1 Ocean Remote Sensing from Satellites Ted Strub, Burt General Background Examples, Measuring Surface Temperature Ocean Color/Optics Sea Surface Height & Currents Surface Wind Stress New technology
2 Gulf Coast oil spill: Satellite images may track surface features: IR surface temperatures, visible features,??? What can we really see?
3 Remote Sensing Pioneers Early Days 1888
4 Why Satellites? Oceans are vast, sparsely occupied satellites provide uniform sampling, daily-to-monthly fields. Ship time is expensive Satellites can acquire measurements quickly over large areas BUT Space: a harsh environment for acquiring measurements Cost Satellites are also expensive, but global (international) Risk If satellites fail, service calls are even more expensive Must measure through intervening atmosphere Can t acquire sub-surface measurements Can only measure a half-dozen variables, at the surface But: We can measure wind forcing and response
6 Ships take time to map out an area. The blue ship tracks take ~ 1-2 weeks in the case below. Patterns of cold water (whiter shades) and currents change in 4 days between images.
7 The temperature field constructed from ship observations (circles, below right) over a 1-week period shows some of the features evident in the instantaneous satellite image (below left), without the detailed filaments and swirls caused by jets and eddies in the currents, which the satellite field captures in a snapshot (clouds allowing?) (August, 2000).
9 Components of a passive SST remote sensing system Using IR or Microwave Wavelengths Two types of remote sensing: sensor Passive signal raw data calibration/ validation processing / dissemination IR or μ-wave Emission
10 Components of an active radar altimeter system For sea level: Transmit at nadir (directly beneath satellite) Two types of remote sensing: Active source and sensor signal raw data calibration/ validation μ-wave radar Reflection processing / dissemination
11 Orbits Determine Sampling Geostationary Orbit - GEO 36,000km altitude (wide view) Stays over same location Can document evolving systems High temporal resolution Lower spatial resolution? Not necessarily can stare for longer exposures. No polar coverage Polar Orbit (Low Earth Orbit LEO) km altitude Travels nearly over poles Sees almost whole globe Lower temporal resolution Higher spatial resolution? Not necessarily limited time over each point.
12 Examples of several types of orbits. The Earth s center of mass must be in the orbital plane so Geostationary orbits must be in the Equatorial plane. Low Earth Orbits are inclined from the equatorial plane. Specialized orbits are used for different purposes. Sun-synchronous orbits cross the equator at the same time each solar day. Low inclination orbits are used to look more closely at tropical processes. Exact-repeat orbits fill in a grid of orbit tracks over X days, then repeat exactly.
13 A Global System of Geosynchronous Satellites Geostationary Sampling: Easy to picture a sequence of images/fields from a fixed viewing geometry. Five satellites cover the globe, maintained by nations that need the data. The first weather satellites were essentially TV cameras in space. For the first time, we could see distant storms developing and approaching. The very first satellites carried film cameras and were not looking at weather. How did the film get to earth?
14 Low Earth Orbits ( Polar Orbiting ): The orbital plane of the satellite remains fairly constant while the earth rotates toward the east. Subsurface tracks migrate to the west, ~ 25º longitude (2750 km).
15 What SeaWiFS (visible) sees in one day: Swaths leave gaps at low latitudes: Clouds cover >50% of the ocean and obscure visible and IR radiation.
16 Space Junk Years of Orbital Trash Who you gonna call? WALL-E
17 Space Debris
18 Space Debris
19 Space Debris
20 Space Debris
21 Space Debris
22 Space Debris
24 Specific Examples Sea Surface Temperature (SST) Perhaps the most standard measurement from satellites Passive meaurement. Traditionally used infrared (IR) emission - strong signal, obscured by clouds More recently using Microwave - can see through clouds, but the signal is weak - microwave also provides other data such as wind speed, water vapor, rain, ice Temperature is important because of its relationship to the heat budget (global warming) and because it s diagnostic of currents, upwelling etc
25 Components of a passive SST remote sensing system Using IR or Microwave Wavelengths sensor signal raw data calibration/ validation processing / dissemination IR or μ-wave Emission
27 Why Use Microwave? Clouds! Two-days of Infrared Two-days of Microwave
28 Surface Temperature: 1 km IR SST: 26 Sept Bathymetry
29 Passive measurement Specific Examples Ocean color (chlorophyll) Measures light scattered and transmitted upward through the ocean surface - its color (careful to distinguish between transmission and reflection ) PROBLEM: Most of the signal (>90%) at the satellite is NOT ocean color It is atmospheric interference: sunlight that has been scattered or reflected by molecules or aerosols in the atmosphere back into the satellite s field-of-view.
30 Components of a passive ocean color remote sensing system Using Visible wavelengths source sensor signal raw data calibration/ validation Absorption and scattering of visible light depends on pigments in the water The color is the wavelength that is not absorbed! processing / dissemination
31 Surface Temperature and Chlorophyll: 1 km SST: 26 Sept Bathymetry Chl-a Pigment: Sept. 1998
32 Specific Examples Sea Surface Height (SSH) Active measurement using microwave radar Pulse sent from satellite to earth, measure return time With appropriate processing and averaging, it is possible to calculate: Ocean currents, eddies (scales > km) Deviations in ocean surface due to bathymetry Gradual sea level rise due to global warming Deviations in ocean surface due to internal physical variability (heat, salinity)
33 Components of an active radar altimeter system For sea level: Transmit at nadir (directly beneath satellite) source and sensor signal raw data processing / dissemination calibration/ validation
34 Active Radar Altimeter: Measures SSH?what is that? =SSH d SSH=
35 Surface Height, Temperature and Chlorophyll: 1 km SST: 26 Sept SSH: 2 Altimeters Sept Chl-a Pigment: Sept. 1998
36 Specific Examples Wind & Wind Stress ( tau - τ) Active measurement, using microwave radar to get vector winds speed and direction. Pulse sent from satellite to ocean surface, then scattered depending on surface roughness Surface roughness (capillary waves) depends on wind stress Strength of return to satellite gives wind stress and direction
37 Components of an active radar scatterometer system For wind: Transmit at an angle source and sensor signal raw data calibration/ validation processing / dissemination
40 QuikSCAT Science: Ocean Circulation QuikSCAT s high resolution, extensive, and frequent wind velocity measurements are used to understand upper ocean circulation from regional to global scales Wind stress is the largest momentum input to the upper ocean Wind stress curl drives large-scale surface currents Small-scale wind variability modifies large-scale ocean circulation Coastal regions exhibit amplified physical/biological response Wind forcing complements dynamic and thermodynamic response measurements
43 Altimeter and Scatterometer
44 Ocean Eddies as Habitat for Marine Mammals, Turtles,
45 Altimeter Estimates of Global Sea Level Rise: This signal (the rise) is due to two effects: 1) Thermal expansion as the water heats; 2) Increased volume of water as the glacial ice melts.
46 Animations of Ocean Sea Surface Heights: 3-Pacific_SSH_ mpg This animation from NASA of sea surface height (SSH) in the Pacific from shows the eastward movement of high SSH along the equator during the onset of El Niño conditions ( , 2006, 2009) and the westward movement of eddies nearly everywhere else. The animations described below may be available from Dudley Chelton An eddy next to California traps a subsurface float and carries it with the eddy as it moves to the west. Passive plankton ecosystems are also carried in this same fashion. Eddies in the global ocean are everywhere, mostly moving from east to west, unless they are caught in a current moving more quickly to the east.
47 Computer Models of 3-D Currents and Temperature: Fishermen at Coos Bay use these fields to direct cruises 8-day composites of GOES SST (right) and MODIS chlorophyll (left) over radar surface velocities during the period leading up to the forecast. (Middle) 2-day forecast SST and surface velocity (without data assimilation).
48 Computer Models of 3-D Currents and Temperature Alongtrack altimeter SSH data (dots) are used to correct the model. GOES satellite SST is used to verify the improvement of the model SST fields. prior (free-run) model SST model SST after SSH assimilation GOES daily SST (7/20/08), independent of model. 48
49 Future Technologies Next generation satellite sensors are being developed by NASA and NOAA. Swath altimeters will provide higher resolution SSH fields, closer to the coast. Interferometer scatterometers will provide higher resolution wind fields, closer to the coast. Hyper-spectral ocean color sensors will sample the full visible radiation spectrum, allowing the identification of different types of phytoplankton, including those responsible for harmful algal blooms that close regions to the harvest of shellfish. These will also have higher resolution to retrieve data farther up into rivers and estuaries. SST sensors will combine the IR and Microwave channels to provide allweather SST fields with higher resolution. These satellite data and in-water data from subsurface observatories will be assimilated into 3-D models of the ocean s circulation to provide predictions of currents, temperatures, oxygen (to warn of dead zones ). Need more skilled people to analyze data from these systems!!
50 Summary Oceanography has traditionally faced a sampling limitation. Satellites allow us to observe large areas quickly, but: Only see the ocean surface; Careful data calibration required for long term data sets. Parameters include: SST, Surface Height, Winds, Ice, Chlorophyll, Fluorescence (Productivity). In the Atmosphere: Profiles: Temperature, Water Vapor, Rain, Ozone, CO 2. Recent Advances: Salinity (this year), Wind and Height data closer to the coast and higher resolution; All-Weather SST; Hyperspectral data New technologies collect subsurface data in the water gliders, AUV. Smaller and more power efficient sensors, more chemistry, more biology. Computer models use all of these to predict accurate currents and temperatures Need skilled people to analyze data and advance the science!!
51 Web Sites OSU/COAS: Cooperative Institute for Oceanographic Satellite Studies OSU/COAS/Ocean Optics/Color: NOAA Global Sea Level Rise: U. Wisconsin Madison: Coop. Institute for Meteorological Satellite Studies Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL/NASA) Physical Oceanography Data Center NOAA Satellite Research & West Coast Satellite Data: CoastWatch & NASA Goddard Science Center Satellite Data and Info & Ocean Color & NASA Tutorial:
Ocean Color Lesson II: Data Processing and Imagery Ocean color observations made from an Earth orbit allow an oceanographic viewpoint that is impossible from ship or shore -- a global picture of biological
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