Projections. Shape (angles) Distance Direction Area. Only a sphere can retain all four properties


 Megan Preston
 1 years ago
 Views:
Transcription
1 Projections
2 Projections Map projections are attempts to portray the surface of the earth (or a portion of the earth) on a flat surface. Four spatial relationships (or properties) between locations can be distorted when the globe is projected: shape, distance, direction and area. Only a globe (a sphere) can retain all four of these relationships. Some projections minimize distortions in some of these properties at the expense of maximizing errors in others. Some projections are attempts to only moderately distort all of the spatial relationships. If you are using maps to make important decisions, you should know which projections distort which properties and to what extent. For example, a Peters projection gives accurate area calculations but inaccurate shapes, a Mercator projection maintains true direction but sacrifices area accuracy, and a Robinson projection is a compromise of all the properties. Here are some examples: The Mercator projection maintains shape and direction. The Sinusoidal and Peters projections both maintain area, but look very different from each other. The Robinson projection does not maintain any specific properties but is widely used because it makes the earth s surface and its features "look right."
3 Shape (angles) Distance Direction Area Only a sphere can retain all four properties Projections Projection is basically taking the spherical earth and flattening it out onto a 2D map. Whenever this is done, one or more spatial relationships are distorted. We will briefly cover the projections you are likely to encounter with GPS/GIS mapping in Montana.
4 Shape and distance are maintained well Distortion increases away from the central meridian Area is distorted increasingly toward the poles UTM Projection UTM stands for Universal Transverse Mercator. Transverse Mercator projections result from projecting the spherical earth onto a cylinder tangent to (touching) a central meridian. The least distortion is where the cylinder is tangent (along the central meridian). Transverse Mercator maps are often used to portray areas with larger northsouth than eastwest extent. Distortion of distance, direction and area increase away from the central meridian. A Mercator projection will retain the angles of your map, true to the angles in the real world. But, in maintaining the angles (or shapes), area is distorted. For this reason, on a Mercator projection, Mexico appears smaller than Alaska, when, in fact, Mexico has a greater land area. Greenland also looks larger than it is, and Africa looks smaller. UTM is also the name of a coordinate system, which uses the UTM projection.
5 One of the best projections for middle latitudes Used for Montana 1:24,000 USGS quads Local angles (shapes) are accurate throughout because of conformality Shape and area are distorted away from standard parallels Distance scale is correct along the standard parallels Scale is reduced between the parallels and increased beyond the parallels Lambert Conformal Conic Projection The Lambert Conformal Conic projection projects the globe onto a cone. The tangent area has the least distortion. With the Lambert Conformal Conic projection, area and shape are distorted away from standard parallels, and directions are true in limited areas. This projection is used for maps of North America. The standard parallels are lines along which the scale is as stated for the map. Most of the data you can download from the Montana State Library Natural Resource Information System (NRIS) GIS site ( is in the U.S. State Plane coordinate system which uses the Lambert Conformal Conic projection.
6 Latitude and longitude are considered as a simple rectangular coordinate system in a GIS Distance, area and shape are distorted Distortion increases toward the poles No Projection Latitude/longitude coordinates are unprojected. The reason the word unprojected is in quotes is that some people would argue that the latitude/longitude (geographic) coordinate system actually does use a projection, because it still takes the spherical earth and portrays it on a flat map. However, no specific mathematical projection is used in this process.
7 Projection Differences This diagram shows the difference between the Albers Equal Area and Lambert Conformal Conic projections in the Western world.
8 Projection Differences This diagram shows the differences among three projections of the United States.
9 Distortions may or may not be apparent Know what relationships have been distorted avoid making erroneous assumptions GIS software needs to know what projection is used, so it can store and display geographic positions accurately Why are Projections Important? Contrast stretching (histogram stretching) can help to distinguish between various features, and spatial filtering can enhance or suppress specific patterns to make what you want to see stand out.
10 2 Things to Take Away Today 1. Projections are used to convert 3D reality to a 2D map, and always cause some type of distortion (know the 4 properties that can be distorted) 2. Know what projection you are working with, so you know what properties have been distorted
GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS Lecture 11: Projected Coordinate Systems
UTM Coordinate System GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS Lecture 11: Projected Coordinate Systems Why do we need the UTM coordinate system?  in a rectangular (Cartesian) coordinate system, with linear x and
More informationCoordinate Systems and Map Projections
Coordinate Systems and Map Projections Introduction Every map user and maker should have a basic understanding of projections and coordinate systems no matter how much computers seem to have automated
More informationWelcome to Lesson 3. It is important for a GIS analyst to have a thorough understanding of map projections and coordinate systems.
Welcome to Lesson 3. It is important for a GIS analyst to have a thorough understanding of map projections and coordinate systems. A GIS without coordinates would simply be a database like Microsoft Excel
More informationf = difference/major axis = ~1/300 for earth
Map Projection and Coordinates The shape of the earth Models Sphere with radius of ~6378 km Ellipsoid (or Spheroid) with equatorial radius (semimajor axis) of ~6378 km and polar radius (semiminor axis)
More information2016/07/25. GIS 211 Map Projections & Coordinate Systems Chang Chapter 2. Why is this important to YOU? Dr W Britz
GIS 211 Map Projections & Coordinate Systems Chang Chapter 2 Dr W Britz Every map user and maker should have a basic understanding of projections no matter how much computers seem to have automated the
More informationMap Projection. Overview. Projection: An Introduction. LA561 Computer Applications in LA (GIS)
LA561 Computer Applications in LA (GIS) Map Projection Dr. Ragab Khalil Department of Landscape Architecture Faculty of Environmental Design King AbdulAziz University Room 103 Overview 1. Geographic coordinate
More informationMap Projections and Map Coordinate Systems
Map Projections and Map Coordinate Systems Jamie Wolfe CITE Marshall University Huntington, WV  25755 3046966042 Jawolfe@marshall.edu IS 645 Introduction to GIS Lecture 03, May 23, 2000 Today s class
More informationMap Projections & Coordinates. M. Helper 090115 GEO327G/386G, UT Austin 1
Map Projections & Coordinates 090115 GEO327G/386G, UT Austin 1 Laying the earth flat Why? Need convenient means of measuring and comparing distances, directions, areas, shapes. Traditional surveying
More informationGIS for Educators. Coordinate Reference System. Understanding of Coordinate Reference Systems.
GIS for Educators Topic 7: Coordinate Reference Systems Objectives: Understanding of Coordinate Reference Systems. Keywords: Coordinate Reference System (CRS), Map Projection, On the Fly Projection, Latitude,
More informationGIS for Disaster Management
GIS for Disaster Management Week 04 These slides are taken form Hongjie Xie; Earth shape models Flat earth models are still used for plane surveying, over distances short enough so that earth curvature
More informationG492 GIS for Earth Sciences Map Projections and Coordinate Systems
G492 GIS for Earth Sciences Map Projections and Coordinate Systems I. Introduction A. Fundamental Concern with Map Work 1. Maps / GIS a. 2D representation of Earth surface b. locations of map features
More informationEllipsoid and Datum, Projection, Coordinate system, and Map Scale
Ellipsoid and Datum, Projection, Coordinate system, and Map Scale Lectures 4 Sept 14, 2006 Why we need it? Earth Shape Models Flat earth models are still used for plane surveying, over distances short
More informationCoordinate Systems. Every coordinate system has an initial reference point or origin All mapped features are represented in some coordinate system
Coordinate Systems Coordinate Systems A coordinate system is a 2 or 3D reference frame used to specify locations on the earth. Many different coordinate systems exist, and each is defined by an origin,
More informationThe Earth's Graticule
Georeferencing How do we make sure all our data layers line up? Georeferencing: = linking a layer or dataset with spatial coordinates Registration: = lining up layers with each other Rectification: =The
More informationGeographic Coordinates or longitude/latitude will vary depending on the assumed shape of the globe
Geographic Coordinates or longitude/latitude will vary depending on the assumed shape of the globe 1 Latitude is the angle north or south (think ladder going north south) Longitude is the angle east or
More informationMap Projection, Datum and Plane Coordinate Systems
Map Projection, Datum and Plane Coordinate Systems Geodetic Control Network Horizontal Control Network Datum A datum is a set of parameters defining a coordinate system, and a set of control points whose
More informationEX 2 GEOREFERENCING. Part I  A theoretical background about Coordinate Systems
EX 2 GEOREFERENCING Introduction A coordinate system (CS) provides a fundamental spatial framework to support the planning and development of a nation. All spatial data has a coordinate system to define
More informationMaps and Cartography: Map Projections A Tutorial Created by the GIS Research & Map Collection
Maps and Cartography: Map Projections A Tutorial Created by the GIS Research & Map Collection Ball State University Libraries A destination for research, learning, and friends What is a map projection?
More informationSuccess with GPS Angie Schmidt, IDFG
Success with GPS Angie Schmidt, IDFG Geographic Coordinate Systems and Projections. Decimal Degrees and Degrees Minutes Seconds DNR Garmin for GPS waypoint management GPS tips Submitting coordinate information
More informationAppendix B: Geographic Coordinates Systems & Map Projections. B.1 Approximating the Earth's Shape
The following is an appendix from: Strindberg, S. In prep. Optimized Automated Survey Design in Wildlife Population Assessment. Unpublished PhD Thesis. University of St. Andrews. Appendix B: Geographic
More informationGIS FINAL EXAM. Meridians Lines of equal longitude. Begin at 0 degrees, starting in Greenwich, England. Goes 180 degrees West and East;
GIS FINAL EXAM Projecting GIS data & map projections Plannimetric coordinates  systems that are expressed in measures of x and y values. Geographic coordinates  systems, on the other hand, are expressed
More informationTeachGIS White Paper Number 1: A Few Words on Locations, Coordinate Systems, and Projections
1 TeachGIS White Paper Number 1: A Few Words on Locations, Coordinate Systems, and Projections When we hand draw a map on the back of an envelope or a napkin, it usually doesn t matter that the position
More informationGEOGRAPHIC INFORMNATION SYSTEMS Lecture 10: State Plane Coordinate System
State Plane Coordinate System GEOGRAPHIC INFORMNATION SYSTEMS Lecture 10: State Plane Coordinate System Why do we need the State Plane Coordinate System?  the SPCS was designed as a state by state rectangular
More informationLecture 2. Map Projections and GIS Coordinate Systems. Tomislav Sapic GIS Technologist Faculty of Natural Resources Management Lakehead University
Lecture 2 Map Projections and GIS Coordinate Systems Tomislav Sapic GIS Technologist Faculty of Natural Resources Management Lakehead University Map Projections Map projections are mathematical formulas
More informationLecture 4. Map Projections & Coordinate System in GIS
Lecture 4 Map Projections & Coordinate System in GIS GIS in Water Resources Spring 2015 Geodesy, Map Projections and Coordinate Systems Geodesy  the shape of the earth and definition of earth datums Map
More informationMapping a curved surface to a flat one ISTA 352. Lecture 21. Maps and mappings (III) Mapping a sphere to a flat surface. Review
Mapping a curved surface to a flat one ISTA 352 Lecture 21 Maps and mappings (III) We assume the mapping should be locally continuous A small change on one surface corresponds to a small change on the
More informationTRANSVERSE MERCATOR PROJECTIONS AND U.S. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY DIGITAL PRODUCTS ABSTRACT
TRANSVERSE MERCATOR PROJECTIONS AND U.S. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY DIGITAL PRODUCTS Larry Moore U.S. Geological Survey ABSTRACT A common question about U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) digital raster graphics (DRG)
More informationMercator Projections Look at Figure 114 of a Mercator projection. This type of projection is a cylindrical projection. It shows how the earth would
Mercator Projections Look at Figure 114 of a Mercator projection. This type of projection is a cylindrical projection. It shows how the earth would look if a piece of paper were wrapped to form a tube
More informationFrom Topographic Maps to Digital Elevation Models. Anne Graham Daniel Sheehan MIT Libraries IAP 2013
From Topographic Maps to Digital Elevation Models Anne Graham Daniel Sheehan MIT Libraries IAP 2013 Which Way Does the Water Flow? A topographic map shows relief features or surface configuration of an
More informationRepresenting The Shape of the Earth
Representing The Shape of the Earth Geoids Ellipsoids Datums Coordinate Systems Projections The Shape of the Earth 3 ways to model it Topographic surface the land/air interface complex (rivers, valleys,
More informationSPATIAL REFERENCE SYSTEMS
SPATIAL REFERENCE SYSTEMS We will begin today with the first of two classes on aspects of cartography. Cartography is both an art and a science, but we will focus on the scientific aspects. Geographical
More informationOBJECTIVES MATERIALS BACKGROUND. Maps and Mapping. Key Terms. Common units and conversions. Introduction. Page 1 of 10
OBJECTIVES This exercise involves understanding map scale and coordinate systems. You will learn to read geographic coordinates in latitude/longitude, the State Plane Coordinate System, and the Universal
More informationSESSION 8: GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS AND MAP PROJECTIONS
SESSION 8: GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS AND MAP PROJECTIONS KEY CONCEPTS: In this session we will look at: Geographic information systems and Map projections. Content that needs to be covered for examination
More informationPlotting GPS derived Coordinates on a Map
Plotting GPS derived Coordinates on a Map Introduction to GPS Global Positioning Systems (GPS) is a technology whereby a constellation of satellites sends out signals which can be received by a GPS receiver
More informationCoordinate Systems key concepts. Projections and Coordinate Systems Data Quality Meta Meta Data
Coordinate Systems Coordinate Systems key concepts Projections and Coordinate Systems Data Quality Meta Meta Data Projections and Coordinate Systems: Geographic Coordinate System Uses Uses 3D spherical
More informationUTM and UPS James R. Clynch 2003
UTM and UPS James R. Clynch 2003 I. Introduction The Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) projection coordinates occur on most topographic maps. This is the Northing and Easting coordinates discussed below.
More informationProjections and Coordinate Systems
Projections and Coordinate Systems Using Corpscon, the Projector! Extension in ArcView, and Project in ArcInfo Maryland s stateplane coordinate system is based on a Lambert Conformal Conic projection.
More informationMAPPING EXERCISE Map Projections
MAPPING EXERCISE Map Projections All too often emphasis in map production is placed on becoming operational with GIS software while neglecting basic, yet important, map design principals. For many mapmakers,
More informationWorld Geography Unit 1  Test Introduction to World of Geography
Name World Geography Unit 1  Test Introduction to World of Geography Term Identification Directions: Pick a word from the box that best completes the sentences below. distortion longitude Equator geography
More informationIt is a little challenging suppose you are to describe a point on the surface of a basketball.
Coordinate Systems 1. Geographic coordinate system To locate a point on a piece of white paper, we usually use the distances of the point to the left/right edge (x) and top/bottom edge (y). Therefore the
More informationGMT TECHNICAL REFERENCE & COOKBOOK Cylindrical Projections Mercator Projection ( Jm or JM)
GMT TECHNICAL REFERENCE & COOKBOOK 5 14 5.4 Cylindrical Projections 5.4.1 Mercator Projection ( Jm or JM) Probably the most famous of the various map projections, the Mercator projection takes its name
More informationAN NGA GEOSPATIAL ANALYST S QUICKSTART GUIDE TO ArcGIS MAP PROJECTIONS
OFFICE OF TARGETING AND TRANSNATIONAL ISSUES (PR) GEOSPATIAL SCIENCES DIVISION (PRG) COORDINATE SYSTEMS ANALYSIS TEAM (CSAT) FEBRUARY 2005 AN NGA GEOSPATIAL ANALYST S QUICKSTART GUIDE TO ArcGIS MAP PROJECTIONS
More informationWhat is a map? A Map is a two or threedimensional model or representation of the Earth s surface. 2Dimensional map
What is a map? A Map is a two or threedimensional model or representation of the Earth s surface. 2Dimensional map Types of Maps: (just a few that we may be using) Political Maps Shows borders of states,
More informationGIS s s Roots in Cartography
Following up on the last lecture GIS s s Roots in Cartography Getting Started With GIS Chapter 2 Information ordering: Lists and indexes Organizing data and information Information can be organized as
More informationUTM SYSTEM. COMPOSED AND PRODUCED BY : Chris Rule. Permission is granted for use by acknowledging the author s name.
COMPOSED AND PRODUCED BY : Chris Rule. Permission is granted for use by acknowledging the author s name. UTM stands for Universal Transverse Mercator which is a technical term for the type of map projection.
More informationMap Coordinates, GIS, and GPS for Enhanced 911
Map Coordinates, GIS, and GPS for Enhanced 911 Keith W. Cunningham, Ph.D. 14 East Eighth Street Lawrence, KS 66044 800/2381911 Maps and coordinates are used to describe features and their locations
More informationImplementation Practice Web Mercator Map Projection
NGA.SIG.0011_1.0.0_WEBMERC NATIONAL GEOSPATIALINTELLIGENCE AGENCY (NGA) STANDARDIZATION DOCUMENT Implementation Practice Web Mercator Map Projection 20140218 Version 1.0.0 OFFICE OF GEOMATICS NGA.SIG.0011_1.0.0_WEBMERC
More informationState Plane Coordinate Systems & GIS
State Plane Coordinate Systems & GIS An overview of SPCS with emphasis on Grid vs. Ground coordinates. New Jersey Geospatial Forum Meeting Friday, March 18 th 2005 Jesse Kozlowski NJ PLS History of SPCS
More informationReading Assignment. Geography 12: Maps and Mapping. Today s topics. Map Projections. Resulting differences from projection
Reading Assignment Geography 12: Maps and Mapping Lecture 10: Map Projections I Monmonier, Drawing the Line, The Peters Projection Controversy (handout) No Battersby and Montello article But an interesting
More informationChapter 7: Map projections
Introduction Largescale field maps involve transferring information from a sensibly flat piece of land to a flat map. Because we are representing the topography on the same type of mean surface, mapping
More informationGEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS Lecture 09: Map Projections
GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS Lecture 09: Map Projections Earth Ellipsoid and Horizontal Datums (cont d) Components of a Geographic Coordinate System Recognize that there are three components to a geographic
More informationSECOND GRADE 1 WEEK LESSON PLANS AND ACTIVITIES
SECOND GRADE 1 WEEK LESSON PLANS AND ACTIVITIES UNIVERSE CYCLE OVERVIEW OF SECOND GRADE UNIVERSE WEEK 1. PRE: Discovering stars. LAB: Analyzing the geometric pattern of constellations. POST: Exploring
More informationEratosthenes: Estimating the Circumference of the Earth. Subject: Mathematics Topic: Geometry Grade Level: 812 Time: min Pre Show Math Activity
Eratosthenes: Estimating the Circumference of the Earth. Subject: Mathematics Topic: Geometry Grade Level: 812 Time: 4060 min Pre Show Math Activity Introduction: In Show Math, students will learn how
More informationAn Introduction to Coordinate Systems in South Africa
An Introduction to Coordinate Systems in South Africa Centuries ago people believed that the earth was flat and notwithstanding that if this had been true it would have produced serious problems for mariners
More informationProjections & GIS Data Collection: An Overview
Projections & GIS Data Collection: An Overview Projections Primary data capture Secondary data capture Data transfer Capturing attribute data Managing a data capture project Geodesy Basics for Geospatial
More informationField Techniques Manual: GIS, GPS and Remote Sensing
Field Techniques Manual: GIS, GPS and Remote Sensing Section A: Introduction Chapter 2: The Geographical Framework 2 The Geographical Framework One key feature of a GIS allows different types of data
More informationHOW TO CHOOSE AN APPROPRIATE
PTV VISUM TIPS & TRICKS: HOW TO CHOOSE AN APPROPRIATE COORDINATE SYSTEM? I imported network data in WGS84, calculated my link lengths, but they are all still zero. Why is that and how can I get to correct
More informationLab 9: TOPOGRAPHIC MAPS. I. Production of Topographic maps in the US
Lab 9: Topographic Maps 151 Lab 9: TOPOGRAPHIC MAPS Topographic maps are rich sources of geographic information. Geologic maps are commonly constructed upon topographic base maps, and much geological mapping,
More informationGeographic Coordinates. Measurement: Just use GPS. Geographic Coordinates 1/17/2013
Geographic Coordinates Analytical and Computer Cartography Lecture 3: Review: Coordinate Systems Geographic Coordinates Geographic coordinates are the earth's latitude and longitude system, ranging from
More informationRegistered map layers
Registered map layers Coordinate map systems Coordinate map systems 1. The Earth's Graticule Latitude and Longitude The graticule is the imaginary grid of lines running eastwest lines of latitude (parallels)
More informationUTM, State Plane Coordinates & Map Scale. Transverse Mercator. UTM Zones. UTM Grid System. UTM Grid System. Coordinate Systems  UTM.
UTM, State Plane Coordinates & Map Scale Coordinate Systems  UTM Convenience of a plane rectangular grid on a global level A section from a transverse Mercator projection is used to develop separate grids
More informationThe Map Grid of Australia 1994 A Simplified Computational Manual
The Map Grid of Australia 1994 A Simplified Computational Manual The Map Grid of Australia 1994 A Simplified Computational Manual 'What's the good of Mercator's North Poles and Equators, Tropics, Zones
More informationGIS IN ECOLOGY: SPATIAL REFERENCING
GIS IN ECOLOGY: SPATIAL REFERENCING Contents Introduction... 2 Coordinate Systems... 2 Map Projections... 3 Georeferencing... 5 Data Sources... 7 Tasks... 7 Undefined versus Unprojected Data... 7 Setting
More informationMassachusetts Institute of Technology Department of Urban Studies and Planning
Massachusetts Institute of Technology Department of Urban Studies and Planning 11.520: A Workshop on Geographic Information Systems 11.188: Urban Planning and Social Science Laboratory Lecture 3: More
More informationCoordinate Systems, Datum and Map Projection. Dr. Maher A. ElHallaq Lecturer of Surveying The Islamic University of Gaza
Coordinate Systems, Datum and Map Projection Dr. Maher A. ElHallaq Lecturer of Surveying The Islamic University of Gaza Every map user and maker should have a basic understanding of projections no matter
More informationGeography I Pre Test #1
Geography I Pre Test #1 1. The sun is a star in the galaxy. a) Orion b) Milky Way c) Proxima Centauri d) Alpha Centauri e) Betelgeuse 2. The response to earth's rotation is a) an equatorial bulge b) polar
More informationEarth Coordinates & Grid Coordinate Systems
Earth Coordinates & Grid Coordinate Systems How do we model the earth? Datums Datums mathematically describe the surface of the Earth. Accounts for mean sea level, topography, and gravity models. Projections
More informationNorth Carolina Property Mappers Association. Advanced Mapping. Section 4 NORTH AMERICAN DATUMS
North Carolina Property Mappers Association Advanced Mapping Section 4 NORTH AMERICAN DATUMS 41 4.1 Datums A datum is a set of quantities used as a basis to calculate other quantities. In mapping, it
More informationAn Introduction to GIS using ArcGIS Spring Lab Workshop 5 March S.P.Harish PhD Candidate Department of Politics New York University
An Introduction to GIS using ArcGIS Spring Lab Workshop 5 March 2013 S.P.Harish PhD Candidate Department of Politics New York University Agenda What is GIS? Basic GIS Concepts Introduction to ArcGIS Coordinates
More informationWhat are map projections?
Page 1 of 155 What are map projections? ArcGIS 10 Within ArcGIS, every dataset has a coordinate system, which is used to integrate it with other geographic data layers within a common coordinate framework
More informationMaps and Map Projections. How Maps Can Mislead Us
Maps and Map Projections How Maps Can Mislead Us A Globe Is the only truly accurate representation of the earth A flat surface It is easy to portray a flat surface on a flat piece of paper But there is
More informationMeasuring the Earth Using a GPS M. Scott Wilkerson & M. Beth Wilkerson, DePauw University, May 10, 2007
Measuring the Earth Using a GPS M. Scott Wilkerson & M. Beth Wilkerson, DePauw University, May 10, 2007 Modified from: Kerski, J.J., 2007, Measuring the Earth s Circumference with GPS, Copyright ESRI,
More informationPathAway Map Manager Table of Contents
PathAway Map Manager Table of Contents Getting Started... 2 Preparing Maps for Import... 2 Import Map Using PathAway Map Manager... 2 Calibrating Map... 5 Calibration Type:... 5 Calibration Type  Lat/Long
More informationWGS AGD GDA: Selecting the correct datum, coordinate system and projection for north Australian applications
internal report WGS AGD GDA: Selecting the correct datum, coordinate system and projection for north Australian applications JBC Lowry Hydrological and Ecological Processes Program Environmental Research
More informationPhysical Geography Concepts Directions and Location
Physical Geography Concepts Directions and Location Directions: In order to study the Earth, we need to be able to locate specific points. Cardinal Directions North, East, West, South Intermediate Directions
More informationINTRODUCTION: BASIC GEOGRAPHIC CONCEPTS. Eric Jessup Associate Professor School of Economic Sciences
INTRODUCTION: BASIC GEOGRAPHIC CONCEPTS Eric Jessup Associate Professor School of Economic Sciences September 13, 2010 Outline What is geographical / spatial analysis and why do we care? Different types
More informationNGA GRID GUIDE HOW TO USE ArcGIS 8.x ANS 9.x TO GENERATE MGRS AND OTHER MAP GRIDS
GEOSPATIAL SCIENCES DIVISION COORDINATE SYSTEMS ANALYSIS TEAM (CSAT) SEPTEMBER 2005 Minor Revisions March 2006 POC Kurt Schulz NGA GRID GUIDE HOW TO USE ArcGIS 8.x ANS 9.x TO GENERATE MGRS AND OTHER MAP
More informationG302 Review of Maps / Topographic Maps
G302 Review of Maps / Topographic Maps I. Introduction A. Map a 2d, scaled representation of the earth's surface, 1. Model of Earth's Surface 2. Basic functions: to represent horizontal distance, direction,
More informationGlobe and Map Comparison Lab
Globe and Map Comparison Lab Your name: Period: Your lab partner(s) Purpose: The goal of this lab is to familiarize you with the grid system of latitude and longitude, determining distances on a globe,
More informationLatitude, Longitude, Map Projections and Great Circles
Latitude, Longitude, Map Projections and Great Circles Grade Late elementary through middle school. Background This lesson was created to introduce latitude, longitude, map projections and great circles
More informationFORECASTING MANUAL INDIA METEOROLOGICAL DEPARTMENT PART II METHODS OF ANALYSIS I: MAP PROJECTIONS FOR WEATHER CHARTS
FMU. Rep. No.IIl (MARCH 1969) INDIA METEOROLOGICAL DEPARTMENT FORECASTING MANUAL PART II METHODS OF ANALYSIS I: MAP PROJECTIONS FOR WEATHER CHARTS BY K. KRISHNA ISSUED BY THE DEPUTY DIRECTOR GENERAL OF
More informationEPSG. Coordinate Reference System Definition  Recommended Practice. Guidance Note Number 5
European Petroleum Survey Group EPSG Guidance Note Number 5 Coordinate Reference System Definition  Recommended Practice Revision history: Version Date Amendments 1.0 April 1997 First release. 1.1 June
More informationDATUM SHIFTS AND DIGITAL MAP COORDINATE DISPLAYS. The Real World, Maps, and Coordinate Systems
DATUM SHIFTS AND DIGITAL MAP COORDINATE DISPLAYS Larry Moore U.S. Geological Survey lmoore@usgs.gov Revised March, 2001 Paper maps may be printed with reference points for several different grid systems.
More information2 GIS concepts. 2.1 General GIS principles
2 GIS concepts To use GIS effectively, it is important to understand the basic GIS terminology and functionality. While each GIS software has slightly different naming conventions, there are certain principles
More informationDigitizing GIS Feature Information
Digitizing GIS Feature Information Digitizing The process of tracing an analog or digital image to create features (points, lines, or polygons) in a GIS data base Analog images are hard copy images such
More informationGlobal Positioning System (GPS)
What is GPS? Global Positioning System (GPS) The Global Positioning System (GPS) is a spacebased satellite navigation system that provides location and time information in all weather conditions, anywhere
More informationEarth Coordinates & Grid Coordinate Systems
Earth Coordinates & Grid Coordinate Systems You will always find parallels and meridians on largescale maps This is done to make the map a very close approximation to the size and shape of the piece of
More informationFieldGenius Technical Notes GPS Coordinate Systems
FieldGenius Technical Notes GPS Coordinate Systems Definition of a Datum A datum is a reference coordinate system which is defined by an origin, orientation and is physically tied to the surface of the
More informationThe World Geographic Reference System is used for aircraft navigation. GEOREF is based on latitude and longitude. The globe is divided into twelve
The World Geographic Reference System is used for aircraft navigation. GEOREF is based on latitude and longitude. The globe is divided into twelve bands of latitude and twentyfour zones of longitude,
More informationMap Projection Using ArcGIS
Map Projection Using ArcGIS Francisco Olivera, Ph.D., P.E. Srikanth Koka Lauren Walker Aishwarya Vijaykumar Department of Civil Engineering December 5, 2011 Contents Brief Overview of Map Projection Using
More informationPART IV: COORDINATES AND MAP PROJECTIONS
PART IV: COORDINATES AND MAP PROJECTIONS 4.1 Introduction As it is well known, the earth is a spherical surface. For most smallarea projects, surveyors treat the earth as a plane. The differences between
More informationGeography Skills Pre Test
Name: period: Geography Skills Pre Test 1. What does the relative location of a place tell you? A. The longitude and latitude of a place B. Which symbol shows a place on a map C. Where a place is compared
More informationDatums, Coordinates, & Projections UNCLASSIFIED
Datums, Coordinates, & Projections Lesson Objectives Modeling the earth Horizontal Datums: Traditionally Derived Regional Horizontal Datums Satellite Derived: World Geodetic System 1984 Vertical Datums
More informationDecoding the Mystery of Coordinates
Decoding the Mystery of Coordinates NHLSA TOWN MONUMENT LOCATION WORKSHOP UNH DURHAM, N.H. 8112007 PART 1: THE DIFFERENT COORDINATE SYSTEMS Bob Moynihan UNH  TSAS Coordinate Systems 1 Decoding the Mystery
More informationSurveying on NAD83 State Plane Coordinate System
Surveying on NAD83 State Plane Coordinate System By Dr. Joshua Greenfeld Surveying Program Coordinator NJ Institute of Technology Objective Modern surveying operations which involves working with GIS/LIS
More informationP153. NICA D.C. Al. I. Cuza University, IASI, ROMANIA
P153 CONVERSION OF COORDINATES BETWEEN THE GAUSSKRÜGER AND UTM CARTOGRAPHIC PROJECTION SYSTEMS ON TOPOGRAPHIC MAPS IN ROMANIA AND REPUBLIC OF MOLDAVIA FOR GIS USE NICA D.C. Al. I. Cuza University, IASI,
More informationIDENTIFYING THE TYPE OF COORDINATE SYSTEM FOR DATA USING ARCMAP
C H A P T E R 1 IDENTIFYING THE TYPE OF COORDINATE SYSTEM FOR DATA USING ARCMAP My boss told me to make a map using ArcMap, but when I add the data, I get an error message that says missing spatial reference
More informationWhere in the World is Boonville, New York?
Name: Date: Period: Where in the World is Boonville, New York? Background Information Virtually all maps have lines of latitude (called parallels) and longitude (called meridians) expressed on them. Together,
More informationProject 1: Plotting Coordinates and Projections
1 of 6 8/3/2007 1:54 PM Project 1: Plotting Coordinates and Projections Dan Uhrhan dfu101@psu.edu 2 of 6 8/3/2007 1:54 PM 3 of 6 8/3/2007 1:54 PM 4 of 6 8/3/2007 1:54 PM 5 of 6 8/3/2007 1:54 PM [Replace
More informationChapter 2 Reading Topographic Maps and Making Calculations
Chapter 2 Reading Topographic Maps and Making Calculations In this chapter you will learn about: Reading the margins Interpreting contour lines Estimating slope Estimating aspect Estimating acreage Estimating
More information