1 1 Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM) Concepts and Components Stavros Iezekiel Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering University of Cyprus HMY 455 Lecture 14 Fall Semester 2014
2 2 THE CONCEPT OF WAVELENGTH DIVISION MULTIPLEXING
3 3 In the history of optical fibre communications, multiplexing has played an important role in exploiting the bandwidth potential of this medium. TDM
4 4 Multiplexing is an old technique, having been widely used in radio communications and telephony, for example. The aim is for multiple channels to share the same medium. Frequency division multiplexing (FDM) Time division multiplexing (TDM)
5 Early generations of optical fibre links used single-wavelengths, and multiplexing was performed in the time-domain (TDM). However, the development of EDFAs has made available a large enough spectral bandwidth so as to enable wavelength division multiplexing (WDM). 5
6 WHY WDM? 6
7 In the 1550 nm window, there is several THz of potential bandwidth, some of which also coincides with the spectral gain profile of an EDFA 7
8 8 In early generations of optical fibre communication systems, only a single wavelength was used, i.e. a very small fraction of the available optical bandwidth in fibre N.B. Optical sources can only be modulated to a few tens of GHz (or Gb/s) at the very most. For example, 40 Gb/s is considered a high end spec. These limitations can be overcome with wavelength division multiplexing(wdm), in which many different wavelengths share the same fibre. In early WDM, wavelengths were widely separated. The ITU G standard for coarse WDM (CWDM) uses the wavelengths from 1270nm through 1610nm with a channel spacing of 20nm.Most CWDM systems cannot be supported by EDFAs and so cover short ranges. In dense WDM (DWDM), the channel spacing is much closer (e.g. the G frequency grid, in which wavelengths are positioned in a grid having exactly 100GHz (about 0.8nm) spacing in optical frequency, with a reference frequency fixed at THz (1, nm).
9 9 Optical amplifiers allow amplification over a wide enough wavelength range to support many wavelength channels, each one of which can carry the same signal or be modulated separately: 2.0 Attenuation (db/km) λ (nm) 100 GHz spacing (0.8 nm) λ (nm) A spacing of 25 GHz has also been demonstrated, leading to a 160 channel system. Wavelength spacing will be limited by laser spectral width and optical filter bandwidth.
10 10 Advantageous features of WDM include: Capacity upgrades. If each wavelength can support a bit rate of B T (e.g. 40 Gb/s), then system capacity is increased by a factor of Nby using N wavelengths. It is possible to upgrade a link by upgrading the terminal equipment, not by replacing the fibre. Transparency. Each optical channel (i.e. wavelength) can support any signal format (e.g. digital or analogue, time-division multiplexed etc.) Wavelength rerouting and switching. Can switch wavelengths and route signals by wavelength, adding an extra dimension to network design.
11 11 WDM point-to-point link In effect, each wavelength channel is like a separate link TX1 TX2 TX3 λ 1 λ 1 λ 2 EDFA λ 2 λ 3 λ 3 MUX DMUX RX1 RX2 RX3 λ 1, λ 2, λ 3... λ N TXN λ N λ N RXN Multiplexer Demultiplexer Tuneable laser diodes, bit rate of B T. (or laser diodes with different fixed wavelengths) Optical receivers
12 WDMCOMPONENTS 12
13 WDM Components TX1 λ 1 λ 1 RX1 TX2 λ 2 λ 2 RX2 TX3 λ 3 λ 3 MUX DMUX RX3 λ 1, λ 2, λ 3... λ N TXN λ N λ N RXN WDM Multiplexer used to combine several different wavelengths onto one fibre; should have low insertion loss.
14 WDM Components TX1 λ 1 λ 1 RX1 TX2 λ 2 λ 2 RX2 TX3 λ 3 λ 3 MUX DMUX RX3 λ 1, λ 2, λ 3... λ N TXN λ N λ N RXN WDM demultiplexer used to remove several different wavelengths from one fibre; need low loss and high selectivity.
15 TX1 TX2 TX3 WDM Components λ 1 λ 1 λ 2 EDFA λ 2 λ 3 λ 3 MUX DMUX RX1 RX2 RX3 λ 1, λ 2, λ 3... λ N TXN λ N λ N RXN Optical amplifier (EDFA) provides amplification over wavelength window at 1550 nm need broad spectral bandwidth, low crosstalk & flat gain
16 TX1 TX2 TX3 WDM Components λ 1 λ 1 λ 2 EDFA λ 2 λ 3 λ 3 MUX DMUX RX1 RX2 RX3 λ 1, λ 2, λ 3... λ N TXN λ N λ N RXN Tuneable laser diodes need large wavelength tuning range, high-speed tunability, high data rate transmission, rigid wavelength stability and repeatability.
17 WDM Components: Filters Tuneable optical filter: used to filter out a single wavelength for a photodetector to produce a tuneable receiver: Input λ Passband tuned to third wavelength Output λ
18 Tuneable filter: Fabry-Perot resonator Mirror E(0) RE(d) Mirror: reflectivity R Input light R 2 E(2d) Output light d Piezoelectric transducer Round-trip phase condition: 2kd = 2mπ m = integer. λ 2 0 2d 1 Transmission channel 2 selected λ
19 TX1 TX2 TX3 WDM Broadcast & Select Link λ 1 λ 1 λ 1 λ 2 EDFA λ 2 λ 3 λ 1 MUX 1 N RX1 RX2 RX3 TXN λ N λ 5 RXN 1 Ncoupler: all input wavelengths on each o/p fibre, but at 1/Npower has 10 log NdB loss Optical receivers can tune in to any broadcast wavelength
20 WDM Components: 2 2 fused-fibre coupler
21 P 0 P 1 P 3 P 2 Splitting ratio = P 1 P + P % e.g. 50% split is equivalent to 3 db coupler Excess loss = 10 log 10 P 1 P0 + P 2 Ideally, require 0 db excess loss Insertion loss = 10 log 10 Pi P j Crosstalk = 10 log 10 P P 3 0 Ideally, require - db crosstalk
22 Passive N Nstar coupler P 1 P 2 N N Power split out equally amongst all output fibres; power in any one output is: (P 1 + P P N ) P N N N/B. All input wavelengths are multiplexed onto each output
23 1 Splitting loss = 10log = 10 N 10 log 10 N Fibre star excess loss = 10 log 10 N i= 1 P P IN OUT, i Expressions for insertion loss and crosstalk same as for 2 2 coupler
24 Fused-fiber star coupler Made by twisting, heating and pulling fibres to fuse them together Star coupler made from 2 2 (3-dB) couplers: P IN 0.25P IN 0.25P IN 0.25P IN 0.25P IN
25 WDM Components: Add/drop MUX Add/drop multiplexers for selective wavelength routing/extraction: Add λ add Input λ λ add λ Drop Input λ λ drop λ
28 WDM LANs: Basic Architectures Passive star configuration TX RX λ 1 λ 2 TX RX Star Coupler λ 3 TX λ N RX TX RX
29 Examples of WDM Local Area Networks (i) LAMBDANET λ 1 λ 16 Node 1 λ STAR COUPLER Node 16 Node 2 λ 3 λ 4 λ 5 Node 3 Node 4 Node 5
30 Individual LAMBDANET node: Electronics interface Laser λ 1 Photoreceivers WDM DMUX In LAMBDANET, each node is equipped with one fixed transmitter (DFB laser) emitting a unique wavelength and Nfixed receivers. (N= no. of nodes in the network). Incoming wavelengths are separated using a wavelength demultiplexer, and each individual wavelength is sent to a photoreceiver. Each node s transmitter is fixed on that node s home wavelength.
31 No tuneable components needed: relatively simple system to build. Other advantage is contention-free broadcast capability and support for one-to-one links as well as multicasting. Disadvantage: not easily scaleable, needs Ndata wavelengths for Nnodes cost per node is high.
32 (ii) Rainbow (IBM) NODE 1 λ 1 λ 2 LASER TX. TUNABLE FILTER RX. STAR COUPLER NODE 2 λ 1,λ 2. λ N λ 1,λ 2. λ N λ N λ 1,λ 2. λ N NODE N Broadcast and select architecture. Each node broadcasts a unique wavelength and is able to select any one of the wavelengths present in the network via a tuneable filter.
33 Protocol used to set up connections is as follows: (a) Idle receivers continually scan across all wavelengths. (b) If node wishes to transmit to node, then it continually sends a request(using λ 1 ) to for a connection. (c) When detects the request from, it locks its filter onto λ 1. (d) Node then sends a connection accept (using λ 2 ) to node. (e) When detects s acceptance, it locks its filter to λ 2, and a full duplex connection is established.
34 LAMBDANET and Rainbow are star topologies with N wavelengths assigned to Nnodes (i.e. no wavelength re-use). Alternative topologies are possible, e.g. chain and ring. The following diagram shows a four-node ring network where add-drop multiplexers (ADM) are employed to allow wavelength re-use.
38 Number of wavelengths added at each node equals the number that are received: all add/drop multiplexers are the same. Advantages: full interconnection between nodes is possible, i.e. any node can talk to any other. One might expect N 2 wavelengths would be needed to achieve this, but by re-using wavelengths as shown above, need far fewer. (e.g. for N= 4, only need 6, not 16).
39 Broadcast & Select Multihop Networks Disadvantage of single-hop networks such as Rainbow is the need for rapidly tuneable lasers or receiver filters. Multi-hop networks overcome this problem by not having a direct connection between all node pairs. This allows each node to have a small number of fixed wavelength transmitters and receivers, i.e. node complexity is reduced.
42 Logical interconnection pattern and wavelength assignment: λ λ 2 λ 5 λ 6 2 λ 3 λ 4 λ λ 8 kcolumns each have p k nodes, where pis the number of fixed transceiver pairs per node. The total number of nodes is then N= kp k The total number of wavelengths is N λ = pn= kp k+ 1 The maximum number of hops needed to reach a given node is H max = 2k-1
43 For example, for p= 2, k =2, we have: 1 λ 1 λ 2 5 λ 9 λ 10 1 Total number of nodes is N= kp k = = λ 3 λ 4 λ λ 11 λ 12 λ Total number of wavelengths is N λ = pn= kp k+ 1 = 16 The maximum number of hops needed to reach a given node is H max = 2k-1 = = 3 λ 6 λ 14 4 λ 7 8 λ 15 4 λ 8 λ 16
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