain why the temperature of the water in the panels becomes constant. (3) (b) The photograph shows a solar farm which uses many thousands of solar cells to generate electricity. 6 *P41764A0620*

7 (i) Which energy transfer takes place in a solar cell? Put a cross ( ) in the box next to your answer. A chemical to electrical B C electrical to light electrical to chemical D light to electrical (ii) A large solar farm has solar panels and generates 5.0 MW of power. 1.0 MW = W Calculate the average power each panel produces. average power produced by each panel =... W *P41764A0720* 7 Turn over

8 (iii) The solar farm receives 25 MW of power from the Sun to generate 5 MW of electrical power. Calculate the efficiency of the solar farm. efficiency =... (Total for Question 2 = 9 marks) 8 *P41764A0820*

9 Refraction and telescopes 3 The diagram shows a ray of light incident on a glass block. D C B A (a) (i) At which point is the ray of light shown likely to leave the glass block? Put a cross ( A B C D ) in the box next to your answer. (ii) Complete the sentence by putting a cross ( ) in the box next to your answer. The ray of light changes direction when it enters the glass block because there is a change of A B C amplitude frequency speed D energy *P41764A0920* 9 Turn over

10 (b) A student uses a lens to form a clear image of a house. The image is formed on a piece of paper. The house is a long way away. Describe how the student should find the focal length of the lens. (c) Galileo used a telescope to observe Jupiter. His observations provided evidence to support the idea that the Earth is not the centre of the Universe. Explain how Galileo s observations supported this idea. 10 *P41764A01020*

11 (d) A student looked for information about telescopes on the Internet. He found this equation for the magnification of a simple telescope. magnification = focal length of lens furthest from the eye (the objective) focal length of lens nearest the eye (the eyepiece) The information sheet given with a simple telescope states: the magnification is 40 times ( 40) the focal length of the objective is 110 cm. Calculate the focal length of the eyepiece. (3) focal length of eyepiece =... cm (Total for Question 3 = 9 marks) *P41764A01120* 11 Turn over

12 Transformers 4 A small notebook computer has a power rating of 40 W. The computer is connected to the mains supply through a step-down transformer. The mains supply is a.c. (a) (i) How much energy is supplied to the computer each second? Put a cross ( A J ) in the box next to your answer. B C 4.0 J 40 J D 240 J (ii) Sketch an alternating current on the axes shown. current 0 time 12 *P41764A01220*

13 (b) The step-down transformer has: 2400 turns on the primary coil 200 turns on the secondary coil a primary voltage of 230 V. Calculate the voltage output of the secondary coil. (3) secondary voltage =... V (c) (i) Explain how transformers are used to improve the efficiency of power transmission in the National Grid. (3) (ii) Explain why flying a kite near power lines could be a danger to the person flying the kite. (Total for Question 4 = 10 marks) *P41764A01320* 13 Turn over

14 5 Ultrasound has many different applications. Ultrasound (a) (i) Complete the sentence by putting a cross ( ) in the box next to your answer. Ultrasound is used for A cooking B C communication between animals communication with satellites D detecting forged bank notes (ii) Explain why ultrasound rather than X-rays are used for foetal scanning. (b) An ultrasound wave vibrates times a second. (i) State the frequency of the wave. (ii) Describe the motion of particles in a material when this ultrasound wave passes through. 14 *P41764A01420*

15 *(c) Explain how sonar is used by deep sea fishermen to detect the depth of a shoal of fish below the surface of the sea. (6) (Total for Question 5 = 12 marks) *P41764A01520* 15 Turn over

16 BLANK PAGE 16 *P41764A01620*

17 The Solar System 6 Not all electromagnetic radiation coming from space reaches the Earth s surface. The diagram shows how far radiation from each part of the electromagnetic spectrum travels down through the atmosphere. altitude/ kilometres radio waves microwaves far infrared infrared X-rays gamma rays visible light ultraviolet (a) (i) Name one type of radiation that can reach the surface of the Earth from stars. (ii) Name one type of radiation from stars that cannot be detected at the Earth s surface but can be detected using satellites. *P41764A01720* 17 Turn over

18 (b) Bode, a scientist, found a rule predicting the distance of objects from the Sun. The chart shows the mean distances from the Sun predicted by Bode s rule. 80 mean distance from the Sun in astronomical units (A.U.) Me V E Ma A J S U N P objects in order of distance away from the Sun [Me Mercury; V Venus; E Earth; Ma Mars; A Asteroid Belt; J Jupiter; S Saturn; U Uranus; N Neptune; P Pluto] (i) Read, from the chart, the predicted values for the distance from the Sun to Neptune and from the Sun to Pluto. Sun to Neptune... Sun to Pluto *P41764A01820*

19 (ii) Bode s rule works well for all objects between Mercury and Uranus. From scientific measurements, however, the actual mean distance from the Sun to Neptune is 30 A.U. Some scientists think that Neptune was not part of the original Solar System. Explain how the predicted value for Neptune supports the view of these scientists. *(c) Scientists are using a variety of methods to search for life beyond Earth. Discuss the problems involved in using these methods. (6) (Total for Question 6 = 12 marks) TOTAL FOR PAPER = 60 MARKS *P41764A01920* 19

20 BLANK PAGE 20 *P41764A02020*

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