Designing Cisco Network Service Architectures

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1 ARCH Designing Cisco Network Service Architectures Volume 1 Version 2.0 Student Guide

2 DISCLAIMER WARRANTY: THIS CONTENT IS BEING PROVIDED AS IS. CISCO MAKES AND YOU RECEIVE NO WARRANTIES IN CONNECTION WITH THE CONTENT PROVIDED HEREUNDER, EXPRESS, IMPLIED, STATUTORY OR IN ANY OTHER PROVISION OF THIS CONTENT OR COMMUNICATION BETWEEN CISCO AND YOU. CISCO SPECIFICALLY DISCLAIMS ALL IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY, NON-INFRINGEMENT AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE, OR ARISING FROM A COURSE OF DEALING, USAGE OR TRADE PRACTICE. This learning product may contain early release content, and while Cisco believes it to be accurate, it falls subject to the disclaimer above.

3 Table of Contents Volume 1 Course Introduction... 1 Overview... 1 Learner Skills and Knowledge... 1 Course Goal and Objectives... 3 Course Flow... 4 Additional References... 5 Cisco Glossary of Terms... 6 Your Training Curriculum... 7 Cisco SONA and the Cisco Enterprise Architectures Overview Module Objectives Reviewing SONA and the Cisco Enterprise Architectures 1-3 Overview Objectives The Hierarchical Model Example Hierarchical Network Review of Cisco SONA Benefits of SONA Example: Cisco Enterprise Campus Architecture Review of Cisco Enterprise Architectures Infrastructure Services Application Layer Summary Reviewing the Cisco PPDIOO Approach 1-15 Overview Objectives PPDIOO Network Lifecycle Approach Benefits of the Lifecycle Approach Using the Design Methodology under PPDIOO Identifying Customer Requirements Characterizing the Existing Network and Sites Designing the Topology and Network Solutions Example: Dividing the Network into Areas Summary References Module Summary References Module Self-Check Module Self-Check Answer Key Enterprise Campus Network Design 2-1 Overview 2-1 Module Objectives 2-1 High Availability in the Enterprise Campus 2-3 Overview 2-3 Objectives 2-3 Enterprise Campus Infrastructure Review 2-4 Access Layer 2-4 Distribution Layer 2-6 Core Layer 2-7 High Availability Considerations 2-9 Implement Optimal Redundancy 2-9 Provide Alternate Paths 12-0

4 Avoid Single Points of Failure 2-11 Cisco Nonstop Forwarding with Stateful Switchover 2-12 Cisco IOS Software Modularity Architecture 2-15 Summary 2-18 Layer 2 Design Recommendations 2-19 Overview 2-19 Objectives 2-19 Recommended Practices for Spanning Tree Configuration 2-20 Spanning Tree Toolkit 2-21 Spanning Tree Standards and Features 2-23 Layer 2 Hardening 2-25 Recommended Practices for Trunk Configuration 2-27 VLAN Trunk Protocol 2-28 Dynamic Trunk Protocol 2-29 Recommended Practices for UDLD Configuration 2-31 Recommended Practices for EtherChannel 2-32 Port Aggregation Protocol 2-33 Link Aggregation Control Protocol 2-34 Summary 2-35 Layer 3 Design Recommendations 2-37 Overview 2-37 Objectives 2-37 Managing Oversubscription and Bandwidth 2-38 Bandwidth Management with EtherChannel 2-39 Bandwidth Management with 10 Gigabit Interfaces 2-40 Link Load Balancing 2-41 EtherChannel Load Balancing 2-43 Routing Protocol Design 2-44 Build Redundant Triangles 2-45 Peer Only on Transit Links 2-46 Summarize at Distribution Layer 2-47 First Hop Redundancy 2-48 Preempt Delay Tuning 2-50 Overview of Gateway Load Balancing Protocol 2-51 Optimizing FHRP Convergence 2-54 Summary 2-55 Layer 2 to Layer 3 Boundary Design 2-57 Overview 2-57 Objectives 2-57 Layer 2 to Layer 3 Boundary Design Models 2-58 Layer 2 Distribution Switch Interconnection 2-58 Layer 3 Distribution Switch Interconnection 2-59 Layer 3 Distribution Switch Interconnection 2-59 Layer 3 Access to Distribution Interconnection 2-61 Potential Design Issues 2-65 Daisy Chaining Access Layer Switches 2-65 Too Much Redundancy 2-68 Too Little Redundancy 2-69 Asymmetric Routing (Unicast Flooding) 2-72 Summary 2-74 Infrastructure Services Considerations 2-75 Overview 2-75 Objectives 2-75 IP Telephony Considerations 2-76 IP Telephony Extends the Network Edge 2-77 PoE Requirements 2-78 Multi-VLAN Access Port 2-85 QoS Considerations 2-87 ii Designing Cisco Network Service Architectures (ARCH) v Cisco Systems, Inc.

5 Recommended Practices for QoS 2-88 Transmit Queue Congestion 2-89 QoS Role in the Campus 2-90 Campus QoS Design Considerations 2-91 Cisco Catalyst Integrated Security Features 2-92 Port Security Prevents MAC-Based Attacks 2-93 DHCP Snooping Protects Against Rogue and Malicious DHCP Server 2-94 Dynamic ARP Inspection Protects Against ARP Poisoning 2-95 IP Source Guard Protects Against Spoofed IP Addresses 2-96 Example Catalyst Integrated Security Feature Configuration 2-97 Summary 2-98 Module Summary 2-99 References Module Self-Check Answer Key Advanced Addressing and Routing Design 3-1 Overview Module Objectives Advanced Addressing Design 3-3 Overview 3-3 Objectives 3-3 IP Address Planning as a Foundation 3-4 Summarizable Blocks of Addresses 3-5 Changing IP Addressing Needs 3-7 Planning Addresses 3-8 Applications of Summarizable Addressing 3-9 Implementing Role-Based Addressing 3-10 Bit Splitting for Route Summarization 12 Example: Bit-Splitting for Area Addressing for VPN Clients 3-14 NAT in the Enterprise 3-15 NAT with External Partners 3-16 Summary 3-18 Advanced Routing Design 3-19 Overview 3-19 Objectives 3-19 Route Summarization and Default Routing 3-20 Originating Default 3-21 Stub Areas and Default Route 3-22 Route Filtering in the Network Design 3-24 Avoid Inappropriate Transit Traffic 3-24 Defensive Filtering 3-25 Designing Redistribution 3-27 Filtered Redistribution 3-28 Migrating Between Routing Protocols 3-29 Summary 3-31 Scalable EIGRP Design 3-33 Overview 3-33 Objectives 3-33 Scaling EIGRP Designs 3-34 EIGRP Fast Convergence 3-35 EIGRP Fast Convergence Metrics 3-36 Scaling EIGRP with Multiple Autonomous Systems 3-37 Example: External Route Redistribution Issue 3-38 Filtering EIGRP Redistribution with Route Tags 3-39 Filtering EIGRP Routing Updates with Inbound Route Tags 3-40 Example: Queries with Multiple EIGRP Autonomous Systems Cisco Systems, Inc. Designing Cisco Network Service Architectures (ARCH) v2.0 iii

6 Reasons for Multiple EIGRP Autonomous Systems 3-42 Summary 3-43 References 3-43 Scalable OSPF Design 3-45 Overview 3-45 Objectives 3-45 Factors Influencing OSPF Scalability 3-46 Number of Adjacent Neighbors and Designated Routers 3-47 Routing Information in Area and Domain 3-48 Designing Areas 3-50 Area Size: How Many Routers in Area? 3-51 OSPF Hierarchy 3-53 Area and Domain Summarization 3-54 OSPF Hub-and-Spoke Design 3-55 Number of Areas in OSPF Hub-and-Spoke Design 3-56 Issues with Hub-and-Spoke Design 3-57 OSPF Hub-and-Spoke Network Types 3-58 OSPF Area Border Connection Behavior 3-59 OSPF Area Border Connection Considerations 3-60 OSPF Area Filtering 3-61 Application of Interarea Filtering 3-62 Full-Mesh Topology and Mesh Group 3-63 OSPF Flood Reduction 3-64 Fast Convergence in OSPF 3-65 Fast Convergence with Fast Hellos 3-66 Fast Convergence with SPF 3-67 Overview of OSPF Incremental SPF 3-68 Incremental SPF Convergence Times 3-69 Bidirectional Forwarding Detection 3-70 Summary 3-71 References 3-71 Scalable BGP Design 3-73 Overview 3-73 Objectives 3-73 Scaling BGP Designs 3-74 Full Mesh IBGP Scalability 3-75 Scaling IBGP with Route Reflectors 3-76 BGP Route Reflector Definitions 3-77 Additional Route Reflector Definitions 3-78 Route Reflector Basics 3-79 Scaling IBGP with Confederations 3-80 BGP Confederation Definitions 3-81 Confederation Basics 3-82 Confederations Reduce Meshing 3-83 Deploying Confederations 3-85 Summary 3-88 References 3-88 Module Summary 3-89 References 3-89 Module Self-Check 3-91 Module Self-Check Answer Key 3-94 iv Designing Cisco Network Service Architectures (ARCH) v Cisco Systems, Inc.

7 Advanced WAN Services Design Considerations 4-1 Overview 4-1 Objectives 4-1 Optical Technologies for WANs 4-3 Overview 4-3 Objectives 4-3 Advanced WAN Service Layers 4-4 Enterprise Optical Interconnections 4-5 SONET/SDH Overview 4-6 Enterprise View of SONET 4-8 WDM Overview 4-9 CWDM Technical Overview 4-9 DWDM Technical Overview 4-11 RPR Overview 4-13 Summary 4-15 Metro Ethernet and MPLS VPN Technologies 4-17 Overview 4-17 Objectives 4-17 Metro Ethernet Overview 4-18 Metro Ethernet Services Model 4-18 Metro Ethernet Architecture 4-19 Metro Ethernet LAN Services Q Tunneling and QoS Across the Network 4-29 Choosing the Right Service 4-30 VPLS Overview 4-31 VPLS Architecture Model 4-32 VPLS in the Enterprise 4-33 H-VPLS Overview 4-35 Scaling VPLS 4-36 QoS Issues with EMS or VPLS 4-38 EMS or VPLS and Routing Implications 4-39 VPLS and IP Multicast 4-40 VPLS Availability 4-41 MPLS VPN Overview 4-42 Customer Considerations with MPLS VPNs 4-43 Summary 4-47 Advanced WAN Service Implementations 4-49 Overview 4-49 Objectives 4-49 Advanced WAN Service Selection 4-50 Business Risk Assessment 4-51 WAN Features and Requirements 4-53 SLA Overview 4-55 SLA Monitoring 4-57 Summary 4-58 Module Summary 4-59 References 4-59 Module Self-Check 4-61 Module Self-Check Answer Key 4-65 Enterprise Data Center Design 5-1 Overview 5-1 Module Objectives Cisco Systems, Inc. Designing Cisco Network Service Architectures (ARCH) v2.0 v

8 Core and Aggregation Layer Design 5-3 Overview 5-3 Objectives 5-3 Data Center Architecture Overview 5-4 Benefits of the Three Layer Model 5-5 Data Center Core Layer Design 5-6 Layer 3 Characteristics for the Data Center Core 5-7 OSPF Routing Protocol Design Recommendations 5-8 EIGRP Routing Protocol Design Recommendations 5-9 Aggregation Layer Design 5-10 Scaling the Aggregation Layer 5-11 Scaling the Aggregation Layer 5-11 STP Design 5-13 Integrated Service Modules 5-14 Service Module Placement Consideration 5-15 Active STP, HSRP, and Service Context Alignment 5-16 Active/Standby Service Module Design 5-17 Active/Active Service Module Design 5-18 Establishing Inbound Path Preference 5-19 Using VRFs in the Data Center 5-20 Summary 5-21 Access Layer Design 5-23 Overview 5-23 Objectives 5-23 Overview of the Data Center Access Layer 5-24 Layer 2 Looped Designs 5-25 Layer 2 Looped Topologies 5-26 Layer 2 Looped Design Issues 5-27 Layer 2 Loop-Free Designs 5-28 Loop-Free Topologies 5-29 Example: Loop-Free U Design and Layer 2 Service Modules 5-30 Example: Loop-Free U Design and ACE Service Module 5-31 Layer 2 FlexLink Designs 5-32 FlexLinks Issues and Considerations 5-33 Comparison of Layer 2 Access Designs 5-35 Layer 3 Access Layer Designs 5-36 Multicast Source Support 5-37 Benefits of Layer 3 Access 5-38 Drawbacks of Layer 3 Access 5-39 Blade Server Overview 5-40 Blade Server Connectivity Options 5-42 Blade Server Trunk Failover Feature 5-45 Summary 5-46 Scaling the Data Center Architecture 5-49 Overview 5-49 Objectives 5-49 Modular Compared to 1RU Designs 5-50 Cabinet Design with 1RU Switching 5-52 Example: Network Topology with 1RU Switching Model Cabinet Design with Modular Access Switches Example: Network Topology with Modular Access Switches Server NIC Density Hybrid Example with Separate OOB Oversubscription and Uplinks Scaling Bandwidth and Uplink Density EtherChannel Utilization Optimization with Load Balancing EtherChannel Utilization Optimization with Min-Links Scaling with Service Layer Switches vi Designing Cisco Network Service Architectures (ARCH) v Cisco Systems, Inc.

9 Scaling Service on ACE Modules Summary Spanning Tree and High Availability 5-65 Overview Objectives STP Scalability Spanning Tree Protocols in the Data Center Spanning Tree Protocol Scaling STP Logical Interfaces STP Scaling with 120 System Wide VLANs STP in 1RU Designs STP Scaling Design Guidelines High Availability in the Data Center Common NIC Teaming Configurations High Availability and Failover Times High Availability and NSF with SSO Summary Module Summary References Module Self-Check Module Self-Check Answer Key Design Considerations for Storage Area Networks Overview Objectives SAN Components and Technologies 6-3 Overview Objectives SAN Overview and Components SAN Components Storage Topologies Direct Attached Storage Network Attached Storage SAN Technologies SCSI Overview Fibre Channel Overview Fibre Channel Communications Model Virtual SAN Inter-VSAN Routing Fabric Shortest Path First Zoning FICON SANTap Summary SAN and SAN Extension Design 6-23 Overview Objectives SAN Design Factors SAN Designs with the Cisco MDS 9000 Family Single Switch Design Collapsed Core Small Scale Dual Fabric Medium Scale Dual Fabric Large Scale Dual Fabric SAN Extension SAN Extension Protocols Fibre Channel over IP iscsi SAN Extension Developments Cisco Systems, Inc. Designing Cisco Network Service Architectures (ARCH) v2.0 vii

10 High Availability SAN Extension Summary Module Summary References Module Self-Check Module Self-Check Answer Key viii Designing Cisco Network Service Architectures (ARCH) v Cisco Systems, Inc.

11 ARCH Course Introduction Overview Designing Cisco Network Service Architectures (ARCH) v2.0 teaches how to perform the conceptual, intermediate, and detailed design of a network infrastructure that supports desired network solutions over intelligent network services, to achieve effective performance, scalability, and availability. This course enables learners, applying solid Cisco network solution models and best design practices, to provide viable, stable enterprise internetworking solutions. Learner Skills and Knowledge This subtopic lists the skills and knowledge that learners must possess to benefit fully from the course. Learner Skills and Knowledge Prerequisite certifications: Cisco CCNA certification Cisco CCDA certification Cisco BCMSN certification Cisco BSCI certification Prerequisite skills and knowledge or equivalent experience from: Implementing Secure Converged WANs (ISCW) Optimized Converged Cisco Networks (ONT) Other recommended courses: Cisco Voice Over IP (CVOICE) Cisco BGP ARCH v2.0 3

12 Before taking ARCH, learners should be familiar with internetworking technologies, Cisco products, and Cisco IOS features. Specifically, before attending this course learners should be able to meet these objectives: Design the necessary services to extend IP addresses using variable-length subnet masking (VLSM), network address translation (NAT), and route summarization Implement appropriate networking routing protocols, such as Open Shortest Path First (OSPF), Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (EIGRP), and Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) on an existing internetwork Redistribute routes between different routing protocols Select the required Cisco products and services that enable connectivity and traffic transport for a multilayer campus network Select the necessary services at each layer of the network to enable all users to obtain membership in multicast groups in a working enterprise network Control network traffic by implementing the necessary admission policy at each layer of the network topology Identify the appropriate hardware and software solutions for a given set of WAN technology requirements, including access between a central campus, branch offices, and telecommuters Select Cisco equipment to establish appropriate WAN connections Enable protocols and technologies that allow traffic flow between multiple sites, while minimizing the amount of overhead traffic on each connection Implement QoS capabilities to ensure that mission-critical applications receive the required bandwidth within a given WAN topology Implement Cisco voice solutions Implement Cisco wireless solutions Implement basic security steps and mitigation techniques To gain the prerequisite skills and knowledge, learners must have the CCNA, CCDA, BCMSN, and BCSI certifications. The recommended courses for CCNA are Introduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (INTRO) and Interconnecting Cisco Network Devices (ICND) The recommended courses for CCDA is Designing Cisco Internetwork Solutions (DESGN) The recommended courses for BSCI is Building Scalable Cisco Internetworks (BSCI) The recommended courses for BCMSN is Building Cisco Multilayer Switched Networks (BCMSN) Learners should complete the following courses or must have equivalent experience: Implementing Secure Converged WANs (ISCW) Optimized Converged Cisco Networks (ONT) The following courses are recommended: Cisco Voice Over IP (CVOICE) Cisco BGP 2 Designing Cisco Network Service Architectures (ARCH) v Cisco Systems, Inc.

13 Course Goal and Objectives This topic describes the course goal and objectives. Course Goal To perform the conceptual, intermediate, and detailed design of a network infrastructure that supports the network solutions to achieve effective performance, scalability, and availability to meet the desired requirements Designing Cisco Network Service Architectures (ARCH v2.0) ARCH v2.0 4 Upon completing this course, you will be able to meet these objectives: Introduce the Cisco Service Oriented Network Architecture (SONA) framework, and explain how it addresses enterprise network needs for performance, scalability, and availability Describe how the Cisco Enterprise Network model is used in the SONA framework for designing enterprise networks Create conceptual, intermediate, and detailed enterprise campus network, and enterprise edge and remote infrastructure designs that offer effective functionality, performance, scalability, and availability Create conceptual, intermediate, and detailed intelligent network service designs for network management, high availability, security, QoS, and IP multicast Create conceptual, intermediate, and detailed virtual private network designs Create conceptual, intermediate, and detailed voice over wireless network designs 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. Course Introduction 3

14 Course Flow This topic presents the suggested flow of the course materials. Course Flow Diagram A M Day 1 Day 2 Day 3 Day 4 Day 5 Course Introduction Cisco SONA and Enterprise Architectures Enterprise Campus Infrastructure Design Advanced Addressing and Routing Design Design Considerations for the Enterprise Data Center Design Considerations for SAN Lunch Security Services Design IPsec and SSL VPN Design Enterprise VoWLAN Design Considerations Network Management Capabilities P M Enterprise Campus Infrastructure Design Advanced Addressing and Routing Design Advanced WAN Services Design Considerations Design Considerations for the Enterprise Data Center Design Considerations for the E-Commerce Module Design Security Services Design IPsec and SSL VPN Design IP Multicast Design Network Management Capabilities Wrap-Up ARCH v2.0 5 The schedule reflects the recommended structure for this course. This structure allows enough time for the instructor to present the course information and for you to work through the case study activities. The exact timing of the subject materials and case studies depends on the pace of your specific class. 4 Designing Cisco Network Service Architectures (ARCH) v Cisco Systems, Inc.

15 Additional References This topic presents the Cisco icons and symbols used in this course and also information on where to find additional technical references. Cisco Icons and Symbols ARCH v2.0 6 Cisco Icons and Symbols Cont. ARCH v Cisco Systems, Inc. Course Introduction 5

16 Cisco Glossary of Terms A glossary of terms and acronyms is included in the Course Glossary module. For additional information on Cisco terminology, refer to the Cisco Internetworking Terms and Acronyms glossary of terms at 6 Designing Cisco Network Service Architectures (ARCH) v Cisco Systems, Inc.

17 Your Training Curriculum This topic presents the training curriculum for this course. Cisco Certifications Cisco Certifications ARCH v2.0 8 You are encouraged to join the Cisco Certification Community, a discussion forum open to anyone holding a valid Cisco Career Certification (such as Cisco CCIE, CCNA, CCDA, CCNP, CCDP, CCIP, or CCSP ). The Cisco Certification Community provides a gathering place for Cisco-certified professionals to share questions, suggestions, and information about Cisco Career Certification programs and other certification-related topics. For more information, visit Cisco Systems, Inc. Course Introduction 7

18 Cisco Career Certifications ARCH Certification for Professional-level recognition in network design Expert CCDE Required Exam Recommended Training Through Cisco Learning Partners Professional CCDP ARCH Designing Cisco Network Service Architectures (ARCH) Implementing Secure Converged WANs (ISCW) Associate CCDA BCMSN Optimized Converged Cisco Networks (ONT) Building Cisco Multilayer Switched Networks (BCMSN) BSCI Building Scalable Cisco Internetworks (BSCI) DESGN Designing for Cisco Internetwork Solutions (DESGN) CCNA Interconnecting Cisco Network Devices (ICND) Introduction to Cisco Network Technologies (INTRO) ARCH v2.0 9 This educational offering is a Cisco certification professional-level course. ARCH is the recommended method of preparation for the Cisco CCDP exam. The CCDP certification indicates a professional mastery of network design. The course presents concepts and examples necessary to design enterprise campus networks and enterprise edge networks. Advanced network infrastructure technologies, such as Virtual Private Networks (VPNs) and wireless communications, are also covered. The course covers issues and considerations for fundamental intelligent network services, including security, network management, QoS, high availability, and bandwidth use optimization through IP multicasting and also design models for network solutions such as voice networking and content and storage networking. The CCDP exam is the final step necessary to achieve Cisco CCDP certification, following the Cisco CCNA and Cisco CCDA exams. A CCDP certification affirms possession of some of the skills needed to achieve Cisco CCIE certification. 8 Designing Cisco Network Service Architectures (ARCH) v Cisco Systems, Inc.

19 Module 1 Cisco SONA and the Cisco Enterprise Architectures Overview Large enterprises increasingly seek an enterprise-wide infrastructure to serve as a solid foundation for their network application. The framework is designed to support the operation of concurrent solutions operating over a single infrastructure designed, tested, and fully documented with scalability, performance, and availability that meets end-to-end enterprise requirements. The Cisco Service-Oriented Network Architecture (SONA) is a framework that enables customers to build a more intelligent infrastructure. This module reviews SONA and the Cisco Enterprise Architectures. It also reviews network design methodology under Cisco s six phase network life cycle: prepare, plan, design, implement, operate, and optimize (PPDIOO). Module Objectives Upon completing this module, you will be able to present the Cisco SONA framework and the Cisco Enterprise Architectures that support the network infrastructure and network services. You will also be able to present the network design methodology under PPDIOO. This ability includes being able to meet these objectives: Describe the Cisco Service-Oriented Network Architecture and how the Cisco Enterprise Architectures are used to design enterprise networks. Describe the network design methodology under the Cisco PPDIOO approach.

20 1-2 Designing Cisco Network Service Architectures (ARCH) v Cisco Systems, Inc.

21 Lesson 1 Reviewing SONA and the Cisco Enterprise Architectures Overview Objectives The extremely rich variety of application level business solutions available today and the need to integrate these applications has driven the need for a new network architecture. This lesson reviews hierarchical networks It also discusses how Cisco s Service Oriented Network Architecture (SONA) enables customers to build a more intelligent network infrastructure. It reviews how the Cisco Enterprise Architectures are modules representing focused views of SONA that target each place in the network. The lesson also reviews the role of infrastructure services in an enterprise network design. Upon completing this lesson, you will be able to discuss how the SONA helps integrate enterprise network assists to achieve organizational goals. This ability includes being able to meet these objectives: Describe the hierarchical network model Describe the SONA framework

22 The Hierarchical Model The foundation of the Cisco network architectures is the hierarchical network model. Historically used in the design of enterprise LAN and WAN data networks, a hierarchical model also applies to the infrastructure modules of SONA and the Cisco Enterprise Architecture. Layers in the Hierarchical Model ARCH v The hierarchical network model provides a modular view of a network, making it easier to design and build a deterministic scalable network. The hierarchical network structure is composed of the access, distribution, and core layers. Each layer has its own functions, which are used to develop a hierarchical network design. The model provides a modular framework that allows flexibility in network design, and facilitates ease of implementation and troubleshooting. The hierarchical model divides networks or their modular blocks into the access, distribution, and core layers, with these features: Access layer: Used to grant user access to network devices. In a network campus, the access layer generally incorporates switched LAN devices with ports that provide connectivity to workstations and servers. In the WAN environment, the access layer for teleworkers or remote sites may provide access to the corporate network across WAN technology. Distribution layer: Aggregates the wiring closets, using switches to segment workgroups and isolate network problems in a campus environment. Similarly, the distribution layer aggregates WAN connections at the edge of the campus and provides policy-based connectivity. Core layer (also referred to as the backbone): A high-speed backbone, designed to switch packets as fast as possible. Because the core is critical for connectivity, it must provide a high level of availability and adapt to changes very quickly. It also provides scalability and fast convergence 1-4 Designing Cisco Network Service Architectures (ARCH) v Cisco Systems, Inc.

23 Example Hierarchical Network A hierarchical network is composed of layers. Example Hierarchical Network ARCH v The three-layer hierarchical model specifies this general mapping scheme: Access layer: Access layer devices control traffic by localizing service requests to the access media. Access layer devices must also provide connectivity without compromising network integrity. For example, the devices at the access layer must detect whether a telecommuter who is dialing in is legitimate, yet must also require minimal telecommuter authentication steps. Distribution layer: Distribution layer devices control access to resources that are available at the core layer and must, therefore, make efficient use of bandwidth. In addition, a distribution layer device must address the quality of service (QoS) needs for different protocols by implementing policy-based traffic control to isolate backbone and local environments. Policy-based traffic control enables you to prioritize traffic to ensure the best performance for the most time-critical and time-dependent applications. Core layer: Core layer devices provide services that optimize communication transport within the network. In addition, core layer devices are expected to provide maximum availability and reliability. Core layer devices should be able to maintain connectivity when the circuits that connect them fail. A fault-tolerant network design ensures that failures do not have a major impact on network connectivity Cisco Systems, Inc. Cisco SONA and the Cisco Enterprise Architectures 1-5

24 Review of Cisco SONA The intelligent networking framework defined by Cisco for the enterprise is SONA. Cisco SONA uses the extensive product line, services, proven architectures, and experience of Cisco and its partners to help enterprises achieve their business goals. Overview of Cisco SONA ARCH v The SONA framework illustrates the concept that the network is the common element that connects and enables all components of the IT infrastructure. SONA outlines these three layers of the intelligence in the network for the enterprise: The networked infrastructure layer: This layer is where all the IT resources are interconnected across a converged network foundation. The IT resources include servers, storage, and clients. The network infrastructure layer represents how these resources exist in different places in the network, including the campus, branch, data center, WAN, metropolitan-area network (MAN), and teleworker. The objective for customers in this layer is to have anywhere and anytime connectivity. The interactive services layer: This layer enables efficient allocation of resources to applications and business processes delivered through the networked infrastructure. The application layer: This includes business applications and collaboration applications. The objective for customers in this layer is to meet business requirements and achieve efficiencies by leveraging the interactive services layer. The common thread that links the layers is that SONA embeds application-level intelligence into the network infrastructure elements so that network itself can recognize and better support applications and services. 1-6 Designing Cisco Network Service Architectures (ARCH) v Cisco Systems, Inc.

25 Benefits of SONA Cisco SONA uses the extensive product line, services, proven architectures, and experience of Cisco and its partners to help the enterprises achieve their business goals. Benefits of SONA Functionality Scalability Availability Performance Manageability Efficiency Description Supports the organizational requirements Supports growth and expansion of organizational tasks Provides necessary services reliably anywhere, anytime Provides responsiveness, throughput, and utilization on a per application basis Provides control, performance monitoring, and fault detection Provides network services with reasonable operational costs and appropriate capital investment ARCH v SONA promotes more effective use of networked resources, and provides these benefits: Functionality-Supports the organizational requirements Scalability-Supports growth and expansion of organizational tasks by separating functions and products into layers. This separation makes it easier to grow the network. Availability-Provides necessary services reliably anywhere, anytime Performance-Provides desired responsiveness, throughput, and utilization on a per application basis through the network infrastructure and services Manageability-Provides control, performance monitoring, and fault detection Efficiency- Through step-by-step network services growth, provides network services and infrastructure with reasonable operational costs and appropriate capital investment on a migration path to a more intelligent network Cisco Systems, Inc. Cisco SONA and the Cisco Enterprise Architectures 1-7

26 Example: Cisco Enterprise Campus Architecture The Cisco Service-Oriented Network Architecture (SONA) provides an enterprise-wide framework that integrates the entire network campus, data center, WAN, branches, and teleworkers offering secure access to the tools, processes, and services. The Cisco Enterprise Architecture consists of modules representing focused views of SONA that target each place in the network. Each module has a distinct network infrastructure and services, as well as network applications that extend between the modules. Example: Cisco Enterprise Campus Architecture ARCH v For example, the Cisco Enterprise Campus Architecture focuses on the campus infrastructure. The modules of the Cisco Enterprise Architecture will be reviewed later in this module. 1-8 Designing Cisco Network Service Architectures (ARCH) v Cisco Systems, Inc.

27 Review of Cisco Enterprise Architectures This section provides a review of the modules of the Cisco Enterprise Architecture. Cisco Enterprise Architectures ARCH v The Cisco Enterprise Architectures are modules representing focused views of SONA that target each place in the network The modules in the Cisco Enterprise Architectures correspond to places in the network: Cisco Enterprise Campus module: Combines a core infrastructure of intelligent switching and routing with tightly integrated productivity-enhancing technologies, including Cisco Unified Communications, mobility, and advanced security. The hierarchical architecture pf the Cisco Enterprise Campus provides the enterprise with high availability through a resilient multilayer design, redundant hardware and software features, and automatic procedures for reconfiguring network paths when failures occur. Multicast provides optimized bandwidth consumption, and quality of service (QoS) prevents oversubscription to ensure that real-time traffic, such as voice and video, or critical data is not dropped or delayed. Integrated security protects against and mitigates the impact of worms, viruses, and other attacks on the network even at the switch port level. The architecture extends authentication support using standards such as 802.1X and Extensible Authentication Protocol (EAP). It also provides the flexibility to add IPsec and Multiprotocol Label Switching virtual private networks (MPLS VPNs), identity and access management, and VLANs to compartmentalize access. These additions help improve performance and security, while also decreasing costs. Cisco Enterprise Edge architecture: Offers connectivity to voice, video, and data services outside the enterprise. This module enables the enterprise to use Internet and partner resources, and provide resources for its customers. QoS, service levels, and security are the main issues in the Enterprise Edge module. WAN and MAN module: The WAN and MAN module is a SONA place in the network that is part of the Cisco Enterprise Edge module. This module offers the convergence of voice, video, and data services over a single Cisco Unified 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. Cisco SONA and the Cisco Enterprise Architectures 1-9

28 Communications network. This convergence enables the enterprise to costeffectively span large geographic areas. QoS, granular service levels, and comprehensive encryption options help ensure the secure delivery of high-quality corporate voice, video, and data resources to all corporate sites enabling staff to work productively and efficiently wherever they are located. Security is provided with multiservice VPNs (IPsec and MPLS) over Layer 2 or Layer 3 WANs, huband-spoke, or full-mesh topologies. Cisco Enterprise Data Center architecture: A cohesive, adaptive network architecture that supports the requirements for consolidation, business continuance, and security, while enabling emerging service-oriented architectures, virtualization, and on-demand computing. IT staff can easily provide departmental staff, suppliers, or customers with secure access to applications and resources. This ability simplifies and streamlines management, significantly reducing overhead. Redundant data centers provide backup using synchronous and asynchronous data, and application replication. The network and devices offer server and application load balancing to maximize performance. This solution allows the enterprise to scale without major changes to the infrastructure. This module can either be located at the campus as a server farm or at a remote facility. Cisco Enterprise Branch architecture: Allows enterprises to extend head-office applications and services, such as security, Cisco Unified Communications, and advanced application performance, to thousands of remote locations and users, or to a small group of branches. Cisco integrates security, switching, network analysis, caching, and converged voice and video services into a series of integrated services routers in the branch so that enterprises can deploy new services when they are ready, without buying new equipment. This solution provides secure access to voice, mission-critical data, and video applications anywhere, anytime. Advanced network routing, VPNs, redundant WAN links, application content caching, and local IP telephony call processing provide a robust architecture with high levels of resilience for all the branch offices. An optimized network leverages the WAN and LAN to reduce traffic, and save bandwidth and operational expenses. The enterprise can easily support branch offices with the ability to centrally configure, monitor, and manage devices located at remote sites, including tools, such as Cisco AutoQoS or the Cisco Security Device Manager (SDM) GUI QoS wizard, that proactively resolve congestion and bandwidth issues before they affect network performance. Cisco Enterprise Teleworker architecture: Allows enterprises to securely deliver voice and data services to remote small or home offices (small office, home office [SOHO]) over a standard broadband access service, providing a business resiliency solution for the enterprise and a flexible work environment for employees. Centralized management minimizes the IT support costs, and robust integrated security mitigates the unique security challenges of this environment. Integrated security- and identity-based networking services enable the enterprise to help extend campus security policies to the teleworker. Staff can securely log onto the network over an always-on VPN, and gain access to authorized applications and services from a single cost-effective platform. The productivity can further be enhanced by adding an IP phone, providing cost-effective access to a centralized IP communications system with voice and unified messaging services Designing Cisco Network Service Architectures (ARCH) v Cisco Systems, Inc.

29 Infrastructure Services This topic describes the role of infrastructure services in an enterprise network design. Explaining the Role of Infrastructure Services ARCH v Infrastructure services add intelligence to the network infrastructure, supporting application awareness within the network. Network applications such as IP telephony support the entire enterprise network environment from the teleworker to the campus to the data center. These applications are enabled by critical network services that support network-wide requirements for the application and provide a common set of capabilities to ensure functionality of the applications. By implementing network infrastructure services, the overall network environment is capable of providing support for the most persistent application requirements including security, high availability, reliability, flexibility, responsiveness, and compliancy. Example infrastructure services that provide the interface between classic network functions and applications environments include: Identity services: Maps resources and policies to the user and device Mobility services: Allows users to access network resources regardless of their physical location. Wireless services support mobile clients, and integrate with the wired network. Storage services: Provides distributed and virtual storage across the infrastructure Compute services: Connects and virtualizes compute resources based on the application Security services: Increase the integrity of the network by protecting network resources and users from internal and external threats. Voice services: Delivers the foundation by which voice can be carried across the network, such as security and high availability 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. Cisco SONA and the Cisco Enterprise Architectures 1-11

30 An infrastructure service may use multiple network services. For example, implementing voice services requires features such as quality of service (QoS) and security. Example: Network Services Network Management High Availability QoS IP Multicast ARCH v Some network services that are embedded in the infrastructure services include: Network management: Includes LAN management for advanced management of multilayer switches; routed WAN management for monitoring, traffic management, and access control to administer the routed infrastructure of multiservice networks; service management for managing and monitoring service level agreements (SLAs); and virtual private network (VPN) and security management for optimizing VPN performance and security administration. High availability: Ensures end-to-end availability for services, clients, and sessions. Implementation includes reliable, fault-tolerant network devices to automatically identify and overcome failures, and resilient network technologies. QoS: Manages the delay, delay variation (jitter), bandwidth availability, and packet loss parameters on a network to meet the diverse needs of voice, video, and data applications. QoS features provide value-added functionality such as network-based application recognition (NBAR) for classifying traffic on an applications basis, a Service Assurance Agent (SAA) for end-to-end QoS measurements, Resource Reservation Protocol (RSVP) signaling for admission control and reservation of resources, and a variety of configurable queue insertion and servicing disciplines. IP multicasting: Provides bandwidth-conserving technology that reduces network traffic by delivering a single stream of information that is intended for many corporate recipients and homes throughout the transport network. Multicasting enables distribution of video conferencing, corporate communications, distance learning, distribution of software, and other applications. Multicast packets are replicated only as necessary in the network by Cisco routers enabled with Protocol Independent Multicast (PIM) and other supporting multicast protocols, resulting in the most efficient delivery of data to multiple receivers Designing Cisco Network Service Architectures (ARCH) v Cisco Systems, Inc.

31 Application Layer This topic describes the role of application in an enterprise network design. SONA Application Layer The SONA application layer includes collaborative applications that support the enterprise: Unified messaging Cisco Unified Contact Center IP phone Cisco Unified MeetingPlace Video delivery and conferencing ARCH v The application layer includes collaborative applications that support the enterprise. Cisco has solutions to support several applications: Unified messaging. Unified communications applications are integrated within an IP network to provide structure and intelligence that can help organizations integrate their communications more closely with business processes, and ensure information reaches recipients quickly, through the most appropriate medium. Cisco Unified Contact Center. The Cisco Unified Contact Center provides intelligent contact routing, call treatment, network-to-desktop computer telephony integration (CTI), and multichannel contact management over an IP infrastructure. This application enables organizations to smoothly integrate inbound and outbound voice applications with Internet applications such as real-time chat, Web collaboration, and . IP phone. IP telephony transmits voice communications over a network using openstandards-based Internet Protocol. Cisco IP phone products are a key component of the Cisco Unified Communications system, which delivers the business benefits of a converged network to organizations of all sizes. Cisco Unified MeetingPlace. This multimedia conferencing solution fully integrates voice, video, and Web conferencing capabilities to give remote meetings a natural and effective, face-to-face quality for medium to large organizations. Video delivery and conferencing. The Cisco Unified Communications infrastructure supports video delivery. Cisco Unified Videoconferencing solutions provide a reliable, versatile, and easy-to-manage network infrastructure for video conferencing Cisco Systems, Inc. Cisco SONA and the Cisco Enterprise Architectures 1-13

32 Summary This topic summarizes the key points discussed in this lesson. Summary The hierarchical network model provides a modular view of a network. Cisco SONA is the enterprise framework for building intelligence in the network. The Cisco Enterprise Architectures are modules representing focused views of SONA that target each place in the network. Infrastructure services add intelligence to the network infrastructure. The application layer holds collaborative applications that support the enterprise. ARCH v The hierarchical network model provides a modular view of a network, making it easier to design and build a deterministic scalable network. The hierarchical network structure is composed of the access, distribution, and core layers. Cisco SONA is the enterprise framework for building intelligence in the network: Layer 1 is the integrated infrastructure layer. Layer 2 is the interactive services layer. Layer 3 is the applications layer. The Cisco Enterprise Architecture consists of modules representing focused views of SONA that target each place in the network. Each module has a distinct network infrastructure and services, as well as network applications that extend between the modules. Infrastructure services add intelligence to the network infrastructure, supporting application awareness within the network. Network applications are enabled by critical network services that support network-wide requirements for the application and provide a common set of capabilities to ensure functionality of the applications Designing Cisco Network Service Architectures (ARCH) v Cisco Systems, Inc.

33 Lesson 2 Reviewing the Cisco PPDIOO Approach Overview Objectives To design a network that meets customer needs, the organizational goals, organizational constraints, technical goals, and technical constraints must be identified. Cisco Systems has formalized the life cycle of a network into six phases: prepare, plan, design, implement, operate, and optimize (PPDIOO). The lesson begins with an review of PPDIOO, and then discusses the design methodology under PPDIOO. Upon completing this lesson, you will be able to discuss PPDIOO and its design methodology. This ability includes being able to meet these objectives: Describe the benefits of using the PPDIOO network lifecycle approach Describe the three basic steps of the design methodology under PPDIOO

34 PPDIOO Network Lifecycle Approach This topic reviews the PPDIOO approach for the network lifecycle. PPDIOO Network Lifecycle Approach ARCH v The PPDIOO network lifecycle approach reflects the life cycle phases of a standard network. The PPDIOO phases include the following: Prepare: The prepare phase involves establishing the organizational requirements, developing a network strategy, and proposing a high level conceptual architecture identifying technologies that can best support the architecture. The prepare phase can establish financial justification for network strategy by assessing the business case for the proposed architecture. Plan: The plan phase involves identifying initial network requirements based on goals, facilities, user needs, and so on. The plan phase involves characterizing sites and assessing any existing networks, and performing a gap analysis to determine if the existing system infrastructure, sites, and operational environment are able to support the proposed system. A project plan is useful to help manage the tasks, responsibilities, critical milestones, and resources required to implement changes to the network. The project plan should align with the scope, cost, and resource parameters established in the original business requirements. Design: The initial requirements that were derived in the planning phase drive the activities of the network design specialists. The network design specification is a comprehensive detailed design that meets current business and technical requirements and incorporates specifications to support availability, reliability, security, scalability, and performance. The design specification is the basis for the implementation activities. Implement: After the design has been approved, implementation (and verification) begins. The network or additional components are built according to the design specifications, with the goal of integrating devices without disrupting the existing network or creating points of vulnerability 1-16 Designing Cisco Network Service Architectures (ARCH) v Cisco Systems, Inc.

35 Operate: Operation is the final test of the appropriateness of the design. The operational phase involves maintaining network health through day-to-day operations, including maintaining high availability and reducing expenses. The fault detection, correction, and performance monitoring that occur in daily operations provide initial data for the optimization phase. Optimize: The optimization phase involves proactive management of the network. The goal of proactive management is to identify and resolve issues before they affect the organization. Reactive fault detection and correction (troubleshooting) is needed when proactive management cannot predict and mitigate failures. In the PPDIOO process, the optimization phase may prompt a network redesign if too many network problems and errors arise, if performance does not meet expectations, or if new applications are identified to support organizational and technical requirements. Note While design is listed as one of the six PPDIOO phases, some design elements may be present in all the other phases Cisco Systems, Inc. Introducing Cisco Network Service Architectures 1-17

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