The GEF Land Degradation Focal Area. Enhancing Ecosystem Services in Production Landscapes. Mohamed I Bakarr GEF Secretariat, Washington DC

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1 The GEF Land Degradation Focal Area Enhancing Ecosystem Services in Production Landscapes Mohamed I Bakarr GEF Secretariat, Washington DC Presented at the GEF/STAP Session on Carbon A valuable global benefit of SLM UNCCD 2 nd Scientific Conference, Bonn, Germany; April 9-12, 2013

2 Land Degradation Focal Area Mandate Finance efforts to arrest and reverse land degradation, specifically desertification and deforestation Focus Sustainable Land Management (SLM) in production landscapes Impacts: Ecosystem service flows increased or maintained Sustained crop, livestock, and forest production Sustainable livelihoods (development benefit)

3 Drylands of the World Arid Semi-arid Dry Sub-humid GEF Projects focusing on SLM Source: UNEP/GRID-Arendal Maps and Graphics Library (http://www.wri.org/publication/content/8236)

4 Sustainable Land Management.a knowledge-based procedure that integrates land, water, biodiversity, and environmental management to meet rising food and fiber demands while sustaining livelihoods and the environment (World Bank 2006).

5 Advancing SLM Implementation Agroforestry Forest Landscape Management Rangeland Management Forest Landscape Restoration Living sand barrier Contour Terrace

6 Multiple Benefits through SLM Ecosystem Services in Production Systems Soil health improvement Land and water conservation Biodiversity conservation - above and below ground Reduced GHG emissions and carbon sequestration Development Climate-resilient production systems Options for household food security and income

7 Multi-focal Area Projects LAND DEGRADATION: Maintain/improve flow of ecosystem services in production systems; Integrated approaches to reduce pressure from competing uses Deliver multiple environmental and social benefits, seeking synergy with BIODIVERSITY: Protected areas, Mainstreaming, and Sustainable use of biodiversity CLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION: Land use, Land use change, and Forestry component for reducing GHG emissions and carbon sequestration CLIMATE CHANGE ADAPTATION (LDCF/SCCF): Adaptation and resilience in the agriculture, livestock, and food security sectors

8 SFM/REDD-plus Program Goal: Achieve multiple environmental benefits from improved management of all types of forests Funding derives from three GEF Focal Areas - Biodiversity, Climate Change and Land Degradation Separate funding envelope created to provide incentive funding for interested countries

9 Typology of LDFA investments LD-stand alone Multifocal area SFM/REDD+ Focus: Agriculture and Rangeland Management China: Sustainable and Climate-Resilient Land Management in Western PRC Pakistan: Sustainable Land Management Program to Combat Desertification Focus: Integrated Landscape Management Ecuador: Promotion of Climate-Smart Livestock Management Kazakhstan: Improving Sustainability of PA System in Desert Ecosystems Focus: Carbon benefits in forests Landscapes Azerbaijan: Sustainable Land and Forest Management in the Greater Caucasus Landscape Kenya: Development of SFM and Support to REDD for Drylands Forests Uzbekistan: Reducing Pressures on Natural Resources from Competing Land Use Turkey: Sustainable Land Management and Climate Friendly Agriculture Mongolia: Securing Forest Ecosystems through Participatory Management and Benefit Sharing

10 Profit per ton of carbon dioxide sequestered (US$) No-tillage Inorganic fertilizer Cover crops Crop residues Rotation intensification Manure Soil amendments Terracing Rainwater harvesting Intercropping Rotation diversification SLM Options Include trees Cross slope barriers Alley farming Afforestation Tree crop farming Carbon dioxide sequestered (ton per hectare per year) Improved fallow Source: World Bank, 2012

11 Scenarios for Soil Organic Carbon SLM+SFM+LULUCF for CC-M Normal or sustainable level of SOC SOC SLM for food security BAU GEF Project with LDFA Resources GEF Project with LD + MFA Resources

12 Looking Ahead - Emerging Global Priorities Food Security improving and increasing food crop production in vulnerable regions Climate-Smart Agriculture enhancing resilience and climate change mitigation in crop and livestock systems Forest Landscape Management and Restoration increasing forest and tree cover

13 Conclusions and Implication LD financing -> leverage investments in SLM to manage soils for food security Investments contribute multiple benefits and create opportunities for cross-focal area synergy Soil management options -> presents challenges for managing tradeoffs Demonstrating environment benefits requires tools for monitoring and measuring -> carbon benefits

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