Define and calculate the economic growth rate, and explain the implications of sustained growth.

Save this PDF as:

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Define and calculate the economic growth rate, and explain the implications of sustained growth."

Transcription

1 Economic Growth Chapter CHAPTER CHECKLIST Chapter 9 discusses the factors that determine economic growth, studies different theories that explain economic growth, and examines possible government polices to speed economic growth. Define and calculate the economic growth rate, and explain the implications of sustained growth. Economic growth is a sustained expansion of production possibilities and is measured as the increase in real GDP over a given time period. The economic growth rate is the annual percentage change of real GDP. The standard of living depends on real GDP per person, which equals real GDP divided by the population. The Rule of 70 says that the number of years it takes for the level of a variable to double approximately equals 70 divided by the annual percentage growth rate of the variable. Explain the sources of labor productivity growth. Labor productivity is the quantity of real GDP produced by one hour of labor. When labor productivity grows, real GDP per person grows. Growth of labor productivity depends on saving and investment in more physical capital, and expansion of human capital and discovery of better technologies. Capital is subject to the law of diminishing returns. The productivity curve is the relationship that shows how real GDP per hour of labor changes as the quantity of capital per hour of labor changes. As the quantity of capital per hour of labor increases, additional capital raises labor productivity by less. Expansion of human capital and discovery of better technologies shift the productivity curve upward, increasing labor productivity. Real GDP equals labor productivity multiplied by aggregate hours of labor. Review the theories of economic growth. Old growth theory, called the classical theory, predicts that labor productivity growth is temporary. If real GDP rises above the subsistence level, a population explosion occurs. Labor productivity falls and real GDP per person returns to the subsistence level. New growth theory predicts that our unlimited wants will lead us to ever greater labor productivity and perpetual economic growth. It emphasizes that human capital growth and discoveries are the result of choices. It also says that technological discoveries bring profit and competition destroys profit, thereby creating the incentive for more technological discoveries. Additionally as capital increases, although a firm experiences diminishing returns, the economy does not which means that labor productivity can grow indefinitely. Describe policies that speed economic growth. The preconditions for economic growth are economic freedom, property rights, and markets. Economic freedom occurs when people are able to make personal choices, their private property is protected by rule of law, and they are free to buy and sell in markets. Governments can increase economic growth by creating incentives to save, invest, and innovate; by encouraging saving; by encouraging research and development; by encouraging international trade; and by improving the quality of education.

2 122 Part 3. THE REAL ECONOMY CHECKPOINT 9.1 Define and calculate the economic growth rate, and explain the implications of sustained growth. Quick Review Growth rate The growth rate of real GDP equals Real GDP in Real GDP in - current year previous year ( Real GDP in previous year) 100 Growth rate of real GDP per person The growth rate of real GDP per person equals (growth rate of real GDP) (growth rate of population). Rule of 70 The number of years it takes for the level of any variable to double is approximately 70 divided by the annual percentage growth rate of the variable. Additional Practice Problem In the nation of Transylvania in 2009, real GDP was \$3.0 million and the population was 1,000. In 2010, real GDP was \$3.3 million and the population was 1,050. a. What is Transylvania s economic growth rate in 2010? b. What is the population growth rate? c. What is Transylvania s growth rate of real GDP per person? d. Did Transylvania s standard of living rise? e. Approximately how long will it take for real GDP per person to double? Solution to Additional Practice Problem This question uses three growth rate formulas. The first is the formula that calculates the economic growth rate; the second is the formula that calculates the growth rate of real GDP per person; the third is the Rule of 70. 1a. The economic growth rate is the growth rate of real GDP. Transylvania s economic growth rate equals [(\$3.3 million \$3.0 million) \$3.0 million] 100 = 10 percent. 1b. Transylvania s population growth rate equals [(1,050 1,000) 1,000] 100 = 5 percent. 1c. Transylvania s real GDP per person growth rate equals the growth rate of real GDP minus the growth rate of the population, or 10 percent 5 percent = 5 percent. 1d. Transylvania s real GDP per person rose, so Transylvania s standard of living increased. 1e. The number of years it takes for real GDP per person to double is given by the Rule of 70. Transylvania s real GDP per person is growing at 5 percent per year, so it will take approximately 70 5 or 14 years for Transylvania s real GDP per person to double. Self Test 9.1 The growth rate of real GDP equals real GDP in the current year minus real GDP in the previous year divided by real GDP in the (current; previous) year, then multiplied by 100. The growth rate of real GDP per person equals the growth rate of real GDP (minus; plus) the growth rate of the population. The number of years it takes for the level of any variable to double is approximately divided by the annual percentage growth rate of the variable. 1. If real GDP last year was \$1.00 trillion and real GDP this year is \$1.05 trillion, the growth rate of real GDP this year is 5 percent. 2. Real GDP per person equals real GDP divided by the population. 3. If a nation s population grows at 2 percent and its real GDP grows at 4 percent, then the growth rate of real GDP per person is 2 percent. 4. If real GDP is growing at 2 percent a year, it will take 50 years for real GDP to double.

3 Chapter 9. Economic Growth The economic growth rate is measured as the a. annual percentage change of real GDP. b. annual percentage change of employment. c. level of real GDP. d. annual percentage change of the population. e. amount of population. 2. Real GDP is \$9 trillion in the current year and \$8.6 trillion in the previous year. The economic growth rate between these years has been a percent. b percent. c percent. d percent. e. \$0.4 trillion. 3. The standard of living is measured by a. real GDP. b. employment. c. employment per person. d. real GDP per person. e. the population. 4. If the population growth rate is greater than the growth rate of real GDP, then real GDP per person a. falls. b. rises. c. does not change. d. might rise or fall. e. cannot be measured. 5. If real GDP increases by 6 percent and at the same time the population increases by 2 percent, then real GDP per person grows by a. 6 percent. b. 4 percent. c. 2 percent. d. 8 percent. e. 3 percent. 6. If a country s real GDP is growing at 4 percent a year, its real GDP will double in a. 14 years. b years. c years. d. 35 years. e. 25 years. Real GDP Year (billions of 2005 dollars) The above table gives a nation s real GDP. What is the growth rate of real GDP in 2011? In 2012? In 2013? Real GDP growth rate (percent) Population growth rate (percent) Year The table above has a nation s real GDP growth rate and its population growth rate. a. What is the growth rate of real GDP per person for each year? b. In what years did the standard of living improve? 3. If a nation s real GDP grows at 3 percent a year, how long does it take for real GDP to double? If the growth rate is 4 percent, how long does it take for real GDP to double? If the growth rate is 5 percent, how long does it take real GDP to double? 1. In Canada, real GDP was \$1,012 billion in 2000 and \$1,028 billion in The population was 30.8 million in 2000 and 31.1 million in Calculate Canada s economic growth rate in 2001, the growth rate of real GDP per person in Canada in 2001, and the approximate number of years it will take for real GDP per person in Canada to double if the 2001 economic growth and population growth rates are maintained. 2. Calculate the change in the number of years it will take for real GDP per person in China to double if its economic growth rate increases from 10.6 percent to 12 percent a year and its population growth rate rises from 1 percent to 2 percent a year.

4 124 Part 3. THE REAL ECONOMY CHECKPOINT 9.2 Explain the sources of labor productivity growth. Quick Review Labor productivity Labor productivity equals real GDP divided by aggregate hours. When labor productivity grows, real GDP per person grows. Additional Practice Problem 9.2 Item Aggregate hours (billions) Real GDP (trillions of 2005 dollars) The table above provides some data for the U.S. economy in 2003 and a. What is the growth rate of real GDP in 2004? b. What is labor productivity in 2003 and 2004? c. Calculate the growth rate of labor productivity in d. How does the growth rate of labor productivity you calculated compare with the typical growth in the United States since 1960? Solution to Additional Practice Problem 9.2 1a. The growth rate of real GDP in 2004 is [(\$10.76 trillion \$10.32 trillion) \$10.32 trillion] 100, which is 4.3 percent. 1b. Labor productivity is real GDP divided by aggregate hours. So labor productivity in 2003 is \$10.32 trillion billion hours, which is \$44.44 per hour of labor. In 2004 labor productivity is \$10.76 trillion billion hours, which is \$45.88 per hour of labor. 1c. The growth rate of labor productivity is labor productivity in 2004 minus the labor productivity in 2003, divided by labor productivity in 2003, all multiplied by 100. The growth rate of labor productivity equals [(\$45.88 per hour \$44.44 per hour) \$44.44 per hour] 100, which is 3.24 percent. 1d. The increase in labor productivity in 2004 was lower than in the early 1960s but was higher than the average since then. Self Test 9.2 Labor productivity equals real GDP (multiplied by; divided by) aggregate hours. Saving and investment in physical capital (increase; decrease) labor productivity. If the quantity of capital is small, an increase in capital brings a (large; small) increase in production. The productivity curve shows that if the quantity of capital per hour of labor is small, an increase in capital brings a (large; small) increase in labor productivity. Education, training, and job experience increase (investment in physical capital; human capital). Advances in technology result in (a movement upward along the productivity curve; an upward shift of the productivity curve). Real GDP grows when and grow. 1. Real GDP increases if aggregate hours increase or labor productivity increases. 2. If labor productivity increases and aggregate hours do not change, then real GDP per person increases. 3. Capital is not subject to the law of diminishing returns. 4. The productivity curve shows that an increase in capital decreases labor productivity. 5. The discovery and applications of new technology has increased labor productivity. 6. Growth of human capital increases labor productivity and shifts the productivity curve upward. 1. If real GDP is \$1,200 billion, the population is 60 million, and aggregate hours are 80 billion, labor productivity is a. \$5.00 an hour. b. \$6.67 an hour. c. \$15.00 an hour. d. \$20,000. e. \$150 an hour.

5 Chapter 9. Economic Growth If aggregate hours are 100 billion hours and labor productivity is \$40 an hour, than real GDP equals a. \$100 billion. b. \$40 billion. c. \$100 trillion. d. \$2.5 trillion. e. \$4 trillion. 3. Which of the following lists gives factors that increase labor productivity? a. saving and investment in physical capital, and wage increases b. expansion of human capital, labor force increases, and discovery of new technologies c. expansion of human capital, population growth, and discovery of new technologies d. saving and investment in physical capital, expansion of human capital, and discovery of new technologies e. labor force increases and wage increases 4. Growth in physical capital depends most directly upon the a. amount of saving and investment. b. number of firms in the nation. c. rate of population growth. d. amount of government expenditures. e. level of human capital. 5. Human capital is a. the same as labor productivity. b. a measure of the number of labor hours available. c. the accumulated skills and knowledge of workers. d. the average number of years of schooling of the labor force. e. is what people are born with and cannot be changed. 6. The productivity curve shifts upward when a. physical capital increases. b. human capital decreases. c. hours of labor increase. d. hours of labor decrease. e. technology advances. Complete the graph 1. Figure 9.1 shows a productivity curve. a. How does this figure show diminishing marginal returns? b. In the figure, show the effect of an increase in human capital. c. In the figure, show the effect of an advance in technology Real GDP (trillion of 2005 dollars) Aggregate hours (billions) Year The table above has data from the United States. For each year, calculate labor productivity. 2. Real GDP is \$9 trillion and aggregate hours are 200 billion. What is labor productivity? 3. Aggregate hours are 200 billion and labor productivity is \$45 an hour. What is real GDP? 4. What three factors increase labor productivity?

10 130 Part 3. THE REAL ECONOMY SELF TEST ANSWERS CHECKPOINT 9.1 The growth rate of real GDP equals real GDP in the current year minus real GDP in the previous year divided by real GDP in the previous year, then multiplied by 100. The growth rate of real GDP per person equals the growth rate of real GDP minus the growth rate of the population. The number of years it takes for the level of any variable to double is approximately 70 divided by the annual percentage growth rate of the variable. 1. True; page True; page True; page False; page a; page b; page d; page a; page b; page b; page percent; 10 percent; 10 percent; page a. 1 percent; 2 percent; 1 percent; 0 percent; page 212. b and 2006; page Use the Rule of 70. So, 70 3 = 23.3 years; 70 4 = 17.5 years; 70 5 = 14 years; page Canada s economic growth rate = [(\$1,028 billion \$1,012 billion) \$1,012] billion 100 = 1.6 percent. The growth rate of Canada s population is [(31.1 million 30.8 million) 30.8 million] 100, which is 1.0 percent. Canada s growth rate of real GDP per person = 1.6 percent 1.0 percent = 0.6 percent. Real GDP per person doubles in approximately = years; pages Before the changes, real GDP per person is growing at 10.6 percent 1 percent = 9.6 percent per year. At this rate, real GDP per person will double in approximately = 7.3 years. After the changes, real GDP per person is growing at 12.0 percent 2 percent = 10.0 percent per year. At this rate, real GDP per person will double in approximately = 7.0 years. So these changes shave 0.3 of a year off of the time it takes for real GDP to double; page 213. CHECKPOINT 9.2 Labor productivity equals real GDP divided by aggregate hours. Saving and investment in physical capital increase labor productivity. If the quantity of capital is small, an increase in capital brings a large increase in production. The productivity curve shows that if the quantity of capital per hour of labor is small, an increase in capital brings a large increase in labor productivity. Education, training, and job experience increase human capital. Advances in technology result in an upward shift of the productivity curve. Real GDP grows when the quantity of labor and labor productivity grow. 1. True; pages 216, True; page False; page False; page True; pages True; page c; page e; page d; page a; page 216

11 Chapter 9. Economic Growth c; page e; page 220 Complete the graph 1. a. Diminishing marginal returns mean that when capital per hour of labor is small, an increase brings a larger increase in real GDP per hour of labor than when capital per hour of labor is large. This law is shown by the shape of the productivity curve. In the figure, along productivity curve PC an increase in capital per hour of labor from \$20 to \$40 raises real GDP per hour of labor by \$15 while an increase from \$60 to \$80 increases real GDP per hour of labor by only \$5; page 218. b. An increase in human capital shifts the productivity curve upward, in Figure 9.2 to a curve such as PC1; page 220. c. Similar to an increase in human capital, an advance in technology shifts the productivity curve upward, in Figure 9.2 again to a curve such as PC1; page Labor productivity equals real GDP aggregate hours. So labor productivity in 1964 was \$22.45 an hour; in 1974 was \$27.22 an hour; in 1984 was \$31.35 an hour; in 1994 was \$37.07 an hour; and in 2004 was \$45.88 an hour; page Labor productivity is \$45 an hour; page Real GDP is \$9 trillion; page Three factors increase labor productivity. First, increasing saving and investment in physical capital gives workers more capital with which to work, which increases labor productivity. Second, increasing the amount of human capital makes workers more productive and increases labor productivity. Human capital can increase either through formal schooling or on-the-job experience. Finally, discovering new technologies makes workers more productive and increases labor productivity. Often these new technologies are embedded in new capital equipment; pages Growth rate of real GDP in 2011 = [(\$10,070 billion \$9,500 billion) \$9,500 billion] 100 = 6.0 percent; page Labor productivity in 2010 = \$9,500 billion 240 billion hours = \$39.58 an hour. Labor productivity in 2011 = \$10,070 billion billion hours = \$40.34 an hour; page The growth rate of labor productivity equals the change in labor productivity divided by the initial level and then multiplied by 100, which is [(\$40.34 \$39.58) \$39.58] 100 = 1.92 percent; page The growth rate of capital per hour of labor equals the change in capital per hour of labor divided by the initial level and then multiplied by 100, which equals [(\$107.1 \$105.0) \$105.0] 100 = 2.00 percent. The growth of labor productivity grew by almost the same amount, 1.92 percent. The fact that these two growth rates were so close is random chance because factors other than the capital per hour of labor influence labor productivity. In particular, if human capital expands or technology advances, labor productivity will grow more rapidly. Additionally, there is no necessary reason why growth in capital per hour of labor should translate one-to-one into growth in labor productivity; pages

12 132 Part 3. THE REAL ECONOMY CHECKPOINT 9.3 The classical growth theory is the same as the Malthusian theory. Classical growth theory says an increase in real GDP per person leads to more rapid growth in the population. New growth theory says that economic growth will persist indefinitely. According to new growth theory, technological advances are the result of people s pursuit of profit. New growth theory concludes that the economy does not experience diminishing returns. The description that growth is like a perpetual motion machine best fits the new growth theory. 1. True; page False; page True; page True; page True; page a; page b; page d; page b; pages b; pages In the classical growth theory, advances in technology start a temporary period of economic growth. Ultimately, however, economic growth stops. In the new growth theory, economic growth continues indefinitely, in part because technology grows indefinitely; page Population growth plays a crucial role only in the classical growth theory. In the classical, or Malthusian theory, population growth after a technological advance forces the economy back to a subsistence real income; page The new growth theory assumes that although a firm is subject to diminishing returns, the economy is not subject to diminishing returns. So as capital accumulates, economy-wide labor productivity grows indefinitely; page The most optimistic theory is the new growth theory, which concludes that economic growth can continue forever. The most pessimistic theory is the old growth theory, which concludes that the economy will return to a subsistence level of real income; pages First, human capital grows because of choices. Second, discoveries result from choices. Lastly, discoveries bring profit and competition destroys profit. With respect to the first factor, human capital growth depends, in part, on how long people remain in school, what they study, and how hard they study. Discoveries result from choices, which depend on how many people are looking for new technology and how intensively they are looking, not mere luck. And, competition serves to squeeze profits. People are constantly seeking lower-cost methods of production or new and better products, which leads to economic growth; pages New growth theory suggests that diminishing returns are not growth limiting. According to the new growth theory, as capital accumulates, labor productivity grows indefinitely as long as people devote resources to expanding human capital and introducing new technologies. In addition, new growth theory points out that even though there might be diminishing returns to a firm, there are not necessarily diminishing returns to the economy as a whole because activities can be replicated. In other words, it is possible for the economy as a whole to add another, say, computer chip factory identical to a first factory. Because the second factory is identical to the first, the output should be identical to the first and so the economy as whole does not experience diminishing returns; page According to the old growth theory, that is

13 Chapter 9. Economic Growth 133 the classical theory of growth, an effort by China to slow population growth by limiting the number of children in each family initially would have the effect of increasing the amount of capital per hour of labor. So, labor productivity and real GDP per person increase. As GDP per person rises, real GDP per person rises above the subsistence level and population should increase yet again. The overall effect is unclear: If China can successfully limit population growth in face of the tendency for it to increase when real GDP per person rises, then real GDP per person can remain above the subsistence level. However, if China's best efforts are insufficient, then the rise in GDP per person serves to increase population growth and real GDP per person returns to the subsistence level. According to new growth theory, the pace at which new discoveries are made and at which technology advances depends on how many people are looking for a new technology and how intensively they are looking. This assumption leads to the conclusion that efforts to limit population through regulating the number of children that people are allowed to have will lead to a reduction in the discovery of new technologies and a decrease in the rate of labor productivity growth. So, China s growth policy slows the growth in real GDP per person; pages CHECKPOINT 9.4 Economic freedom, property rights, and markets are preconditions for economic growth. Policies the government can take to encourage faster economic growth are to create incentive mechanisms; encourage saving; encourage research and development; encourage international trade; and improve the quality of education. 1. False; page False; page True; page False; page c; page d; page d; pages b; pages b; page a; page No, economic growth does not necessarily occur when all preconditions for growth are satisfied. Without the preconditions, economic growth will not occur but simply having them is not enough to guarantee economic growth. For growth to occur and be persistent, people must have incentives that encourage saving and investment, expansion of human capital, and the discovery and application of new technologies. With these incentives and the preconditions, economic persisting growth will occur; pages Growth begins when people can specialize in the activities in which they have a comparative advantage and trade with each other. As an economy reaps the benefits from specialization and trade, production and consumption grow, real GDP per person increases, and the standard of living rises; page No, the government cannot create a huge increase in the economic growth rate. The government can pursue policies that will nudge the growth rate upward. And, over time, policies that create even small increases in the economic growth rate will have large benefits; page The importance of these technological advances is hard to overstate. For instance, the next time you watch a movie from the 1930s, the 1940s, the 1950s, the 1960s, 1970s, or even the 1980s look carefully at what is not present. Do you see portable

14 134 Part 3. THE REAL ECONOMY computers? Smart phones? ipads? Elaborate life-saving equipment in hospitals? Cars with enhanced safety features and incredible durability? GPS? The answers are, of course, no. All of these technological advances came in response to people s insatiable desire for a higher standard of living and other people s equally insatiable pursuit of profit. 1. The key reason why economic growth is either absent or slow is that some societies lack the incentive system that encourages growthproducing activities. And economic freedom is the fundamental precondition for creating the incentives that lead to economic growth; page Economic freedom is not the same as democracy. The rule of law is the key requirement to economic freedom, not democracy. Several non-democratic countries enjoy economic freedom and achieve rapid economic growth. China is an example of a nondemocratic but rapidly growing nation; page Markets enable people to trade and to save and invest. Markets are where buyers and sellers get information and do business with each other; pages Free trade stimulates growth by extracting all the available gains from specialization and exchange. Countries that have substantial trade barriers often have slower economic growth because the restrictions they impose on their countries promote inefficient industries and punish potentially efficient industries that could find markets beyond their borders; page 230.

Economic growth rate and the implications of sustained growth. The economic growth trends in Canada and other countries and regions

22 Economic Growth Learning Objectives Economic growth rate and the implications of sustained growth The economic growth trends in Canada and other countries and regions Labour productivity growth and

University of Lethbridge Department of Economics ECON 1012 Introduction to Microeconomics Instructor: Michael G. Lanyi. Chapter 22 Economic Growth

University of Lethbridge Department of Economics ECON 1012 Introduction to Microeconomics Instructor: Michael G. Lanyi Chapter 22 Economic Growth 1) Economic growth is A) equal to real GDP per capita multiplied

Potential GDP and Economic Growth

Potential GDP and Economic Growth CHAPTER17 C H A P T E R C H E C K L I S T When you have completed your study of this chapter, you will be able to 1 Explain the forces that determine potential GDP and

Chapter Which organization lends money to developing countries? A) EU. B) NAFTA. C) World Bank. D) WTO.

Chapter 7 1. Which organization lends money to developing countries? A) EU. B) NAFTA. C) World Bank. D) WTO. 2. Malthus and other Classical growth economists A) correctly predicted the mass starvations

Aggregate Expenditure Multiplier

Aggregate Expenditure Multiplier Chapter CHAPTER CHECKLIST Explain how real GDP influences expenditure plans. Aggregate planned expenditure is planned consumption expenditure plus planned investment plus

EC2105, Professor Laury EXAM 2, FORM A (3/13/02)

EC2105, Professor Laury EXAM 2, FORM A (3/13/02) Print Your Name: ID Number: Multiple Choice (32 questions, 2.5 points each; 80 points total). Clearly indicate (by circling) the ONE BEST response to each

CHAPTER 7: AGGREGATE DEMAND AND AGGREGATE SUPPLY

CHAPTER 7: AGGREGATE DEMAND AND AGGREGATE SUPPLY Learning goals of this chapter: What forces bring persistent and rapid expansion of real GDP? What causes inflation? Why do we have business cycles? How

The session previously discussed important variables such as inflation, unemployment and GDP. We also alluded to factors that cause economic growth

The session previously discussed important variables such as inflation, unemployment and GDP. We also alluded to factors that cause economic growth enabling us to produce more and more to achieve higher

What causes the business cycle? Why did U.S. economy go into recession in 2008?

What causes the business cycle? Why did U.S. economy go into recession in 2008? Aggregate Supply and 13 Aggregate Demand When you have completed your study of this chapter, you will be able to CHAPTER

Aggregate Supply and Aggregate Demand

Aggregate Supply and Aggregate Demand Chapter CHAPTER CHECKLIST Define and explain the influences on aggregate supply. Aggregate supply is the output from all firms. Other things remaining the same, the

MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.

Econ 111 Summer 2007 Final Exam Name MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) The classical dichotomy allows us to explore economic growth

Name (Please print) Assigned Seat. ECO202: PRINCIPLES OF MACROECONOMICS FIRST MIDTERM EXAM SPRING 2011 Prof. Bill Even FORM 1.

Name (Please print) Assigned Seat ECO202: PRINCIPLES OF MACROECONOMICS FIRST MIDTERM EXAM SPRING 2011 Prof. Bill Even FORM 1 Directions 1. Fill in your scantron with your unique id and form number. Doing

18. Refer to the above diagram. A shortage of 160 units would be encountered if price was: A. \$1.10, that is, \$1.60 minus \$.50.

Exam Review 1. When economists say that people act rationally in their self interest, they mean that individuals: A. look for and pursue opportunities to increase their utility. B. generally disregard

INTRODUCTION THE U.S. ECONOMY: A GLOBAL VIEW WHAT AMERICA PRODUCES COMPARATIVE OUTPUT PER CAPITA GDP COMPARATIVE OUTPUT

Chapter 2 THE U.S. ECONOMY: A GLOBAL VIEW INTRODUCTION Each nation has very different production possibilities and uses different mechanisms for deciding WHAT, HOW, and FOR WHOM to produce. The objective

7 AGGREGATE SUPPLY AND AGGREGATE DEMAND* Chapter. Aggregate Supply

Chapter 7 AGGREGATE SUPPLY AND AGGREGATE DEMAND* Aggregate Supply Topic: Aggregate Supply/Aggregate Demand Model 1) The aggregate supply/aggregate demand model is used to help understand all of the following

Common Sense Economics Part II. Seven Major Sources of Economic Progress Practice Test Multiple Choice Questions

Common Sense Economics Part II. Seven Major Sources of Economic Progress Practice Test Multiple Choice Questions 1. Why is private ownership an important source of economic prosperity? a. It eliminates

Chapter 13. Aggregate Demand and Aggregate Supply Analysis

Chapter 13. Aggregate Demand and Aggregate Supply Analysis Instructor: JINKOOK LEE Department of Economics / Texas A&M University ECON 203 502 Principles of Macroeconomics In the short run, real GDP and

Chapter 6 Economic Growth

Chapter 6 Economic Growth 1 The Basics of Economic Growth 1) The best definition for economic growth is A) a sustained expansion of production possibilities measured as the increase in real GDP over a

Questions. True/False and Explain

166 CHAPTER 11 (27) Questions True/False and Explain Aggregate Supply 11. At full employment, there is no unemployment. 12. Along the LAS curve, a rise in the price level and all resource prices increase

6 AGGREGATE SUPPLY AND AGGREGATE DEMAND* Chapter. Key Concepts

Chapter 6 AGGREGATE SUPPLY AND AGGREGATE DEMAND* Key Concepts Aggregate Supply The aggregate production function shows that the quantity of real GDP (Y ) supplied depends on the quantity of labor (L ),

Chapter 12 Aggregate Supply and Aggregate Demand

Chapter 12 Aggregate Supply and Aggregate Demand After reading Chapter 12, AGGREGATE SUPPLY AND AGGREGATE DEMAND, you should be able to: Use an Aggregate Demand and Aggregate Supply model to explain output,

Chapter 29 AS-AD and the Business Cycle 29.1 Business-Cycle Definitions and Facts 1) The relationship between real GDP and potential GDP over the business cycle can be best summarized by which of the following

Choice Economics is concerned with wants and resources.

Econ. 1A What is Economics? Economic Way of Thinking What is Economics? 1. Women & Men Nature Wants Resources Desires Goods Preferences Opportunities Choice Economics is concerned with wants and resources.

Gross Domestic Product. Will the Canadian economy weaken through the next year and shrink, or will it remain strong and expand?

Will the Canadian economy weaken through the next year and shrink, or will it remain strong and expand? To assess the state of the economy and to make big decisions about business expansion, firms use

7 AGGREGATE SUPPLY AND AGGREGATE DEMAND* Chapter. Key Concepts

Chapter 7 AGGREGATE SUPPLY AND AGGREGATE DEMAND* Key Concepts Aggregate Supply The aggregate production function shows that the quantity of real GDP (Y ) supplied depends on the quantity of labor (L ),

Figure 1: Real GDP in the United States 1875-1993

Macroeconomics Topic 2: Explain the role of capital investment, education, and technology in determining economic growth. Reference: Gregory Mankiw s Principles of Macroeconomics, 2 nd edition, Chapter

10 EXPENDITURE MULTIPLIERS* Chapter. Key Concepts. The Consumption Function

Chapter 0 EXPENDITURE MULTIPLIERS* Key Concepts Fixed Prices and Expenditure Plans In the very short run, firms do not change their prices and they sell the amount that is demanded. As a result: The price

University of Lethbridge Department of Economics ECON 1012 Introduction to Macroeconomics Instructor: Michael G. Lanyi

University of Lethbridge Department of Economics ECON 1012 Introduction to Macroeconomics Instructor: Michael G. Lanyi CH 26 AD & AS Use the figure below to answer the following questions. Figure 26.1.1

The slope is calculated as the change in the vertical variable divided by the change in the horizontal variable (0.80 = 20/25).

1. A city's decision to limit smoking in public areas is an example of The invisible hand at work. The market mechanism at work. Market success. Government intervention. Governments can sometimes improve

Exam 1 Review. Page 1

Exam 1 Review 1. When a firm sells a product out of inventory, GDP: A) increases. B) decreases. C) is not changed. D) increases or decreases, depending on the year the product was produced. 2. An economy's

Chapter 12: Aggregate Expenditure and Output in the Short Run

Chapter 12: Aggregate Expenditure and Output in the Short Run Yulei Luo SEF of HKU March 4, 2013 Learning Objectives 1 Understand how macroeconomic equilibrium is determined in the aggregate expenditure

Economic Growth. (c) Copyright 1999 by Douglas H. Joines 1

Economic Growth (c) Copyright 1999 by Douglas H. Joines 1 Module Objectives Know what determines the growth rates of aggregate and per capita GDP Distinguish factors that affect the economy s growth rate

FISCAL POLICY* Chapter. Key Concepts

Chapter 11 FISCAL POLICY* Key Concepts The Federal Budget The federal budget is an annual statement of the government s expenditures and tax revenues. Using the federal budget to achieve macroeconomic

Explain how borrowing and lending decisions are made and how these decisions interact in the loanable funds market.

Finance, Saving, and Investment Chapter CHAPTER CHECKLIST Describe the financial markets and the key financial institutions. Finance is the lending and borrowing that moves funds from savers to spenders.

Chapter 13: Aggregate Demand and Aggregate Supply Analysis

Chapter 13: Aggregate Demand and Aggregate Supply Analysis Yulei Luo SEF of HKU March 25, 2013 Learning Objectives 1. Identify the determinants of aggregate demand and distinguish between a movement along

ECONOMIC GROWTH* Chapter. Key Concepts

Chapter 5 MEASURING GDP AND ECONOMIC GROWTH* Key Concepts Gross Domestic Product Gross domestic product, GDP, is the market value of all the final goods and services produced within in a country in a given

Macro CH 30 sample questions

Class: Date: Macro CH 30 sample questions Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. During 2008, a country has consumption expenditures of \$3.0 trillion,

Econ 303: Intermediate Macroeconomics I Dr. Sauer Sample Questions for Exam #1

Econ 303: Intermediate Macroeconomics I Dr. Sauer Sample Questions for Exam #1 1. Variables that a model tries to explain are called: A) endogenous. B) exogenous. C) market clearing. D) fixed. 2. A measure

Exam 1 Review. 3. A severe recession is called a(n): A) depression. B) deflation. C) exogenous event. D) market-clearing assumption.

Exam 1 Review 1. Macroeconomics does not try to answer the question of: A) why do some countries experience rapid growth. B) what is the rate of return on education. C) why do some countries have high

THE BUSINESS CYCLE* Chapter. Key Concepts

Chapter 14 THE BUSINESS CYCLE* Key Concepts Cycle Patterns, Impulses, and Mechanisms The business cycle is the irregular and nonrepeating upand-down movement of business activity. The average recession

Ghana South Korea United States. Real GDP per capita (2005 dollars) Per centage of 1960 real GDP per capita. 2009 real GDP per capita

Long-Run Economic Growth chapter: 24 9 ECONOMICS MACROECONOMICS 1. The accompanying table shows data from the Penn World Table, Version 7.0, for real GDP in 2005 U.S. dollars for Argentina, Ghana, South

Statement by Dean Baker, Co-Director of the Center for Economic and Policy Research (www.cepr.net)

Statement by Dean Baker, Co-Director of the Center for Economic and Policy Research (www.cepr.net) Before the U.S.-China Economic and Security Review Commission, hearing on China and the Future of Globalization.

Output and Expenditure in the Short Run

Chapter 11 (23) Output and Expenditure in the Short Run Chapter Summary Chapter 10 examined the determinants of long-run economic growth. In the short run, however, the economy experiences fluctuations

Aggregate Demand and Aggregate Supply Analysis

Chapter 12 (24) Aggregate Demand and Aggregate Supply Analysis Chapter Summary During most years, prices rise (we have inflation) and real GDP increases (we have economic growth). The equilibrium level

Part III: Background to the Modern Period

1 Part III: Background to the Modern Period 1900-1945 Objectives for Chapter 11: 1900 to 1929 At the end of Chapter 11, you will be able to answer the following: 1. Briefly describe the main economic trends

Economics 1012A Introduction to Macroeconomics Fall 2008 Dr. R. E. Mueller Second Midterm Examination October 17, 2008

Economics 1012A Introduction to Macroeconomics Fall 2008 Dr. R. E. Mueller Second Midterm Examination October 17, 2008 Answer all of the following questions by selecting the most appropriate answer on

1. What is an investment schedule and how does it differ from an investment demand curve? LO1

Chapter 28 The Aggregate Expenditures Model QUESTIONS 1. What is an investment schedule and how does it differ from an investment demand curve? LO1 Answer: An investment schedule shows the level of investment

Introduction to Macroeconomics 1012 Final Exam Spring 2013 Instructor: Elsie Sawatzky

Introduction to Macroeconomics 1012 Final Exam Spring 2013 Instructor: Elsie Sawatzky Name Time: 2 hours Marks: 80 Multiple choice questions 1 mark each and a choice of 2 out of 3 short answer question

PRINCIPLES OF MACROECONOMICS. Chapter 25 Production and Growth

PRINCIPLES OF MACROECONOMICS Chapter 25 Production and Growth Overview In this chapter we will examine the determinants of both the level and the growth rate of the production of output in the long run.

Economics 101 Multiple Choice Questions for Final Examination Miller

Economics 101 Multiple Choice Questions for Final Examination Miller PLEASE DO NOT WRITE ON THIS EXAMINATION FORM. 1. Which of the following statements is correct? a. Real GDP is the total market value

SOLUTIONS TO TEXT PROBLEMS:

SOLUTIONS TO TEXT PROBLEMS: Quick Quizzes 1. Three key facts about economic fluctuations are: (1) economic fluctuations are irregular and unpredictable; (2) most macroeconomic quantities fluctuate together;

Intermediate Macroeconomics

Intermediate Macroeconomics Lecture 2 - Growth Facts & the Malthusian Model Zsófia L. Bárány Sciences Po 2014 January Hall and Jones 1999, QJE: In 1988 output per worker in the United States was more than

VANCOUVER ISLAND UNIVERSITY. ECON212: PRINCIPLES OF MACROECONOMICS, Spring 2013 SAMPLE MIDTERM EXAM. Name (Last, First): ID #: Signature:

Important: Please remember it is a sample exam. Number of questions in each section and structure of questions in section b and c would vary as discussed in class VANCOUVER ISLAND UNIVERSITY ECON212: PRINCIPLES

Income and Expenditure

chapter 11 (27) Income and Expenditure Chapter Objectives Students will learn in this chapter: The nature of the multiplier and how initial changes in spending lead to further changes The meaning of the

7. Which of the following is a flow variable? A) wealth B) the number unemployed C) government debt D) income

Name: Date: 1. GDP is all of the following except the total: A) expenditure of everyone in the economy. B) income of everyone in the economy. C) expenditure on the economy's output of goods and services.

The Neo-classical Growth Model (also known as the Solow Growth Model)

The Neo-classical Growth Model (also known as the Solow Growth Model) There are many factors that influence the growth rate of economies. Among them are the quantity of physical capital (K), the level

6.2 The Economics of Ideas. 6.1 Introduction. Growth and Ideas. Ideas. The Romer model divides the world into objects and ideas: Chapter 6

The Romer model divides the world into objects and ideas: Chapter 6 and Ideas By Charles I. Jones Objects capital and labor from the Solow model Ideas items used in making objects Media Slides Created

Chapter 24. What will you learn in this chapter? Valuing an economy. Measuring the Wealth of Nations

Chapter 24 Measuring the Wealth of Nations 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education 1 What will you learn in this chapter? How to calculate gross domestic product (GDP). Why each component of GDP is important. What

Chapter 12: Gross Domestic Product and Growth Section 1

Chapter 12: Gross Domestic Product and Growth Section 1 Key Terms national income accounting: a system economists use to collect and organize macroeconomic statistics on production, income, investment,

Chapter 6 Economic Growth: Malthus and Solow

Chapter 6 Economic Growth: Malthus and Solow Overview This chapter first examines growth under an early growth model based on the writings of Thomas Malthus. The model predicts that the standard of living,

Review for the Midterm Exam.

Review for the Midterm Exam. 1. Chapter 1 The principles of decision making are: o People face tradeoffs. o The cost of any action is measured in terms of foregone opportunities. o Rational people make

National Income Accounting. Courtesy : www. carlprosper4nugs.yolasite.com

National Income Accounting Courtesy : www. Introduction to Economy of Ghana Measuring the Economy - National Income Accounting Structure of the Economy and Sectoral Outlook Economic History of Ghana: preindependence,

MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.

Chapters 11 & 12 MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) The Keynesian model of aggregate expenditure describes the economy in A) both

Chapter 12 Production and Cost

Chapter 12 Production and Cost 12.1 Economic Cost and Profit 1) Which of the following is a firm's fundamental goal? A) producing a quality product B) maximizing workforce job satisfaction C) improving

GDP: Measuring Total Production and Income

Chapter 7 (19) GDP: Measuring Total Production and Income Chapter Summary While microeconomics is the study of how households and firms make choices, how they interact in markets, and how the government

THE ECONOMY AT FULL EMPLOYMENT. Objectives. Production and Jobs. Objectives. Real GDP and Employment. Real GDP and Employment CHAPTER

THE ECONOMY AT 29 FULL EMPLOYMENT CHAPTER Objectives After studying this chapter, you will able to Describe the relationship between the quantity of labour employed and real GDP Explain what determines

Chapter 14 How Economies Grow and Develop Macroeconomics In Context (Goodwin, et al.)

Chapter 14 How Economies Grow and Develop Macroeconomics In Context (Goodwin, et al.) Chapter Overview This chapter discusses theories of economic growth, highlighting the Solow growth model and the importance

7 AGGREGATE SUPPLY AND AGGREGATE DEMAND* * Chapter Key Ideas. Outline

C h a p t e r 7 AGGREGATE SUPPLY AND AGGREGATE DEMAND* * Chapter Key Ideas Outline Production and Prices A. What forces bring persistent and rapid expansion of real GDP? B. What leads to inflation? C.

Introduction. Learning Objectives. Chapter 14. Deficit Spending and The Public Debt

Chapter 14 Deficit Spending and The Public Debt Introduction The federal budget deficit often has appeared to move in tandem with the trade deficit. In the past, they were sufficiently closely related

Pre-Test Chapter 8 ed17

Pre-Test Chapter 8 ed17 Multiple Choice Questions 1. The APC can be defined as the fraction of a: A. change in income that is not spent. B. change in income that is spent. C. specific level of total income

CHAPTER 20 GROSS DOMESTIC PRODUCT ACCOUNTING

CHAPTER 20 GROSS DOMESTIC PRODUCT ACCOUNTING Chapter in a Nutshell Gross domestic product was introduced in the previous chapter as a basic measure of macroeconomic performance. This chapter identifies

I. MULTIPLE CHOICES. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement to answer the question.

Econ 20B- Additional Problem Set I. MULTIPLE CHOICES. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement to answer the question. 1. Which of the following is correct? a. Over the business cycle

April 4th, 2014. Flow C was 9 trillion dollars, Flow G was 2 trillion dollars, Flow I was 3 trillion dollars, Flow (X-M) was -0.7 trillion dollars.

Problem Session I April 4th, 2014 Reference: Parkin, Introduction to economics, 2011 1. The rm that printed your Introduction to economics textbook bought the paper from XYZ Paper Mills. Was this purchase

Crude Oil Price Plunge and the Japanese Economy

ECONOMIC REPORT 2015 SUMMER Crude Oil Price Plunge and the Japanese Economy As a result of the steep fall in the crude oil price since the second half of last year, the burden of the high level of payments

Practice Problems on Current Account

Practice Problems on Current Account 1- List de categories of credit items and debit items that appear in a country s current account. What is the current account balance? What is the relationship between

6. Real GDP means the value of goods and services is measured in prices. A) current B) actual C) constant D) average

Name: Date: 1. Assume that total output consists of 4 apples and 6 oranges and that apples cost \$1 each and oranges cost \$0.50 each. In this case, the value of GDP is: A) 10 pieces of fruit. B) \$7. C)

25 Economic Growth McGraw-Hill/Irwin opyright 2012 by The McGraw-Hill ompanies, Inc. All rights reserved. Economic Growth Increase in real GDP or real GDP per capita over some time period Percentage rate

Market Equilibrium and Applications

Market Equilibrium and Applications I. Market Equilibrium In the previous chapter, we discussed demand and supply, both for individual consumers and firms and for markets. In this chapter, we will combine

Measuring GDP and Economic Growth

20 Measuring GDP and Economic Growth After studying this chapter you will be able to Define GDP and explain why GDP equals aggregate expenditure and aggregate income Explain how Statistics Canada measures

Why expenditure = income. The Circular Flow. Circular flow. Gross Domestic Product

Gross Domestic Product Why expenditure = income Two definitions: 1. Total expenditure on final goods and services 2. Total income earned by factors of production In In every transaction, the the buyer

Econ 103 Ch 4: Page 88 (page 490 in Economics Define GDP and distinguish between a final good and an intermediate good. Provide examples.

Econ 103 Ch 4: Page 88 (page 490 in Economics) 1. Define GDP and distinguish between a final good and an intermediate good. Provide examples. GDP is the market value of all the final goods and services

The Macroeconomy in the Long Run The Classical Model

PP556 Macroeconomic Questions The Macroeconomy in the ong Run The Classical Model what determines the economy s total output/income how the prices of the factors of production are determined how total

INTRODUCTION TO MACROECONOMICS MIDTERM- SAMPLE QUESTIONS

INTRODUCTION TO MACROECONOMICS MIDTERM- SAMPLE QUESTIONS MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) In May 2009, Ford Motor Company's sales

Macro CH 28 sample test questions

Class: Date: Macro CH 28 sample test questions Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. The opportunity cost of holding money is the a. inflation

Topic 1 : Saving and Investment

Topic 1 : Saving and Investment April 26, 2006 The key to thinking about how to relate these concepts together in the framework of the Keynesian neo-classical synthesis is to use a number of important

1. GDP includes only sales of good and services to the final pur- Final goods. Newly produced goods

1 Output is normally measured by Gross Domestic Product (GDP), defined as the total market value of all final goods and services produced within an economy in a given period. Output is normally measured

Chapter 29 Aggregate Demand and Aggregate Supply QUESTIONS

Chapter 29 Aggregate Demand and Aggregate Supply QUESTIONS 1. Why is the aggregate demand curve downsloping? Specify how your explanation differs from the explanation for the downsloping demand curve for

Property rights The right to use, control, gain, and obtain benefits from a good or service.

Ch.2 lecture notes Opportunity cost Opportunity cost is the highest valued alternative that must be given up. Opportunity costs may be monetary or non-monetary, but there can only be one highest valued

31. Gross Domestic Product equals a. Y = C + I G + NX. b. Y = C I + G + NX. c. Y = C + I + G + NX.

GDP Review Questions 13. Gross Domestic Product measures the a. quantity of the goods and services produced in a given year, listed item by item, within a country. b. income of the business sector within

Chapter 12. Aggregate Expenditure and Output in the Short Run

Chapter 12. Aggregate Expenditure and Output in the Short Run Instructor: JINKOOK LEE Department of Economics / Texas A&M University ECON 203 502 Principles of Macroeconomics Aggregate Expenditure (AE)

13 EXPENDITURE MULTIPLIERS: THE KEYNESIAN MODEL* Chapter. Key Concepts

Chapter 3 EXPENDITURE MULTIPLIERS: THE KEYNESIAN MODEL* Key Concepts Fixed Prices and Expenditure Plans In the very short run, firms do not change their prices and they sell the amount that is demanded.

CHAPTER 9 Building the Aggregate Expenditures Model

CHAPTER 9 Building the Aggregate Expenditures Model Topic Question numbers 1. Consumption function/apc/mpc 1-42 2. Saving function/aps/mps 43-56 3. Shifts in consumption and saving functions 57-72 4 Graphs/tables:

Review Questions - CHAPTER 8

Review Questions - CHAPTER 8 1. The formula for steady-state consumption per worker (c*) as a function of output per worker and investment per worker is: A) c* = f(k*) δk*. B) c* = f(k*) + δk*. C) c* =

MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.

Suvey of Macroeconomics, MBA 641 Fall 2006, Final Exam Name MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) Modern macroeconomics emerged from

13 EXPENDITURE MULTIPLIERS: THE KEYNESIAN MODEL* Chapter. Fixed Prices and Expenditure Plans. D) the aggregate price level is fixed and that aggregate

Chapter 13 EXPENDITURE MULTIPLIERS: THE KEYNESIAN MODEL* Fixed Prices and Expenditure Plans Topic: Keynesian Model * 1) In the Keynesian model of aggregate expenditure, real GDP is determined by the A)

18 INTERNATIONAL FINANCE* Chapter. Key Concepts

Chapter 18 INTERNATIONAL FINANCE* Key Concepts Financing International Trade The balance of payments accounts measure international transactions. Current account records exports, imports, net interest,

Chapter 10 Keynes and the Multiplier

Page 42 Chapter 10 Keynes and the Multiplier Economists, supposedly, are able to make accurate forecasts, and give valuable advice on dealing with economic problems. When Presidents have problems with