2 Transaction Concept Transaction Concept A transaction is a unit of program execution that accesses and possibly updates various data items. E.g. transaction to transfer $50 from account A to account B: 1. read(a) 2. A := A write(a) 4. read(b) 5. B := B write(b) Two main issues to deal with: Failures of various kinds, such as hardware failures and system crashes Concurrent execution of multiple transactions
3 Transactions must obey: Atomicity Consistency Isolation Durability ACID Key acronym to remember for exams/jobs Details...soon
4 Example of Fund Transfer Example of Fund Transfer Transaction to transfer $50 from account A to account B: 1. read(a) 2. A := A write(a) 4. read(b) 5. B := B write(b) Atomicity requirement if the transaction fails after step 3 and before step 6, money will be lost leading to an inconsistent database state Failure could be due to software or hardware the system should ensure that updates of a partially executed transaction are not reflected in the database Durability requirement once the user has been notified that the transaction has completed (i.e., the transfer of the $50 has taken place), the updates to the database by the transaction must persist even if there are software or hardware failures.
5 Example of Fund Transfer (Cont.) Example of Fund Transfer (Cont.) Transaction to transfer $50 from account A to account B: 1. read(a) 2. A := A write(a) 4. read(b) 5. B := B write(b) Consistency requirement in above example: the sum of A and B is unchanged by the execution of the transaction In general, consistency requirements include Explicitly specified integrity constraints such as primary keys and foreign keys Implicit integrity constraints e.g. sum of balances of all accounts, minus sum of loan amounts must equal value of cash-in-hand
6 Consistency...cont A transaction must see a consistent database. During transaction execution the database may be temporarily inconsistent. When the transaction completes successfully the database must be consistent
7 Example of Fund Transfer (Cont.) Isolation requirement if between steps 3 and 6, another transaction T2 is allowed to access the partially updated database, it will see an inconsistent database (the sum A + B will be less than it should be). T1 T2 1. read(a) 2. A := A write(a) 4. read(b) 5. B := B + 50 read(a), read(b), print(a+b) 6. write(b Isolation can be ensured trivially by running transactions serially that is, one after the other. However, executing multiple transactions concurrently has significant benefits, as we will see later.
8 ACID Properties ACID Properties Atomicity. Either all operations of the transaction are properly reflected in the database or none are. Consistency. Execution of a transaction in isolation preserves the consistency of the database. Isolation. Although multiple transactions may execute concurrently, each transaction must be unaware of other concurrently executing transactions. Intermediate transaction results must be hidden from other concurrently executed transactions. That is, for every pair of transactions T i and T j, it appears to T i that either T j, finished execution before T i started, or T j started execution after T i finished. Durability. After a transaction completes successfully, the changes it has made to the database persist, even if there are system failures.
9 Transaction State Transaction State Active the initial state; the transaction stays in this state while it is executing Partially committed after the final statement has been executed. Failed -- after the discovery that normal execution can no longer proceed. Aborted after the transaction has been rolled back and the database restored to its state prior to the start of the transaction. Two options after it has been aborted: restart the transaction can be done only if no internal logical error kill the transaction Committed after successful completion.
10 Transaction State (Cont.)
11 Concurrent Executions Concurrent Executions Multiple transactions are allowed to run concurrently in the system. Advantages are: increased processor and disk utilization, leading to better transaction throughput E.g. one transaction can be using the CPU while another is reading from or writing to the disk reduced average response time for transactions: short transactions need not wait behind long ones. Concurrency control schemes mechanisms to achieve isolation that is, to control the interaction among the concurrent transactions in order to prevent them from destroying the consistency of the database
12 Schedules Schedule a sequences of instructions that specify the chronological order in which instructions of concurrent transactions are executed a schedule for a set of transactions must consist of all instructions of those transactions must preserve the order in which the instructions appear in each individual transaction. A transaction that successfully completes its execution will have a commit instructions as the last statement by default transaction assumed to execute commit instruction as its last step A transaction that fails to successfully complete its execution will have an abort instruction as the last statement
13 Schedule 1 Let T 1 transfer $50 from A to B, and T 2 transfer 10% of the balance from A to B. A serial schedule in which T 1 is followed by T 2 :
14 Schedule 2 A serial schedule where T 2 is followed by T 1
15 Schedule 3 Let T 1 and T 2 be the transactions defined previously. The following schedule is not a serial schedule, but it is equivalent to Schedule 1. In Schedules 1, 2 and 3, the sum A + B is preserved.
16 Schedule 4 Schedule 4 The following concurrent schedule does not preserve the value of (A + B ).
17 Serializability Basic Assumption Each transaction preserves database consistency. Thus serial execution of a set of transactions preserves database consistency. A (possibly concurrent) schedule is serializable if it is equivalent to a serial schedule. Different forms of schedule equivalence give rise to the notions of: 1. conflict serializability 2. view serializability
18 Simplified view of transactions We ignore operations other than read and write instructions We assume that transactions may perform arbitrary computations on data in local buffers in between reads and writes. Our simplified schedules consist of only read and write instructions.
19 Serializability A schedule is called serializable if its final effect is the same as that of a serial schedule Serializability schedule is fine and does not result in inconsistent database Since serial schedules are fine Non-serializable schedules are unlikely to result in consistent databases We will ensure serializability Typically relaxed in real high-throughput environments
20 Serializability Not possible to look at all n! serial schedules to check if the effect is the same Instead we ensure serializability by allowing or not allowing certain schedules Conflict serializability View serializability View serializability allows more schedules
21 Conflicting Instructions Instructions l i and l j of transactions T i and T j respectively, conflict if and only if there exists some item Q accessed by both l i and l j, and at least one of these instructions wrote Q. 1. l i = read(q), l j = read(q). l i and l j don t conflict. 2. l i = read(q), l j = write(q). They conflict. 3. l i = write(q), l j = read(q). They conflict 4. l i = write(q), l j = write(q). They conflict Intuitively, a conflict between l i and l j forces a (logical) temporal order between them. If l i and l j are consecutive in a schedule and they do not conflict, their results would remain the same even if they had been interchanged in the schedule.
22 Conflict Serializability If a schedule S can be transformed into a schedule S by a series of swaps of non-conflicting instructions, we say that S and S are conflict equivalent. We say that a schedule S is conflict serializable if it is conflict equivalent to a serial schedule
23 Conflict Serializability (Cont.) Schedule 3 can be transformed into Schedule 6, a serial schedule where T 2 follows T 1, by series of swaps of non-conflicting instructions. Therefore Schedule 3 is conflict serializable. Schedule 3 Schedule 6
24 Conflict Serializability (Cont.) Example of a schedule that is not conflict serializable: We are unable to swap instructions in the above schedule to obtain either the serial schedule < T 3, T 4 >, or the serial schedule < T 4, T 3 >.
25 View Serializability Let S and S be two schedules with the same set of transactions. S and S are view equivalent if the following three conditions are met, for each data item Q, 1. If in schedule S, transaction T i reads the initial value of Q, then in schedule S transaction T i must also read the initial value of Q. 2. If in schedule S transaction T i executes read(q), and that value was produced by transaction T j (if any), then in schedule S transaction T i must also read the value of Q that was produced by the same write(q) operation of transaction T j. 3. The transaction (if any) that performs the final write(q) operation in schedule S must also perform the final write(q) operation in schedule S. As can be seen, view equivalence is also based purely on reads and writes alone.
26 View Serializability (Cont.) A schedule S is view serializable if it is view equivalent to a serial schedule. Every conflict serializable schedule is also view serializable. Below is a schedule which is view-serializable but not conflict serializable. What serial schedule is above equivalent to? Every view serializable schedule that is not conflict serializable has blind writes.
27 Other Notions of Serializability The schedule below produces same outcome as the serial schedule < T 1, T 5 >, yet is not conflict equivalent or view equivalent to it. Determining such equivalence requires analysis of operations other than read and write.
28 Testing for Serializability Testing for Serializability Consider some schedule of a set of transactions T 1, T 2,..., T n Precedence graph a direct graph where the vertices are the transactions (names). We draw an arc from T i to T j if the two transaction conflict, and T i accessed the data item on which the conflict arose earlier. We may label the arc by the item that was accessed. Example 1
29 Precedence graph Edge Ti -> Tj exists if one of the following holds: Ti executes write(q) before Tj executes read(q) Ti executes read(q) before Tj executes write(q) Ti executes write(q) before Tj executes write(q)
30 Example Schedule (Schedule A) + Precedence Graph T 1 T 2 T 3 T 4 T 5 read(x) read(y) read(z) read(v) read(w) read(w) read(y) write(y) write(z) read(u) read(y) write(y) read(z) write(z) read(u) write(u) T 1 T 2 T 3 T 4 T 5
31 Test for Conflict Serializability Test for Conflict Serializability A schedule is conflict serializable if and only if its precedence graph is acyclic. Cycle-detection algorithms exist which take order n 2 time, where n is the number of vertices in the graph. (Better algorithms take order n + e where e is the number of edges.) If precedence graph is acyclic, the serializability order can be obtained by a topological sorting of the graph. This is a linear order consistent with the partial order of the graph. For example, a serializability order for Schedule A would be T 5 T 1 T 3 T 2 T 4
32 Test for View Serializability Test for View Serializability The precedence graph test for conflict serializability cannot be used directly to test for view serializability. Extension to test for view serializability has cost exponential in the size of the precedence graph. The problem of checking if a schedule is view serializable falls in the class of NP-complete problems. Thus existence of an efficient algorithm is extremely unlikely. However practical algorithms that just check some sufficient conditions for view serializability can still be used.
33 Recoverability Serializability is good for consistency But what if transactions fail? T2 has already committed A user might have been notified Now T1 abort creates a problem T2 has seen its effect, so just aborting T1 is not enough. T2 must be aborted as well (and possibly restarted) But T2 is committed T1 read(a) A = A -50 write(a) read(b) B=B+50 write(b) ABORT T2 read(a) tmp = A*0.1 A = A tmp write(a) COMMIT
34 Recoverability Recoverable schedule: If T1 has read something T2 has written, T2 must commit before T1 Otherwise, if T1 commits, and T2 aborts, we have a problem Cascading rollbacks: If T10 aborts, T11 must abort, and hence T12 must abort and so on.
35 Recoverability Dirty read: Reading a value written by a transaction that hasn t committed yet Cascadeless schedules: A transaction only reads committed values. So if T1 has written A, but not committed it, T2 can t read it. No dirty reads Cascadeless No cascading rollbacks That s good We will try to guarantee that as well
36 Recap We discussed: Serial schedules, serializability Conflict-serializability, view-serializability How to check for conflict-serializability Recoverability, cascade-less schedules We haven t discussed: How to guarantee serializability? Allowing transactions to run, and then aborting them if the schedules wasn t serializable is clearly not the way to go We instead use schemes to guarantee that the schedule will be conflict-serializable
37 Concurrency Control Concurrency Control A database must provide a mechanism that will ensure that all possible schedules are either conflict or view serializable, and are recoverable and preferably cascadeless A policy in which only one transaction can execute at a time generates serial schedules, but provides a poor degree of concurrency Are serial schedules recoverable/cascadeless? Testing a schedule for serializability after it has executed is a little too late! Goal to develop concurrency control protocols that will assure serializability.
38 Concurrency Control vs. Serializability Tests Concurrency-control protocols allow concurrent schedules, but ensure that the schedules are conflict/view serializable, and are recoverable and cascadeless. Concurrency control protocols generally do not examine the precedence graph as it is being created Instead a protocol imposes a discipline that avoids nonseralizable schedules. We study such protocols in Chapter 16. Different concurrency control protocols provide different tradeoffs between the amount of concurrency they allow and the amount of overhead that they incur. Tests for serializability help us understand why a concurrency control protocol is correct.
39 Weak Levels of Consistency Weak Levels of Consistency Some applications are willing to live with weak levels of consistency, allowing schedules that are not serializable E.g. a read-only transaction that wants to get an approximate total balance of all accounts E.g. database statistics computed for query optimization can be approximate (why?) Such transactions need not be serializable with respect to other transactions Tradeoff accuracy for performance
40 Levels of Consistency in SQL-92 Serializable default Repeatable read only committed records to be read, repeated reads of same record must return same value. However, a transaction may not be serializable it may find some records inserted by a transaction but not find others. Read committed only committed records can be read, but successive reads of record may return different (but committed) values. Read uncommitted even uncommitted records may be read. Lower degrees of consistency useful for gathering approximate information about the database Warning: some database systems do not ensure serializable schedules by default E.g. Oracle and PostgreSQL by default support a level of consistency called snapshot isolation (not part of the SQL standard)
41 Transaction Definition in SQL Data manipulation language must include a construct for specifying the set of actions that comprise a transaction. In SQL, a transaction begins implicitly. A transaction in SQL ends by: Commit work commits current transaction and begins a new one. Rollback work causes current transaction to abort. In almost all database systems, by default, every SQL statement also commits implicitly if it executes successfully Implicit commit can be turned off by a database directive E.g. in JDBC, connection.setautocommit(false);
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