# The concentration of water is a constant so we can combine it with Keq by dividing both sides of the equation by [H2O(l)].

Save this PDF as:

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "The concentration of water is a constant so we can combine it with Keq by dividing both sides of the equation by [H2O(l)]."

## Transcription

1 Dissolved Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide Every atmospheric gas is in equilibrium with that gas dissolved in ocean water. The concentrations of two of these are particularly important. The concentration of oxygen in water is crucial to aquatic animals that depend on dissolved oxygen for respiration. The oceans are a major sink for atmospheric carbon dioxide. However, the oceans are no longer able to absorb the increased concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere without changes to the acidity levels. Outline Henry's Law Oxygen in Equilibrium Carbon Dioxide in Equilibrium Homework Henry's Law When any gas is in contact with water, some gas will dissolve in the water. The amount that dissolves at a particular temperature depends on the pressure, or partial pressure, of the gas. The dissolved gas and the undissolved gas are in equilibrium. For example, let's look at molecular nitrogen in the air. Solvated N2 is in equilibrium with N2(g) and water. An equilibrium expression shows this. Because the system is in equilibrium, with rapid forward and reverse reactions, there will be an equilibrium constant that gives us information on the lowest energy state of the system. The concentration of water is a constant so we can combine it with Keq by dividing both sides of the equation by [H2O(l)]. We measure the concentration of a gas-phase molecule by its pressure if it is a pure gas, or by its partial pressure if the gas is part of a gas mixture. The concentration of any dissolved molecule is given in units of mol/l or molar (M). Chemistry 102 Prof. Shapley page 1

2 Table of Values The data in the table are for the equilibrium between the aqueous gas and the free gas. KH = P i /[gas(aq)] To calculate the concentration of the molecule in solution: [gas(aq)] = P i /KH Calculations What is the concentration of N2 in water under a pure nitrogen atmosphere? What is the concentration of N2 at the surface of the ocean? Would the concentration be greater if the total pressure were 5 atm? Chemistry 102 Prof. Shapley page 2

3 Oxygen in Equilibrium Dissolved Oxygen and Henry's Law Oxygen dissolved in water can come from the atmosphere or as a byproduct of the photosynthesis of aquatic plants. For water in equilibrium with the atmosphere, the concentration is governed by Henry's Law, and KH for O2 is We can calculate the concentration of O2(aq) to be M. Water below the air/water interface is not necessarily in equilibrium with the air and can have even less oxygen than this small value. In fact, it is typical for the oxygen concentration in lakes and in the ocean to decrease with depth in the water. Percent saturation is the amount of oxygen in a liter of water relative to the total amount of oxygen that the water can hold at that temperature. Running water in shallow streams mixes better with air and tends to have a higher oxygen content than still water. There is also a strong temperature dependence on maximum oxygen concentration (see the table below). Atmospheric pressure is lower at higher altitudes so water at higher elevations holds less dissolved oxygen than water at sea level. The dissolved oxygen levels are higher in the summer and during daylight hours because this is when photosynthetic organisms produce oxygen. Thermal discharges, such as water used to cool machinery in a manufacturing plant or a power plant, raise the temperature of water and lower its oxygen content. Aquatic animals are most vulnerable to lowered dissolved oxygen levels in the early morning on hot summer days when stream flows are low, water temperatures are high, and aquatic plants have not begun producing oxygen. Chemistry 102 Prof. Shapley page 3

4 Chemistry 102 Prof. Shapley page 4

5 Biological Oxygen Demand This is a measure of the amount of molecular oxygen in milligrams required to convert all the organic molecules contained in 1.0 liter of a water sample to CO2. Microorganisms such as bacteria are responsible for decomposing organic waste. When organic matter such as dead plants, leaves, grass clippings, manure, sewage, or even food waste is present in a water supply, the bacteria will begin the process of breaking down this waste. When this happens, much of the available dissolved oxygen is consumed by aerobic bacteria, robbing other aquatic organisms of the oxygen they need to live. BOD level is a common metric for water pollution. The BOD level is determined by comparing the dissolved oxygen levels of a water sample before and after 5 days of incubation in the dark. The difference between the two levels represents the amount of oxygen required for the decomposition of any organic material in the sample and is a good approximation of the BOD level. Unpolluted rivers typically have a BOD below 1 mg/l. Moderately polluted rivers vary between 2 to 8 mg/l. Untreated sewage averages between 200 and 600 mg/l while efficiently treated municipal sewage would be 20 mg/l or less. Ocean Dead Zones Nitrogen and phosphorus compounds from agricultural runoff into the oceans causes algae blooms. When the organisms die and decompose, all available dissolved oxygen is used up and the water becomes hypoxic. It can no longer support living things. Each year, part of the Gulf of Mexico becomes a dead zone that is unable to support fish, shrimp, and other marine life. This is caused by fertilizers that run off fields in the Midwest (Illinois!!), down the Mississippi River to the Gulf. Carbon Dioxide in Equilibrium Carbon Dioxide in the Ocean The levels of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere has been increasing since the beginning of the industrial revolution due to increased combustion of fossil fuels. Much of the carbon dioxide that has been released dissolves in the ocean. We can use Henry's Law to calculate the concentration of dissolved carbon dioxide in an aqueous solution. The current, average concentration of CO2 is 387 ppm, that is 387 x 10-6 atm. [CO2] = P/KH = 3.87 x 10-4 atm/29.41 atm M -1 = 1.32 x 10-5 M Chemistry 102 Prof. Shapley page 5

6 Dissociation of Carbon Dioxide Carbon dioxide reacts with water. The carbon atom of CO2 is electron poor with an oxidation state of IV. The electron rich oxygen of water donates an electron pair to the carbon. After proton transfer from water to an oxygen of the CO2 unit, carbonic acid is formed. The reaction between water and dissolved carbon dioxide is reversible and rapid. Carbonic acid is in equilibrium with the bicarbonate anion. We can combine the two equilibria: Chemistry 102 Prof. Shapley page 6

7 Because the concentration of dissolved carbon dioxide is set by Henry's Law, we can use this to determine the concentration of protons and bicarbonate ion in water. Temperature Dependence As with other gases, the solubility of carbon dioxide in water decreases as the temperature increases. You can see this for yourself by observing what happens when you heat a can of soda. As the temperature of the oceans increases with increasing global temperature (caused by greenhouse gases), carbon dioxide will tend to outgas from the oceans. This will increase the atmospheric concentration of CO2, causing further increases in temperature of the atmosphere, etc. Chemistry 102 Prof. Shapley page 7

### Welcome to the Understanding Dissolved Oxygen learning module. This section provides information on the following topics:

Introduction Welcome to the learning module. This section provides information on the following topics: How dissolved oxygen is defined and measured in numbers Why dissolved oxygen is important Natural

### NUTRIENT CYCLES (How are nutrients recycled through ecosystems?)

NUTRIENT CYCLES (How are nutrients recycled through ecosystems?) Why? We have learned the importance of recycling our trash. It allows us to use something again for another purpose and prevents the loss

### Composition of the Atmosphere. Outline Atmospheric Composition Nitrogen and Oxygen Lightning Homework

Molecules of the Atmosphere The present atmosphere consists mainly of molecular nitrogen (N2) and molecular oxygen (O2) but it has dramatically changed in composition from the beginning of the solar system.

### Carbon and Nitrogen Cycles Interdependence within Environmental Systems. Carbon the Element

Carbon the Element The element carbon is one of the most essential elements on our planet. All living organisms contain carbon, making it a critical component of all life on planet earth. In fact, the

### Which of the following can be determined based on this model? The atmosphere is the only reservoir on Earth that can store carbon in any form. A.

Earth s Cycles 1. Models are often used to explain scientific knowledge or experimental results. A model of the carbon cycle is shown below. Which of the following can be determined based on this model?

### Example: 2. Solution. Provide depth D = 1.5 m. Sewage flow = 10000 x 170 x 0.80 x 10-3 = 1360 m 3 /d. Now, 0.182(1+. = 1.562. Q L = 2.

Example: 2 Design low rate trickling filter for secondary treatment of sewage generated from 10000 persons with rate of water supply 170 LPCD. The BOD 5 after primary treatment is 110 mg/l and BOD 5 of

### Unit 2 Lesson 3 Energy and Matter in Ecosystems. Copyright Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company

Soak Up the Sun How do organisms get energy and matter? Energy is the ability to do work. Matter is anything that has mass and takes up space. All organisms need energy and matter to live, grow, and reproduce.

### Chapter 7 Ocean Chemistry

Chapter 7 Ocean Chemistry Water is a powerful solvent and we have it everywhere the hydrological cycle About solutions and mixtures A solution is made of two components, with uniform (meaning the same

### The Solution Process CHEMISTRY. Properties of Solutions. The Central Science. Prof. Demi Levendis Room GH807 Gate House

CHEMISTRY The Central Science Properties of Solutions The Solution Process Solutions: Air; brass; body fluids; sea water When a solution forms some questions we can ask are: What happens on a molecular

### Water quality measurements tell the pond

Water Quality in Sportfish ponds Water Quality Water quality measurements tell the pond owner what is happening chemically in the pond. Any thing that affects water quality including pollution, wind, weather

### Carbon/Oxygen Cycle. Zain Aamer, Christine Pak, Lorrin Stone, Vivian Xu

Carbon/Oxygen Cycle Zain Aamer, Christine Pak, Lorrin Stone, Vivian Xu Step One - Carbon Dioxide Carbon is released into the atmosphere through the form of carbon dioxide due to combustion and respiration

### Chapter 3: Water and Life

Name Period Chapter 3: Water and Life Concept 3.1 Polar covalent bonds in water result in hydrogen bonding 1. Study the water molecules at the right. On the central molecule, label oxygen (O) and hydrogen

### Thickness of the Atmosphere. Composition of the Atmosphere (inside the DRY homosphere) Permanent and Variable Gases

Chapter 1: Composition and Structure of the Atmosphere Composition Evolution Vertical Structure Thickness of the Atmosphere (from Meteorology Today) 90% 70% Most of the atmospheric mass is confined in

### Carbon Dioxide, Carbonic Acid, and Carbonate Equilibria IPOL 8512

Carbon Dioxide, Carbonic Acid, and Carbonate Equilibria IPOL 8512 Raindrop Equilibria Raindrop Equilibria Water molecules dissociate. 2H 2 O(l) H 3 O + (aq) + OH (aq) or H 2 O(l) H + (aq) + OH (aq) When

### The Nitrogen Cycle. What is Nitrogen? Human Alteration of the Global Nitrogen Cycle. How does the nitrogen cycle work?

Human Alteration of the Global Nitrogen Cycle Heather McGraw, Mandy Williams, Suzanne Heinzel, and Cristen Whorl, Give SIUE Permission to Put Our Presentation on E-reserve at Lovejoy Library. What is Nitrogen?

### How Ecosystems Work: Energy Flow and Nutrient Cycles. Multiple Choice Test

How Ecosystems Work: Energy Flow and Nutrient Cycles Multiple Choice Test 1. The flow of solar energy through an ecosystem is marked by a) plants converting light energy to chemical energy via photosynthesis

### Chapter 7. 1. An (1) is a substance that speeds up the rate of a. biochemical reaction. All living (2) make enzymes.

Chapter 7 1. An (1) is a substance that speeds up the rate of a biochemical reaction. All living (2) make enzymes. 2. Large quantities of useful enzymes can be produced by culturing the (3) that make them

### Respiration By Cindy Grigg

By Cindy Grigg 1 Did you know there are two kinds of respiration? One kind of respiration is when we breathe air in and out of our lungs. The other kind happens in both plant and animal cells, including

### When water ionizes, a proton (hydrogen ion) is transferred from one water molecule to another, resulting in a hydrated hydrogen ion and a hydroxyl ion

Inorganic Carbon ph When water ionizes, a proton (hydrogen ion) is transferred from one water molecule to another, resulting in a hydrated hydrogen ion and a hydroxyl ion H 2 O + H 2 O H 3 O + + OH - Lowry-Bronsted

### VCE CHEMISTRY UNIT 2 Environmental Chemistry SAMPLE COURSE OUTLINE

VCE CHEMISTRY UNIT 2 Environmental Chemistry SAMPLE COURSE OUTLINE Week Area of Study Key knowledge Possible activities Key skills 1 1 Water Role of water in maintaining life in the environment unique

### Objectives. Key Terms

Objectives Summarize the basic pattern of chemical cycling. Describe how carbon and oxygen are cycled through an ecosystem. Describe the movement of nitrogen through an ecosystem. Describe the processes

### 7. Use the dead tree in Fig 3-10 to describe the processes of detritus feeders and decomposers.

APES Miller 17th ed. Chapter 3 Questions 5. Describe the 2 chemical equations used by autotrophs and heterotrophs to gain energy for chemical functions. Compare/contrast respiration to fossil fuel combustion

### The short term carbon cycle. Chemistry 433. Carbon Cycle. General Considerations. NC State University. Calcium carbonate in sedimentary rock

Chemistry 4 Lecture 4 The Chemistry of Climate Change: CO Equilbria i NC State University The short term carbon cycle Photosynthesis removes carbon atoms from the atmosphere and turns them into food for

### Ecosystem ecology emphasizes energy flow and chemical recycling

AP Biology Chapter 54 notes Ecosystems Ecosystem ecology emphasizes energy flow and chemical recycling An ecosystem consists of all the organisms in a community and all the abiotic factors with which they

### A demonstration of acid rain

Asia-Pacific Forum on Science Learning and Teaching, Volume 5, Issue 1, Article 4, p.1 (Apr., 2004) FONG Man Wai Department of Science Hong Kong Institute of Education 10 Lo Ping Road, Tai Po, NT HONG

### Unit 3: Chemistry and Life

Intermediate 1 Chemistry Learning Outcomes Unit 3: Chemistry and Life Photosynthesis and respiration Photosynthesis Plants make their own food by taking in substances from the environment. Plants use light

### HOLT ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE HOW ECOSYSTEMS WORK

HOLT ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE CHAPTER 05 HOW ECOSYSTEMS WORK I. Energy Flow in Ecosystems List two examples of ecological succession. Explain how a pioneer species contributes to ecological succession. Explain

### Molecular Vibrations. Outline Molecular Vibrations Absorbing Gases Effect on Climate Homework

Greenhouse Gases Heat released from the Earth's surface can be absorbed by certain atmospheric molecules. These molecules later release the heat in all directions, effectively trapping some it. The concentration

### CHEMICAL QUANTITIES. Chapter 10

CHEMICAL QUANTITIES Chapter 10 What is a mole? A unit of measurement in chemistry 1 mole of a substance = 6.02 x 10 23 (Avagadro s number) representative particles of a substance Representative particle

Exploring Creation With Chemistry Table of Contents MODULE #1: Measurement and Units...1 Introduction... 1 Experiment 1.1: Air Has Mass... 1 Experiment 1.2: Air Takes Up Space... 2 Units of Measurement...

### Dissolved Oxygen and Aquatic Primary Productivity1

Dissolved Oxygen and Aquatic Primary Productivity1 INTRODUCTION 2 Oxygen is critical to the maintenance of the life processes of nearly all organisms. In the aquatic environment, oxygen must be in solution

### 4/16/13 Objective Review ionic and covalent bonding Identify the signs of a chemical reaction and discuss chemical equations 4/15/13

4/15/13 Illustrate bonding Describe the signs of a chemical reaction and discuss chemical equations Find the charge of the ions below: (int: Ignore the neutrons and compare p and e) 1.5 protons, 6 electrons,

### Name Date. Cycling WebQuest

Name Date Cycling WebQuest Directions: Visit the following websites and answer the related questions. Your goal is to gain a better understanding of the carbon and nitrogen cycles. Background: In biogeochemical

### Acids, Bases and Concentrations

61 Chapter 7 Acids, Bases and Concentrations Thoughts or pictures of a shark usually evoke fear. But most sharks are not harmful to humans and shark attacks while dangerous and sometimes fatal are extremely

### Chapter 2 Chemical and Physical Properties of Sulphur Dioxide and Sulphur Trioxide

Chapter 2 Chemical and Physical Properties of Sulphur Dioxide and Sulphur Trioxide 2.1 Introduction In order to appreciate the impact of the properties of liquid sulphur dioxide and liquid sulphur trioxide

### GCE Environmental Technology. Energy from Biomass. For first teaching from September 2013 For first award in Summer 2014

GCE Environmental Technology Energy from Biomass For first teaching from September 2013 For first award in Summer 2014 Energy from Biomass Specification Content should be able to: Students should be able

### Acid Rain. Everyone's heard of acid rain, but what do we actually know about it? What is this acid rain stuff anyway?

Acid Rain Everyone's heard of acid rain, but what do we actually know about it? What is this acid rain stuff anyway? Where does it come from? What's all the fuss about? How big a problem is it? What can

### CHEM 105 HOUR EXAM III 28-OCT-99. = -163 kj/mole determine H f 0 for Ni(CO) 4 (g) = -260 kj/mole determine H f 0 for Cr(CO) 6 (g)

CHEM 15 HOUR EXAM III 28-OCT-99 NAME (please print) 1. a. given: Ni (s) + 4 CO (g) = Ni(CO) 4 (g) H Rxn = -163 k/mole determine H f for Ni(CO) 4 (g) b. given: Cr (s) + 6 CO (g) = Cr(CO) 6 (g) H Rxn = -26

### The Properties of Water

1 Matter & Energy: Properties of Water, ph, Chemical Reactions EVPP 110 Lecture GMU Dr. Largen Fall 2003 2 The Properties of Water 3 Water - Its Properties and Its Role in the Fitness of Environment importance

### Chemistry Friday 28 October 2016 Paper Two Question book

2016 Senior External Examination Chemistry Friday 28 October 2016 Paper Two Question book 1 pm to 3:10 pm Time allowed Perusal time: 10 minutes Working time: 2 hours Examination materials provided Paper

### Sample Exercise 15.1 Writing Equilibrium-Constant Expressions

Sample Exercise 15.1 Writing Equilibrium-Constant Expressions Write the equilibrium expression for K c for the following reactions: Solution Analyze: We are given three equations and are asked to write

### Grade 7. Objective. Students will be able to:

Grade 7 Objective Students will be able to: Describe the carbon cycle in more detail: o Learn about the importance of carbon and the role it plays in photosynthesis and cellular respiration, Identify elements

### THE WATER CYCLE. Ecology

THE WATER CYCLE Water is the most abundant substance in living things. The human body, for example, is composed of about 70% water, and jellyfish are 95% water. Water participates in many important biochemical

### Chapter 2: The Nature of Molecules and the Properties of Water

Chapter 2: The Nature of Molecules and the Properties of Water Biology is the study of living things, and it is important to understand their chemical nature. The processes that allow life to exist follow

### Oxygen Give and Take. Correlation to National Science Education Standards

Chemistry and Environmental Sciences Oxygen Give and Take Summary This is a series of three activities followed by a worksheet. The concepts taught include gas production (O 2 and CO 2 ), chemical reactions,

### Water Quality Indicators Lab

Water Quality Indicators Lab Introduction Water is an essential resource for all life forms. In fact, water is the main component in cells and it composes up to 60 to 70 percent of the weight of living

### Their energy source is the chemical energy released from hydrogenation of their carbon source --Chemoautotrophs

Methanogens are archeans that convert CO or organic matter into methane an important fuel as well as a greenhouse gas Their energy source is the chemical energy released from hydrogenation of their carbon

### Acid-Base Chemistry of Sugars

Acid-Base Chemistry of Sugars Lewis acids are electron pair acceptors while Lewis bases are electron pair donors. Last time we saw that sugar molecules have a carbonyl carbon that acts as a Lewis acid

### Chapter 9 Acids, Bases and Buffers in the Body Outline 9.1 Acids and Bases Definitions Acids

Lecture Presentation Chapter 9 Acids, Bases and Buffers in the Body Julie Klare Fortis College Smyrna, GA Outline 9.1 Acids and Bases Definitions 9.2 Strong Acids and Bases 9.3 Chemical Equilibrium 9.4

### 1 of 6 12/3/2009 4:47 PM

1 of 6 12/3/2009 4:47 PM Chapter 16 Homework Due: 9:00am on Tuesday December 1 2009 Note: To understand how points are awarded read your instructor's Grading Policy. [Return to Standard Assignment View]

### ATMOSPHERE COMPOSITION AND STRUCTURE

MODULE - 4 Atmosphere Composition and Structure 9 ATMOSPHERE COMPOSITION AND STRUCTURE Earth is a unique planet because the life is found only on this planet. The air has a special place among the conditions

### How are ecosystems different?

Lesson 1 Cycles in Ecosystems Lesson 2 Changes in Ecosystems Lesson 3 Biomes Lesson 4 Water Ecosystems How are ecosystems different? water cycle evaporation condensation precipitation watershed runoff

### 12.1 How do sub-atomic particles help us to understand the structure of substances?

12.1 How do sub-atomic particles help us to understand the structure of substances? Simple particle theory is developed in this unit to include atomic structure and bonding. The arrangement of electrons

### Purpose of Gas Exchange

Respiration: Gas Exchange / Acid Base Balance Animal Physiology Spring, 2008 Purpose of Gas Exchange To transfer oxygen from the atmosphere to tissues of the body, and to move metabolically produced carbon

### Urban Ecology: Watersheds and Aquatic Ecology A BIOBUGS program

NAME: Urban Ecology: Watersheds and Aquatic Ecology A BIOBUGS program Objective: To describe the health of the Muddy River in the Fens wetlands system of Boston by examining abiotic and biotic parameters.

### Chemistry B11 Chapter 4 Chemical reactions

Chemistry B11 Chapter 4 Chemical reactions Chemical reactions are classified into five groups: A + B AB Synthesis reactions (Combination) H + O H O AB A + B Decomposition reactions (Analysis) NaCl Na +Cl

### Gas Laws. vacuum. 760 mm. air pressure. mercury

Gas Laws Some chemical reactions take place in the gas phase and others produce products that are gases. We need a way to measure the quantity of compounds in a given volume of gas and relate that to moles.

### Commensalism is a symbiotic relationship in which one organism benefits and the other organism is not affected.. What they might ask:

B-6.1 Explain how the interrelationships among organisms (including predation, competition, parasitism, mutualism, and commensalism) generate stability within ecosystems. ecosystem - biotic community (all

### Water Pollution and Algal Blooms in the Coastal Waters of the U.S.

Water Pollution and Algal Blooms in the Coastal Waters of the U.S. edited by David L. Alles Western Washington University e-mail: alles@biol.wwu.edu Last updated 2008-2-27 Note: In PDF format most of the

### AgriLife Extension Solutions

Understanding Water Quality Reports for Your Pond Todd Sink, Ph.D. Extension Fisheries Specialist Texas A&M AgriLife Extension Service Mikayla House Texas A&M AgriLife Extension Service Water quality tests

### Chapter 55: Ecosystems and Restoration Ecology

Chapter 55: Ecosystems and Restoration Ecology Overview: 1. What is an ecosystem? Name Period An ecosystem is the sum of all the organisms living in a given area and the abiotic factors with which they

### 21 st Century Chemistry Multiple Choice Question in Topic 3 Metals Unit 11

21 st Century Chemistry Multiple Choice Question in Topic 3 Metals Unit 11 1. Consider the equation: 2Ca(s) + O 2 (g) 2CaO(s) Which of the following statements are correct? (1) Calcium and oxygen are reactants.

### 4.4. Water Quality Chemical and Physical Factors. Dissolved Oxygen

ater Quality Chemical and Physical Factors How do we determine quality? Factors such as size, color, and flavor might be used to determine the quality of an apple. The intended "use" is another factor

### Protecting Our Water Resources: Student Activities for the Classroom. Water Resource Educational Activities for Kindergarten through Ninth Grade

Title: Decaying Substances and Water Pollution Time: 5 class periods Objectives: Observe oxygen consumption caused by natural pollutants. Understand the use of a control when conducting experiments. Introduction:

### How to measure Total Phosphorus: Ascorbic Acid Method

World Bank & Government of The Netherlands funded Training module # WQ - 41 How to measure Total Phosphorus: Ascorbic Acid Method New Delhi, May 2000 CSMRS Building, 4th Floor, Olof Palme Marg, Hauz Khas,

### Name AP CHEM / / Collected AP Exam Essay Answers for Chapter 16

Name AP CHEM / / Collected AP Exam Essay Answers for Chapter 16 1980 - #7 (a) State the physical significance of entropy. Entropy (S) is a measure of randomness or disorder in a system. (b) From each of

### Section 13.1 Ecologists Study Relationships. KEY CONCEPT Ecology is the study of the relationships among organisms and their environment.

Section 13.1 Ecologists Study Relationships KEY CONCEPT Ecology is the study of the relationships among organisms and their environment. Ecologists study environments at different levels of organization.

### Cycles of Matter. Chapter 13- Lesson 3

Cycles of Matter Chapter 13- Lesson 3 What processes are involved in the water cycle? Matter in an ecosystem includes water, carbon, oxygen, nitrogen, and many other substances. The water cycle is the

### ECOSYSTEMS: THE ROLE OF ABIOTIC FACTORS from the series Biology: The Science of Life Pre-Test

1 Pre-Test Directions: Answer each of the following either true or false: 1. In ecosystems, non-living (abiotic) factors usually have insignificant effects on living things. True False 2. Carbon dioxide

### How Ecosystems Work ( Holt Environmental Science Chapter 5)

How Ecosystems Work ( Holt Environmental Science Chapter 5) Study online at quizlet.com/_i2rl5 1. AUTOTROPH OR PRODUCER Organism that makes its own food by photosynthesis 2. Biodiversity When an ecosystem

### Soil ph: Review of Concepts. Definition of ph. Soils and Water, Spring Lecture 6, Soil ph and Salinity 1

Soils and Water, Spring 007 Soil ph: Review of Concepts Acid: substance that can donate a proton Base: substance that can accept a proton HA H A HA and A - are called conjugate acid-base pairs. The strength

### Option C: Energy. Greenhouse effect

Option C: Energy C.5 Environmental Impact: Global Warming Greenhouse effect Natural greenhouse effect: absorption of infrared radiation by natural greenhouse gases (CO 2 and H 2 O vapour) in the atmosphere

### Earth Systems. Overview of Earth s Spheres. The Earth consists of four 'spheres' which pertain to the Earth's major reservoirs of matter and energy.

Earth Systems Overview of Earth s Spheres The Earth consists of four 'spheres' which pertain to the Earth's major reservoirs of matter and energy. LITHOSPHERE: The solid, rocky shell of the Earth is the

### WATER QUALITY TESTING

WATER QUALITY TESTING OBJECTIVES Identify different water quality parameters and how to perform water quality tests by sampling water at a local creek Conduct independent study to learn more about the

### Colligative Properties

CH302 LaBrake and Vanden Bout Colligative Properties PROBLEM #1: Give the molecular formula, the van t hoff factor for the following Ionic Compounds as well as guess the solubility of the compounds. If

### CTB3365x Introduction to Water Treatment

CTB3365x Introduction to Water Treatment 1c Drinking water chemistry Doris van Halem Hi, great that you tuned in again for this water treatment lecture. My name is Doris van Halem and I am an Assistant

### AP ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE 2014 SCORING GUIDELINES

AP ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE 2014 SCORING GUIDELINES Question 4 (a) The atmosphere is one important carbon reservoir. (i) Describe a biological process by which carbon is removed from the atmosphere and converted

### Nitrogen Cycling in Ecosystems

Nitrogen Cycling in Ecosystems In order to have a firm understanding of how nitrogen impacts our ecosystems, it is important that students fully understand how the various forms of nitrogen cycle through

Chapter 6 Student Reading What is a chemical reaction? There are many common examples of chemical reactions. For instance, chemical reactions happen when baking cookies and in your digestive system when

### Ch. 10 Stoichiometry. Stoichiometry relates molar ratios between reactants and products in a chemical equation

Ch. 10 Stoichiometry Stoichiometry relates molar ratios between reactants and products in a chemical equation Used to determine moles of reactants needed Used to determine moles of products formed Conservation

### Name: Thermochemistry. Practice Test A. General Chemistry Honors Chemistry

Name: Thermochemistry Practice Test A General Chemistry Honors Chemistry 1 Objective 1: Use the relationship between mass, specific heat, and temperature change to calculate the heat flow during a chemical

### Energy & Matter in Ecosystems. Chapter 13

Energy & Matter in Ecosystems Chapter 13 The Big Idea Matter cycles between organisms and the abiotic environment. Energy flows one way, from sunlight to producers to consumers and decomposers. Lesson

### Water Treatment Filtration Lab. discharged into an aquatic ecosystem? We had to build a water filtration system with

Water Treatment Filtration Lab Brandon Lyons P.5 APES Abstract: How could polluted water be remediated so that it could support life when it is discharged into an aquatic ecosystem? We had to build a water

### Chemistry Final Exam Review

Name: Date: Block: Chemistry Final Exam Review 2012-2013 Unit 1: Measurement, Numbers, Scientific Notation, Conversions, Dimensional Analysis 1. Write 0.000008732 in scientific notation 8.732x10-6 2. Write

### 2. What kind of energy is stored in food? A. chemical energy B. heat energy C. kinetic energy D. light energy

Assessment Bank Matter and Energy in Living Things SC.8.L.18.4 1. What is energy? A. anything that takes up space B. anything that has mass C. the ability to conduct current D. the ability to do work 2.

### 1. Its concentration in the atmosphere 2. Its ability to absorb IR radiation 3. Its lifetime in the atmosphere

The greenhouse effect - global warming: Radiation from the sun reaches the planet. The radiation is absorbed by the Earth and re emitted as IR radiation. Most of this IR radiation goes back into space

### Dissolved Oxygen. Evaluation copy. levels over a short period of time may be the result of Temperature

Dissolved Oxygen Computer 5 INTRODUCTION Oxygen gas dissolved in water is vital to the existence of most aquatic organisms. Oxygen is a key component in cellular respiration for both aquatic and terrestrial

### baking soda a solid material in the form of a white powder; also called sodium bicarbonate (IG)

FOSS Mixtures and Solutions Module Glossary NGSS Edition 2016 analyze to examine carefully (IG) atmosphere the layer of gases surrounding Earth (air) baking soda a solid material in the form of a white

### Sugar Polymers. Disaccharides. Bread, pasta, potatoes, rice and other foods from grains are rich in starch.

Sugar Polymers Plants and animals use polysaccharides, such as starch and glycogen, for the longer-term storage of energy. These can be readily hydrolyzed by enzymes to simple sugars. Other polysaccharides

### Water Quality 101 Dr. Mike Mallin and Matthew McIver Aquatic Ecology Laboratory UNCW-Center for Marine Science

Water Quality 101 Dr. Mike Mallin and Matthew McIver Aquatic Ecology Laboratory UNCW-Center for Marine Science Common Water Quality Sampling Parameters and Analytical Procedures Water temperature Salinity

### Topic 3: Nutrition, Photosynthesis, and Respiration

1. Base your answer to the following question on the chemical reaction represented below and on your knowledge of biology. If this reaction takes place in an organism that requires sunlight to produce

### GCSE COMBINED SCIENCE: TRILOGY

GCSE COMBINED SCIENCE: TRILOGY Higher Tier Paper 4: Chemistry 2H H Specimen 2018 Time allowed: 1 hour 15 minutes Materials For this paper you must have: a ruler a calculator the periodic table (enclosed)

### What are the subsystems of the Earth? The 4 spheres

What are the subsystems of the Earth? The 4 spheres Essential Questions What are the 4 spheres of the Earth? How do these spheres interact? What are the major cycles of the Earth? How do humans impact

### CHEMISTRY STANDARDS BASED RUBRIC ATOMIC STRUCTURE AND BONDING

CHEMISTRY STANDARDS BASED RUBRIC ATOMIC STRUCTURE AND BONDING Essential Standard: STUDENTS WILL UNDERSTAND THAT THE PROPERTIES OF MATTER AND THEIR INTERACTIONS ARE A CONSEQUENCE OF THE STRUCTURE OF MATTER,

### Soil ph: Review of Concepts

Soils and Water, Spring 009 Soil ph: Review of Concepts Acid: substance that can donate a proton Base: substance that can accept a proton HA H A HA and A - are called conjugate acid-base pairs. The strength

### Autotrophs and Heterotrophs

Questions/ Main Ideas 8 1 Energy and Life Autotrophs and Heterotrophs Chemical Energy and ATP Energy is the ability to do work. Nearly every activity in modern society depends on one kind of energy or

### Ecosystem Ecology. Community interacts with abiotic factors. Objectives

Ecosystem Ecology Community interacts with abiotic factors Objectives Compare the processes of energy flow and chemical cycling as they relate to ecosystem dynamics. Define and list examples of producers,

### Water pollution fact sheet! Source:

Water pollution fact sheet! Source: http://www.water-pollution.org.uk/ This fact sheet covers all main objectives for lesson plan, and is a tool for the instructor when presenting the topic in class. 7