Multimedia Networking. Real-Time (Phone) Over IP s Best-Effort. Recovery From Jitter. Settings. up to 10 % loss is tolerable TCP instead of UDP?

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1 Multimedia Networking Principles Classify multimedia applications Identify the network services the apps need Making the best of best effort service Mechanisms for providing QoS Protocols and Architectures Specific protocols for best-effort Architectures for QoS Last time Multimedia Networking Applications Streaming stored audio and video Today Making the best out of best effort service Protocols for real-time interactive applications RTP,RTCP,SIP Providing multiple classes of service Providing QoS guarantees Real-Time (Phone) Over IP s Best-Effort Settings talk spurts 8 Kbytes/sec sample every 20 msec (only during talk spurts) packet of 160 Bytes + application header over UDP up to 10 % loss is tolerable TCP instead of UDP? Recovery From Jitter End-to-end delays max 400 msec tolerated Delay jitter is handled by using timestamps sequence numbers delaying playout fixed amount variable amount 1

2 Recovery From Packet Loss Loss is in a broader sense: packet never arrives or arrives later than its scheduled playout time FEC - Forward Error Correction Simple or-ing Mixed quality streams Interleaving Repair of packet Content distribution networks (CDNs) Content replication Challenging to stream large files (e.g., video) from single origin server in real time Solution: replicate content at hundreds of servers throughout Internet content downloaded to CDN servers ahead of time placing content close to user avoids impairments (loss, delay) of sending content over long paths CDN server typically in edge/access network origin server in North America CDN distribution node CDN server in S. America CDN server in Europe CDN server in Asia Content distribution networks (CDNs) Content replication CDN (e.g., Akamai) customer is the content provider (e.g., CNN) CDN replicates customers content in CDN servers. When provider updates content, CDN updates servers origin server in North America CDN distribution node CDN server in S. America CDN server in Europe CDN server in Asia 2

3 CDN example 1 Origin server HTTP request for CDNs authoritative DNS server DNS query for Nearby CDN server origin server ( CDN company (cdn.com) distributes HTML distributes gif files replaces: uses its authoritative with DNS server to route redirect requests HTTP request for More about CDNs Routing requests CDN creates a map, indicating distances from leaf ISPs and CDN nodes when query arrives at authoritative DNS server: server determines ISP from which query originates uses map to determine best CDN server CDN nodes create application-layer overlay network Summary: Internet Multimedia: bag of tricks use UDP to avoid TCP congestion control (delays) for time-sensitive traffic client-side adaptive playout delay: to compensate for delay server side matches stream bandwidth to available client-to-server path bandwidth chose among pre-encoded stream rates dynamic server encoding rate error recovery (on top of UDP) FEC, interleaving, error concealment retransmissions, time permitting CDN: bring content closer to clients 3

4 Real-Time Protocol (RTP) RTP specifies a packet structure for packets carrying audio and video data RFC 3550 RTP packet provides payload type identification packet sequence numbering timestamping RTP runs in the end systems RTP packets are encapsulated in UDP segments Interoperability: If two Internet phone applications run RTP, then they may be able to work together RTP and QoS RTP does not provide any mechanism to ensure timely delivery of data or provide other quality of service guarantees RTP encapsulation is only seen at the end systems: it is not seen by intermediate routers Routers providing best-effort service do not make any special effort to ensure that RTP packets arrive at the destination in a timely matter Real-Time Control Protocol (RTCP) Works in conjunction with RTP Each participant in RTP session periodically transmits RTCP control packets to all other participants Each RTCP packet contains sender and/or receiver reports report statistics useful to application Statistics include number of packets sent, number of packets lost, interarrival jitter, etc. Feedback can be used to control performance Sender may modify its transmissions based on feedback 4

5 SIP Session Initiation Protocol Comes from IETF SIP long-term vision All telephone calls and video conference calls take place over the Internet People are identified by names or addresses, rather than by phone numbers You can reach the callee, no matter where the callee roams, no matter what IP device the callee is currently using SIP Services Setting up a call Provides mechanisms for caller to let callee know she wants to establish a call Provides mechanisms so that caller and callee can agree on media type and encoding Provides mechanisms to end call Determine current IP address of callee Maps mnemonic identifier to current IP address Call management Add new media streams during call Change encoding during call Invite others Transfer and hold calls Comparison with H.323 H.323 is another signaling protocol for real-time, interactive H.323 is a complete, vertically integrated suite of protocols for multimedia conferencing: signaling, registration, admission control, transport and codecs SIP is a single component. Works with RTP, but does not mandate it. Can be combined with other protocols and services H.323 comes from the ITU (telephony) SIP comes from IETF: Borrows much of its concepts from HTTP. SIP has a Web flavor, whereas H.323 has a telephony flavor SIP uses the KISS principle: Keep it simple stupid 5

6 Improving QoS in IP Networks Thus far: making the best of best effort Future: next generation Internet with QoS guarantees RSVP: signaling for resource reservations Differentiated Services: differential guarantees Integrated Services: firm guarantees simple model for sharing and congestion studies: Principles for QOS Guarantees Example: 1Mbps IP phone, FTP share 1.5 Mbps link bursts of FTP can congest router, cause audio loss want to give priority to audio over FTP Principle 1 packet marking needed for router to distinguish between different classes; and new router policy to treat packets accordingly Principles for QOS Guarantees (more) what if applications misbehave (audio sends higher than declared rate) policing: force source adherence to bandwidth allocations marking and policing at network edge: Principle 2 provide protection (isolation) for one class from others 6

7 Principles for QOS Guarantees (more) Allocating fixed (non-sharable) bandwidth to flow: inefficient use of bandwidth if flows doesn t use its allocation Principle 3 While providing isolation, it is desirable to use resources as efficiently as possible Principles for QOS Guarantees (more) Basic fact of life: can not support traffic demands beyond link capacity Principle 4 Call Admission: flow declares its needs, network may block call (e.g., busy signal) if it cannot meet needs Summary of QoS Principles Let s next look at mechanisms for achieving this. 7

8 Scheduling And Policing Mechanisms scheduling: choose next packet to send on link FIFO (first in first out) scheduling: send in order of arrival to queue Priority scheduling: transmit highest priority queued packet Round robin scheduling: cyclically scan class queues, serving one from each class (if available) Weighted Fair Queuing: each class gets weighted amount of service in each cycle Policing Mechanisms Goal: limit traffic to not exceed declared parameters Three common-used criteria: (Long term) Average Rate: how many pkts can be sent per unit time (in the long run) Peak Rate: e.g., 1500 pkts per min. (ppm) avg.; 6000 ppm peak rate (Max.) Burst Size: max. number of pkts sent consecutively Implementation: Leaky bucket Policing Mechanisms (more) token bucket, WFQ combine to provide guaranteed upper bound on delay, i.e., QoS guarantee! arriving traffic token rate, r bucket size, b per-flow rate, R WFQ 8

9 QoS guarantee scenario Resource reservation call setup, signaling (RSVP) traffic, QoS declaration per-element admission control QoS-sensitive scheduling (e.g., WFQ) request/ reply IETF Integrated Services architecture for providing QoS guarantees in IP networks for individual application sessions resource reservation: routers maintain state info (a la VC) of allocated resources, QoS req s admit/deny new call setup requests: Question: can newly arriving flow be admitted with performance guarantees while not violated QoS guarantees made to already admitted flows? Call Admission Arriving session must : declare its QoS requirement R-spec: defines the QoS being requested characterize traffic it will send into network T-spec: defines traffic characteristics signaling protocol: needed to carry R-spec and T- spec to routers (where reservation is required) RSVP 9

10 Multimedia Networking Principles Classify multimedia applications Identify the network services the apps need Making the best of best effort service Mechanisms for providing QoS Protocols and Architectures Specific protocols for best-effort Architectures for QoS Last time Multimedia Networking Applications Streaming stored audio and video Today Making the best out of best effort service Protocols for real-time interactive applications RTP,RTCP,SIP Providing multiple classes of service Providing QoS guarantees 10

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