2 Maintaining hydration is very important to optimal health
3 What percentage of your body is 10% 25% 50% 60% 75% 95% water?
4 Functions of water Transports nutrients and oxygen Helps medications to work properly Keeps skin, eyes, and mouth moist Helps to prevent constipation Helps to keep body temperature regulated
5 How much water is needed every Dietary Guidelines day? 6-8 glasses Most healthy people can go by their thirst Purposeful drinking may be required by those who have heat stress or are performing strenuous vigorous activity. Elderly confused and frail may not feel thirsty
6 Benefits of water - Pressure Ulcers Poorly hydrated individuals are twice as likely to develop pressure ulcers because dehydration reduces the padding over bony points. Fluid intake to correct impaired hydration, increases levels of tissue oxygen and enhances ulcer healing
7 Constipation Inadequate fluid intake is one of the most frequent causes of chronic constipation. It is more frequent in incapacitated or institutionalised older people.
8 Urinary infections and continence Water helps maintain a healthy urinary tract and kidneys. Maintaining adequate hydration levels, (rather than a high fluid intake) is important in the prevention of urinary tract infection. Many older people are loath to drink during the evening to eliminate the need to go to the toilet during the night. Evidence shows that the restriction of overall fluid intake does not reduce urinary incontinence frequency or severity.
9 Kidney and Gallstones Good hydration can reduce the risk of kidney stone formation by 39 % because dilute urine helps to prevent crystallization of stone-forming salts. Consumption of water at regular intervals can also help by diluting bile and stimulating gallbladder emptying, which will help to prevent gallstone formation
10 Heart Disease Adequate hydration reduces the risk of coronary heart disease by 46% in men and 59 % in women. Adequate Hydration will protect against blood clot formation by decreasing blood viscosity
11 Low Blood Pressure Many older people suffer a drop in blood pressure on standing which can causes them to pass out. Drinking a glass of water five minutes before standing helps stabilise blood pressure, and can prevent fainting and falling.
12 Diabetes Water is an essential part of the dietary management of diabetes, dehydration can worsen diabetic control. High urine output in poorly controlled diabetic individuals can increase the risk of dehydration. Good hydration levels help to slow down the development of diabetic ketoacidosis during insulin deficiency in Type 1 diabetes and will help maintain healthy blood sugar levels
13 Cognitive impairment Dehydration adversely affects mental performance. Symptoms of mild dehydration include light-headedness, dizziness, headaches and tiredness, reduced alertness and ability to concentrate. Thirst is felt -by this time mental function may be affected by as much as 10%
14 Cognitive Impairment Mental performance deteriorates progressively as the degree of dehydration increases. In older people this impacts on cognitive function leading to increasing frailty, functional decline, and a reduction in the quality of life.
15 Falls The risk of falls increases with age. Dehydration has been identified as one of the risk factors for falls in older people, since it can lead to a deterioration in mental state, and increase the risk of dizziness and fainting.
16 Falls The maintenance of adequate levels of hydration in older people could be effective in preventing falls, particularly as part of a multifactorial falls prevention strategy. In hard water areas, tap water can provide a significant proportion of dietary calcium, essential for good bone mineral density and the prevention of osteoporosis and fractures
17 Hospitalisation in older people Dehydration has been shown to increase the mortality of patients admitted to hospital with stroke by 2 fold. Dehydration increases the length of hospital stay for patients with community-acquired pneumonia. Dehydration can increase the risk of infection.
18 Skin Being well hydrated is an excellent way to keep skin healthy and young-looking. The skin acts as a water reservoir and participates in fluid regulation for the whole body. Mild dehydration causes skin to appear flushed, dry and loose, with a loss of elasticity, which makes it look older than it is. The effects of dehydration on the skin are more noticeable on the face than on the lower limbs
19 The role of carers Carers have a vital role in supporting older, more dependent, individuals to maintain healthy hydration levels. Ensuring fluids are freely available Are fluids physically accessible day and night as well as with meals. Be aware of the individual s need for fluid and encourage them to drink.
20 The role of carers Many types of foods contain a substantial amount of water. If an older person finds it difficult to increase the amount of fluid they drink, it may be possible to help maintain adequate hydration levels by increasing the amount of moisture consumed in foods, such as fruit and vegetables which are about % water.
21 A. E. I. O. U. A Assessment of needs, likes and dislikes. Ask the person you care for what they prefer to drink Advice on fluid intake and what fluids may have health benefits.
22 A. E. I. O. U. E Education and information. Written, verbal, language, repeat. Important to return to good advice and educational information.
23 A. E. I. O. U. I Input of fluids, remember to estimate when small amounts are taken. Include food stuffs that have high water content. Ice and flavours in water can make it taste better. Increase availability especially at meal times. Inform relatives and other carers
24 A. E. I. O. U. O Output record urine output, include and estimate incontinence. Include loose bowel actions Indicate colour and odour if any change from normal.
25 A. E. I. O. U. U Urine colour can be a good indicated of hydration levels use the pee chart 1-3 Expected levels of hydration 4-8 Its time to hydrate Does the odour indicate a change? Any signs of blood no mater how small seek medical advice.
26 Urine Chart
27 Hydrating the body
28 Offer drink at meals and with snacks or about six to eight beverages a day
29 Bottled water vs. tap water Why do we not routinely drink tap water its clean is free and its good for us? Think of innovative ways to encourage residents to drink more water - iced water, add citrus fruits, carbonated or squash don t expect residents to drink one day old stale tepid water - would you? No Individual bottles can be used by elderly not just for young people easy to hold and do not spill makes it more interesting.
30 Milk with meals People who drink milk have higher intakes of: Calcium, Potassium, Vitamins A and D and protein The fat content can be whole, 2%, 1% or fat free but nutrient content stays the same Milk provides necessary fluids and nutrients Milk shakes, milk drinks, smoothies..
31 Juice Juices may be high in calories Juices supply varying amounts of vitamins A & C Some fruit juices, such as orange juice, contain folate and may be fortified with calcium Choose 100% fruit juice but do not give at every meal. Avoid juices and other beverages with added sugar.
32 Coffees & teas Individuals tolerate different amounts of caffeine Enjoy caffeinated beverages in moderation Choose decaffeinated beverages to maintain hydration (Fruit teas, green tea and iced teas)
33 Soft drinks Regular soft drinks are sweetened with sugar and contain calories Diet soft drinks are sweetened with artificial sweeteners and are calorie free Squash or carbonated water are a preferred alternative
34 Fruits & vegetables Fruits and vegetables and other moist foods that we eat, contain water and help us to stay hydrated Snacks of fruits and vegetables like apples, salads and citrus fruits and water melon will help maintain hydration.
36 2 types of dehydration -chronic and acute. The most common causes are: Flu Vomiting Diarrheal illnesses Blood loss Malnutrition Prolonged failure to drink plenty of water
37 Groups susceptible to dehydration Older adults Infants and children Athletes The sick Anyone can get dehydrated
38 Symptoms of dehydration usually begin with thirst and progress to more alarming manifestations as the need for water increases. The initial signs and symptoms of mild dehydration in adults appear when the body has lost about 2% of its total fluid.
39 Signs of dehydration Thirst, dry mouth, flushed skin Fatigue Headache High body temperature Increased breathing rate, rapid pulse Dark yellow urine Skin that stays in the pinched position Confusion
40 Results of dehydration Increased urinary tract infections Increased risk of kidney stones Poor skin condition Dizziness or light headed Dry mouth lips or eyes Confusion and falls Convulsions Cardiac arrest
41 Don t Forget With age, the ability to sense thirst is diminished. That is why older adults need to drink fluids frequently even if they do not feel thirsty.
42 Medication Dehydration
43 Many drugs affect the body's water management system. Any substance that can tinker with our physical water management system will have a great effect on our body, health and symptoms. Its Not just diuretics and laxatives!
44 Risk Assess and documentation. Risk assess residents do they need extra encouragement to drink more? Gauge 24 hour fluid intake Monitor urine colour Look for symptoms and risk factors for dehydration Plan and document how fluids can be encouraged and what individuals prefer. Engage residents and relatives in completing self monitoring tool.
Guidelines for drinking fluids to stay hydrated Fluids come from the beverages you drink and the foods that you eat. This handout will focus on the fluids you drink to stay hydrated. How much fluid you
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